serologic survey for selected infectious disease agents in swift and kit foxes from the western united states.a serologic survey of swift fox (vulpes velox) and kit fox (v. macrotis) from the western usa was conducted for 12 infectious diseases. samples from swift fox were collected between 1987 and 1992 from colorado (n = 44), kansas (n = 10), and wyoming (n = 9). samples from kit fox were collected in california (n = 86), new mexico (n = 18), utah (n = 9), and arizona (n = 6). overall antibody prevalence rates were 33 of 110 (30%) for canine parvovirus (cpv), 9 of 72 (13%) for canine distemper virus ( ...200011085448
rabies in hooded and striped skunks in arizona.arizona is home to four species of skunks, and rabies is enzootic in the region in which their ranges overlap. examination of state health data from 1985 to 2004 revealed an irregular 4-10 yr periodicity in the number of cases annually, which may be related to past precipitation patterns. the number of rabid skunks peaked during springtime. locations of rabies epizootics changed over time, but there was no evidence of a large-scale geographic spread. skunks live-trapped during 1996-2002 had a lo ...200617255450
molecular inferences suggest multiple host shifts of rabies viruses from bats to mesocarnivores in arizona during nature, rabies virus (rabv; genus lyssavirus, family rhabdoviridae) represents an assemblage of phylogenetic lineages, associated with specific mammalian host species. although it is generally accepted that rabv evolved originally in bats and further shifted to carnivores, mechanisms of such host shifts are poorly understood, and examples are rarely present in surveillance data. outbreaks in carnivores caused by a rabv variant, associated with big brown bats, occurred repeatedly during 2001-2 ...201222737076
ecological potential for rabies virus transmission via scavenging of dead bats by mesocarnivores.multiple species of bats are reservoirs of rabies virus in the americas and are occasionally the source of spillover infections into mesocarnivore species. although rabies transmission generally is assumed to occur via bite, laboratory studies have demonstrated the potential for rabies transmission via ingestion of rabid animals. we investigated the ecological potential for this mode of transmission by assessing mesocarnivore scavenging behavior of dead bats in suburban habitats of flagstaff, ar ...201728094609
bat-associated rabies virus in skunks.rabies was undetected in terrestrial wildlife of northern arizona until 2001, when rabies was diagnosed in 19 rabid skunks in flagstaff. laboratory analyses showed causative rabies viruses associated with bats, which indicated cross-species transmission of unprecedented magnitude. public health infrastructure must be maintained to address emerging zoonotic diseases.200616965714
community survey after rabies outbreaks, flagstaff, arizona, usa.flagstaff, arizona, usa, experienced notable outbreaks of rabies caused by a bat rabies virus variant in carnivore species in 2001, 2004, 2005, 2008, and 2009. the most recent epizootic involved transmission among skunk and fox populations and human exposures. multiple, wide-ranging control efforts and health communications outreach were instituted in 2009, including a household survey given to community members. although the flagstaff community is knowledgeable about rabies and the ongoing outb ...201222607999
population monitoring in support of a rabies vaccination program for skunks in arizona.three population monitoring methods were evaluated in support of a trap/vaccinate/release program for controlling a bat variant of rabies virus in skunks (mephitis mephitis) in flagstaff, arizona (usa). skunks were the primary species targeted for population monitoring during the program, but feral cats were also monitored as they represented an abundant secondary vector species capable of rabies transmission. skunks were vaccinated and released, except for a subset tested for rabies. all captur ...200314567243
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2001.during 2001, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,437 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the centers for disease control and prevention, an increase of < 1% from 7,364 cases in nonhuman animals and 5 human cases reported in 2000. more than 93% (6,939 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 6.7% (497 cases) were in domestic species (compared with 93.0% in wild animals and 6.9% in domestic species in 2000). the number of cases reported in 2001 increased among bats, cat ...200212494966
enzootic rabies elimination from dogs and reemergence in wild terrestrial carnivores, united provide molecular and virologic evidence that domestic dog rabies is no longer enzootic to the united states and to identify putative relatives of dog-related rabies viruses (rvs) circulating in other carnivores, we studied rvs associated with recent and historic dog rabies enzootics worldwide. molecular, phylogenetic, and epizootiologic evidence shows that domestic dog rabies is no longer enzootic to the united states. nonetheless, our data suggest that independent rabies enzootics are now e ...200819046506
rabies--a brief review of current management. 19744133831
multiple human exposures to a rabid bear cub at a petting zoo and barnwarming--iowa, august 1999.on august 27, 1999, a black bear cub, approximately 5-6 months old, died after several hours of acute central nervous system symptoms; preliminary test results available on august 28 indicated the bear had rabies. the bear was part of the swenson's wild midwest exotic petting zoo in clermont, iowa (northeastern iowa). at the petting zoo, visitors fed, wrestled, and may have been nipped by the bear. the bear also was taken to an august 14 barnwarming at the tharp barn in holy cross, iowa (eastern ...199910499789
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