vaccinia recombinant virus expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein: safety and efficacy trials in canadian wildlife.twenty-six meadow voles (microtus pennsylvanicus), ten woodchucks (marmota monax), thirteen grey squirrels (sciurus carolinensis), thirteen ring-billed gulls (larus delawarensis), six red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) and eight great horned owls (bubo virginianus) received vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (v-rg) by direct instillation into the oral cavity. each of ten coyotes (canis latrans) received the virus in two vaccine-laden baits. several voles and mo ...19902249183
persistent infections of a field strain of rabies virus in murine neuroblastoma (na-c1300) cell cultures.rabies virus from the brain of a striped skunk (mephitis mephitis) from ontario was inoculated into murine neuroblastoma (na-c1300) cell cultures. these cultures were incubated and the cells were subcultured every three to four days. the presence of viral antigen in the cell cultures was monitored by direct immunofluorescent staining and in the culture fluids by titration in either baby hamster kidney (bhk/c13) or na cells or in experimental mice. the virus-infected na cultures evolved from an i ...19892590871
growth characteristics in cell culture and pathogenicity in mice of two terrestrial rabies strains indigenous to canada.two strains of street rabies virus from striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) were used to infect either a murine neuroblastoma (na 1300) or a baby hamster kidney (bhk-21/c13) cell culture and the cell infection rates were noted during 4 days postinfection. these cultures were then passaged for four consecutive passages, and the viruses obtained in the supernatant fluids of passage 4 were then treated as original isolates and used to infect both neuroblastoma and baby hamster kidney cells. the mort ...19883378201
major antigenic groups of rabies virus in canada determined by anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies.a total of 123 rabies virus isolates from various geographical areas in canada were characterized by a panel of 43 anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies. four major antigenic groups are found in terrestrial mammals: "canadian arctic" from ontario, quebec and the northwest territories; "south-eastern georgian bay" from ontario; "south mid-central skunk" from alberta, saskatchewan and manitoba; and "brook's, alberta skunk" from a restricted area in alberta. bat isolates can be divided into 4 maj ...19863769442
antigenic variants of rabies virus in isolates from eastern, central and northern canada.street rabies virus isolated from 51 specimens from ontario, quebec, manitoba and the northwest territories have been typed by a panel of 36 antinucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies. three main groups were found. the first group comprised those terrestrial mammals originating in ontario, quebec and the northwest territories. the second group was found in terrestrial mammals from manitoba. the third heterogenous group was made up of bats from ontario.19853893660
bat rabies in canada 1963-1967.six hundred and twenty-eight insectivorous bats originating from seven provinces were submitted to this institute for rabies diagnosis between august 1, 1963 and december 31, 1967. brain tissue was examined by the fluorescent antibody technique and the mouse infectivity test was carried out with brain, salivary gland, interscapular adipose tissue and kidney samples. rabies virus was detected in 44 bats, 29 of which were from ontario, 12 from british columbia and three from manitoba. most of the ...19694242773
a molecular epidemiological study of rabies virus in central ontario and western quebec.rabies persists in ontario wildlife in two predominant species: the red fox (vulpes vulpes) and the striped skunk (mephitis mephitis). a protocol applying reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction (rt/pcr) and restriction endonuclease analysis (rea) to the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene was previously reported by nadin-davis et al. (journal of general virology 74, 829-837, 1993) to be useful for discrimination of rabies virus variants in ontario. four main types, which showed no host spec ...19947931145
identification of regional variants of the rabies virus within the canadian province of ontario.although rabies outbreaks in most parts of the world tend to be host species-specific the rabies currently enzootic in the canadian province of ontario is hosted by two wildlife species, the red fox and the striped skunk. previous studies employing monoclonal antibody panels failed to identify any host-specific differences in ontario rabies virus street isolates, but certain observations suggested the existence of more than one viral strain in terrestrial mammals of this region. the extent of va ...19938492088
rabid black bears in ontario. 19968853885
the design of strain-specific polymerase chain reactions for discrimination of the racoon rabies virus strain from indigenous rabies viruses of ontario.since its recognition as a discrete epizootic in florida in the early 1950s, the raccoon strain of rabies virus (rv) has spread over almost the entire eastern seaboard of the us and now threatens to enter the southernmost regions of canada. to characterise this rv strain in more detail, nucleotide sequencing of the n and g genes, encoding the nucleoprotein and glycoprotein, respectively, of representative isolates has been undertaken. this sequence information generated a conserved restriction m ...19968919819
phylogeographic patterns exhibited by ontario rabies virus variants.a previous study on n gene variation of rabies viruses circulating in ontario red foxes identified four viral variants. this study confirms the geographical localization of these variants and extends the analysis to the less conserved g gene of these viruses. a greater number of regionally localized variants was revealed and their phylogenetic relationships have been examined. ongoing surveillance on recent disease outbreaks revealed that variants do not always persist in specific areas. the dis ...199910579454
update: raccoon rabies epizootic--united states and canada, 1977, an outbreak of raccoon rabies was detected in an area on the west virginia-virginia border. since then, the area affected by this distinct variant of rabies virus associated with raccoons has spread to ohio in the west and new york, pennsylvania, vermont, new hampshire, and maine in the north. in addition, the once separate epizootics of rabies among raccoons in the southeastern and mid-atlantic states converged in north carolina. in july 1999, the raccoon rabies virus variant was repor ...200010680602
postexposure treatment and animal rabies, ontario, 1958-2000.this paper investigates the relationship between animal rabies and postexposure treatment (pet) in ontario by examining the introduction of human diploid cell vaccine (hdcv) in 1980 and the initiation of an oral rabies vaccination program for wildlife in 1989. introducing hdcv led to an immediate doubling of treatments. both animal rabies and human treatments declined rapidly after the vaccination program was introduced, but human treatments have leveled off at approximately 1,000 per year.200211897079
ecogeographic patterns of rabies in southern ontario based on time series analysis.we describe a method based on time series analysis that divided the rabies enzootic area of southern ontario into 13 regions using data collected at the township level, the smallest available geographical unit for ontario (canada). the intent was to discover ecogeographic patterns if such existed. for the period 1957-89, the quarterly time series of fox rabies cases for each of the 423 townships in the study area was correlated with the time series of its adjacent neighbors. townships were then ...200415362820
unifying the spatial population dynamics and molecular evolution of epidemic rabies virus.infectious disease emergence is under the simultaneous influence of both genetic and ecological factors. yet, we lack a general framework for linking ecological dynamics of infectious disease with underlying molecular and evolutionary change. as a model, we illustrate the linkage between ecological and evolutionary dynamics in rabies virus during its epidemic expansion into eastern and southern ontario. we characterized the phylogeographic relationships among 83 isolates of fox rabies virus vari ...200516103358
a molecular epidemiological analysis of the incursion of the raccoon strain of rabies virus into canada.three physically separate incursions of the raccoon strain of rabies have entered canada, two into eastern ontario in 1999 and one into new brunswick in 2000. the course of these epizootics is described. phylogenetic analysis of the index cases from these two provinces with raccoon rabies viruses representative of this strain in the united states supported the independence of these incursions into canada via cross-border transmission from the united states. genetic characterization of 190 isolat ...200616207385
persistence of genetic variants of the arctic fox strain of rabies virus in southern ontario.genetic-variant analysis of rabies viruses provides the most sensitive epidemiologic tool for following the spread and persistence of these viruses in their wildlife hosts. since its introduction by a southern epizootic movement that began in the far north, the arctic fox (afx) strain of rabies virus has been enzootic in ontario for almost 50 y. prior genetic studies identified 4 principal genetic variants (ont.t1 to ont.t4) that were localized to different regions of the province; furthermore, ...200616548327
elimination of arctic variant rabies in red foxes, metropolitan control the arctic variant of rabies virus in red foxes, 332,257 bait doses containing live, attenuated evelyn-rokitnicki-abelseth rabies vaccine were distributed in greater metropolitan toronto during 1989-1999. human and pet contact with bait was minimal, and no adverse reactions to the vaccine were noted. significantly fewer rabid foxes were found during the 17 years after fox baiting (5 cases during 1990-2006) than in the 17 years before (96 cases during 1973-1989). the last report of a r ...200717370512
rabies in vaccinated raccoons from ontario, canada.from 1999 to 2006, 132 cases of raccoon rabies, caused by the raccoon variant of rabies virus, were confirmed in eastern ontario, canada. trap-vaccinate-release (tvr) and point infection control (pic) programs were implemented to control the disease; 43,014 raccoons (procyon lotor) were vaccinated against rabies by injection (imrab3) during that period. two vaccinated raccoons were diagnosed with rabies at 6 mo and at 2 wk postvaccination. one may have been due to a vaccination failure. the othe ...200717495317
era vaccine-derived cases of rabies in wildlife and domestic animals in ontario, canada, 1989-2004.a vaccination program for the control of terrestrial rabies in the province of ontario, canada, began in 1989. during the period between 1989 and 2004, over 13 million baits containing the live, attenuated rabies virus era-bhk21 were distributed across the province, with the aim of immunizing foxes by the oral route. animals recovered from bait distribution areas were assayed by fluorescent antibody test for rabies virus infection. immunoreactivity with a panel of monoclonal antibodies that disc ...200818263823
prevalence of tetracycline and rabies virus antibody in raccoons, skunks, and foxes following aerial distribution of v-rg baits to control raccoon rabies in ontario, canada.more than 3.6 million baits containing a recombinant vaccinia virus-rabies glycoprotein (v-rg) oral rabies vaccine were aerially or hand-distributed during 1999-2006 in an approximate 4,000-9,000 km(2) area of eastern ontario, canada, as part of a multitactic approach to control the raccoon variant of rabies. the efficacy of the program was assessed through the collection and testing of > 6,900 animals for bait acceptance and rabies virus-specific antibodies. raccoon acceptance of rabies vaccine ...200818957651
aerial distribution of onrab baits as a tactic to control rabies in raccoons and striped skunks in ontario, canada.during august 2006 and 2007, baits containing oral rabies vaccine, live adenovirus vector, known as onrab , were aerially distributed in sw ontario, canada. bait acceptance during 2006 was 62 and 74% in raccoons (procyon lotor) in areas baited at 150 baits/km(2) and 75 and 77% in plots baited at 300 baits/km(2). during 2007, bait acceptance for raccoons ranged between 59% and 80%, and 83% and 87%, in areas baited at 75 and 400 baits/km(2), respectively. bait acceptance by skunks varied among plo ...200919395746
spatial and temporal dynamics of rabies virus variants in big brown bat populations across canada: footprints of an emerging zoonosis.phylogenetic analysis of a collection of rabies viruses that currently circulate in canadian big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) identified five distinct lineages which have emerged from a common ancestor that existed over 400 years ago. four of these lineages are regionally restricted in their range while the fifth lineage, comprising two-thirds of all specimens, has emerged in recent times and exhibits a recent demographic expansion with rapid spread across the canadian range of its host. four o ...201020406385
field evaluation of an inactivated vaccine to control raccoon rabies in ontario, canada.since raccoon rabies first appeared in ontario in 1999, >90,000 raccoons (procyon lotor) have received imrab3 inactivated rabies vaccine via intramuscular (im) injection and were released at the point of capture as part of a multiyear rabies control program, trap-vaccinate-release (tvr). of the 132 confirmed cases infected with raccoon-variant rabies virus in ontario between 1999 and 2005, two were from that vaccinated group, as indicated by the presence of identifying ear tags. during ongoing r ...201020688688
high-density baiting with onrab® rabies vaccine baits to control arctic-variant rabies in striped skunks in ontario, canada.the arctic variant of rabies virus has been maintained in striped skunks in small foci in southwestern ontario, canada, despite the control of the disease in red foxes. to control the disease in skunks, high-density baiting with onrab(®) oral rabies vaccine baits was conducted by air and by hand distribution of baits in the vicinity of skunk cases. during 2009, antibody prevalences in skunks were higher in areas baited at a density of 300 baits/km(2) and flight-line spacing of 0.25 km than at 0. ...201121441200
re-assessment of direct fluorescent antibody negative brain tissues with a real-time pcr assay to detect the presence of raccoon rabies virus rna.the first report of the raccoon variant of rabies virus was in ontario, canada in 1999. as part of the control of this outbreak a point infection control (pic) strategy of trapping and euthanizing vector species was implemented. to evaluate whether this strategy was indeed removing diseased animals, rabies diagnosis was performed on these specimens. during a pic program conducted in 2003, 721 animals (raccoons, striped skunks and red foxes) were collected and euthanized and brain material from e ...201121514325
genetic tracking of the raccoon variant of rabies virus in eastern north gain insight into the incursion of the raccoon variant of rabies into the raccoon population in three canadian provinces, a collection of 192 isolates of the raccoon rabies virus (rrv) strain was acquired from across its north american range and was genetically characterized. a 516-nucleotide segment of the non-coding region between the g and l protein open reading frames, corresponding to the most variable region of the rabies virus genome, was sequenced. this analysis identified 119 differe ...201121624778
application of high-throughput sequencing to whole rabies viral genome characterisation and its use for phylogenetic re-evaluation of a raccoon strain incursion into the province of ontario.raccoon rabies remains a serious public health problem throughout much of the eastern seaboard of north america due to the urban nature of the reservoir host and the many challenges inherent in multi-jurisdictional efforts to administer co-ordinated and comprehensive wildlife rabies control programmes. better understanding of the mechanisms of spread of rabies virus can play a significant role in guiding such control efforts. to facilitate a detailed molecular epidemiological study of raccoon ra ...201728219746
human rabies post-exposure prophylaxis and animal rabies in ontario, canada, ontario, canada, the implementation of an annual rabies control programme in wildlife that began in 1989 resulted in a marked, steady decrease in the number of animal rabies cases. the number of animal rabies cases decreased from 1870 in 1989 to 183 in 2000 (nunan et al., 2002 emerg infect dis 8, 214). in our study period, the number of animal rabies cases continued to decrease from 210 in 2001 to 28 in 2012. the marked decrease in animal rabies cases since 1989 has resulted in a decrease in ...201525244148
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