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muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis: intradermal test with a promastigote suspension and a crude extract from leishmania braziliensis. 1977613434
letter: metastatic spread of leishmania braziliensis braziliensis to the extremities of hamsters. 19761265829
further observations on lutzomyia ubiquitalis (psychodidae: phlebotominae), the sandfly vector of leishmania (viannia) lainsoni. 19921343653
association of mucosal leishmaniasis with hla.in the search for genetic variability in individual susceptibility to mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a disease caused mainly by leishmania (viannia) braziliensis, hla typing was performed on 43 patients presenting mucosal lesions and 111 matched controls. antigen specificities of the hla-a, -b, -c, -dr, and -dq loci were determined and their frequencies in patients and controls were compared. there was a significant decrease in the frequency of hla-dr2 [1 out of 38 (2.6%) patients vs. 29 out of 10 ...19911783572
cutaneous leishmaniasis of man due to leishmania (viannia) naiffi lainson and shaw, 1989.until recently mammalian hosts of leishmania (viannia) naiffi lainson & shaw, 1989 have been limited to armadillos, dasypus novemcinctus, in amazonian brazil. past evidence for human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to this parasite is reviewed, and a recent infection in man reported, with identification of the parasite by isoenzyme profiles and a specific monoclonal antibody. the role of some phlebotomine sandfly species as vectors is discussed.19902097934
vaccination of dogs against leishmania (viannia) braziliensis. 19902259836
effects of intradermal gamma-interferon in cutaneous leishmaniasis.the clinical and immunological evolution of lesions in cutaneous leishmaniasis was assessed after treatment with human recombinant gamma interferon (rifn-gamma). 3 weeks after rifn-gamma treatment of lesions due to leishmania braziliensis guyanensis, 12/13 had become smaller compared with 6/13 control lesions; only 4 treated lesions were free of parasites. 9 of 13 l tropica lesions treated with rifn-gamma resolved completely within 4-8 weeks of treatment. an acute inflammatory reaction around tr ...19892566825
[in vitro culture as a practical tool for the diagnosis and primary isolation of leishmania braziliensis braziliensis. 2. studies in patients in endemic areas]. 19863589393
epidemiology of american cutaneous leishmaniasis due to leishmania braziliensis braziliensis.a five-year prospective study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic area of brazil revealed an annual incidence of disease of 8.1 per 1000 inhabitants and a prevalence of 14.9%. the disease fluctuated as a series of mini-epidemics. most disease occurred in individuals who were 10-30 years of age. mucosal disease occurred in 2.7% of patients with primary lesions and occurred a median of six years after this lesion. disease was more common in males, in those with either large or multiple antece ...19873598227
cultivation of leishmania braziliensis braziliensis from skin ulcers in man under field conditions. 19863798543
a mr 90 000 surface polypeptide of trypanosoma cruzi as a candidate for a chagas' disease diagnostic antigen.trypanosoma cruzi (peru strain) trypomastigotes and epimastigotes were biosynthetically labeled with [35s]methionine, and the proteins were analyzed by two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2d-page). 2d-page analysis of the trypomastigotes showed a complex array of polypeptides with distinct clusters at mr 88 000-92 000, isoelectric point (pi) 5.6-6.0, and mr 72 000-76 000, pi 5.6-5.8. 2d-page analysis of the epimastigotes did not show the cluster of polypeptides at mr 90 000. when ...19853932849
leishmaniasis in brazil. ix. considerations on the leishmania braziliensis complex. importance of sandflies of the genus psychodopygus (mangabeira) in the transmission of l. braziliensis braziliensis in north brazil. 19734784055
habitat and seasonality of psychodopygus wellcomei help incriminate it as a vector of leishmania braziliensis in amazônia and northeast brazil. 19846485059
[cutaneous leishmaniasis in amazonia. report of the 1st human case of mixed infection, determined by 2 different leishmania species: leishmania brasiliensis and leishmania mexicana amazonensis]. 19846533750
leishmaniasis in brazil: xx. prevalence of "enzootic rodent leishmaniasis" (leishmania mexicana amazonensis), and apparent absence of "pian bois" (le. braziliensis guyanensis), in plantations of introduced tree species and in other non-climax forests in eastern amazônia.in amazonian brazil most human leishmaniasis is due to leishmania braziliensis s.l. and is acquired during the clearing of primary climax forest. one of the largest deforestation projects has taken place on the jari property where plantations of exotic tree species are grown for paper pulp. the ability of the regional leishmaniasis enzootics to invade plantations was investigated. cdc light-trap catches indicated the phletobomine vectors of le. b. guyanensis (causing "pian bois" in man) to be ve ...19836665830
immunoglobulin g and immunoglobulin m polar staining of toxoplasma gondii in the indirect immunofluorescence test.polar staining (ps) of toxoplasma gondii in the indirect immunofluorescence test has been considered a nonspecific reaction caused exclusively by certain immunoglobulin m (igm) antibodies and confined to the anterior end of the parasite. after we observed a patient with positive serology for chagas' disease who presented an igg ps reaction, we studied sera from 120 patients with chagas' disease, 20 sera from patients with leishmania donovani infection, and 30 sera from patients with leishmania b ...19806796601
hosts of sandfly vectors of leishmania braziliensis guyanensis in the central amazon of brazil.the blood meals of 2,569 phlebotomine sandflies from areas endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis in the central amazon of brazil were tested by the microcapillary precipitin method to determine their vertebrate hosts. the two-toed sloth, choloepus didactylus, was the predominant host of two incriminated vectors of leishmania braziliensis guyanensis in the region, lutzomyia umbratilis and lu. anduzei (64.0% and 63.6%, respectively). the lu. "shannoni" group, a complex of several species in which fe ...19827072886
the importance of edentates (sloths and anteaters) as primary reservoirs of leishmania braziliensis guyanensis, causative agent of "pianbois" in north brazil. 19817324143
exploitation of parasite derived antigen in therapeutic success of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in brazil.in a complete study in 25 patients with american cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by leishmania braziliensis complex, immunotherapeutic efficacy of parasite derived antigen (94-67 kd) has been compared to antimonial therapy. additionally, to delineate the mechanism of therapeutic success, microscopical features of immune response in active lesions and healed or non-healed lesions following therapy were analyzed. the results showed that cure rates in immunotherapy and chemotherapy were equal (> 83 ...19947476236
development of colombian isolates of leishmania (viannia) panamensis, le. (v.) guyanensis and le. (v.) braziliensis in the sandfly lutzomyia intermedia (lutz & neiva, 1912) under experimental conditions.the development of colombian leishmania species of the subgenus viannia in lutzomyia intermedia was similar to that observed with brazilian le. (v.) braziliensis: colonization of the pylorus by paramastigotes; promastigotes in the midgut and massive infection of stomodeal valve. difference was observed in the number of paramastigotes colonizing the pylorus, which was smaller in colombian leishmania species than brazilian le. braziliensis.19938139462
[an evaluation of the effect of a bark extract from the cashew (anacardium occidentale l.) on infection by leishmania (viannia) braziliensis].this paper presents an evaluation of the therapeutic effect of an hydroalcoholic extract of a. occidentale l. bark against leishmania (viannia) brasiliensis. the extract showed high activity in the in vitro model against the promastigotes of this species. however in the in vivo model no curative activity was observed.19938146389
introgression between lutzomyia intermedia and both lu. neivai and lu. whitmani, and their roles as vectors of leishmania braziliensis. 19979509190
american cutaneous leishmaniasis due to leishmania (viannia) guyanensis as an initial clinical presentation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.the authors present the first report of leishmania (viannia) guyanensis (l.(v.) guyanenesis) associated with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) in a brazilian heterosexual man. it is also the first case of hiv infection associated with american cutaneous leishmaniasis in brazilian western amazonia. the patient had cutaneous and mucous lesions with a negative montenegro skin test. histopathology showed large numbers of amastigotes, even in a lesion which had clinically healed. l.(v.) guyanenesis ...19989643323
leishmaniasis of glans penis.leishmaniasis is an important protozoan disease. in the americas it is produced by several species of the genus leishmania, transmitted by sand flies of the genus lutzomyia. disease spectrum ranges from cutaneous ulceration to more serious involvement of oronasal mucosa that may progress to destruction of central structures of the face and to the life-threatening visceral forms. leishmania viannia braziliensis is the most widespread species in brazil and is often associated with mucosal involvem ...19989643325
sensitivity of a vacuum aspiratory culture technique for diagnosis of localized cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic area of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis transmission.sixty eight patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis from an area with leishmania (viannia) braziliensis transmission had cultures performed with a modified marzochís vacuum aspiratory puncture technique to establish sensitivity and contamination rate with this new method. overall sensitivity of three aspirates was 47.1%; (ci95% 39.4; 59.4) significantly greater than the sensitivity of a single one aspirate. fungal contamination was observed in 6/204 (2.9%) inoculated culture tubes. we re ...199910446010
[study of the vectorial competence of lutzomyia intermedia (lutz & neiva, 1912) for leishmania (viannia) braziliensis, vianna, 1911].this paper investigated the vectorial competence of lutzomyia intermedia (diptera: psychodidae) in vale do ribeira (sp) to strains of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis (kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae), by means of a search for natural infection; exposure of wild and colonized females (f1) to the lesions of experimentally infected hamsters and transmission tests by bite. the natural infection and the transmission tests were negative. in the exposures of lu. intermedia to infected lesions we fou ...200111391441
sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to leishmania (viannia) guyanensis.the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in 35 consecutive outpatients with cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania (viannia) guyanensis was evaluated using, as gold standard, the in vitro isolation of the parasite through culture of aspirates of the cutaneous ulcers. all isolates were identified using electrophoretic enzyme analysis. patients were mainly young males with recent onset disease without prior specific treatment. pcr was performed using dna extracted from fresh fr ...200111412806
epidemiologic and immunologic findings for the subclinical form of leishmania braziliensis infection.the epidemiologic and immunologic findings for 104 subjects with subclinical leishmania braziliensis infection were compared with those for 29 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) from the same area of endemicity. subjects had a positive leishmania skin test result and remained asymptomatic during the next 4 years of follow-up were considered to have subclinical infection. patients with cl were younger, had larger-diameter indurations after skin testing, and were more likely to have positi ...200212015707
evaluation of antigens from various leishmania species in a western blot for diagnosis of american tegumentary leishmaniasis.a western blot method that uses antigens from culture promastigote forms of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis, l. (leishmania) amazonensis, l. (leishmania) tropica, and a trypanosomatid (strain 268t) isolated from naturally infected tomatoes was evaluated for laboratory diagnosis of american tegumentary leishmaniasis (atl). serum samples were obtained from 108 patients with atl (group i), 23 chagasic patients (group ii), 32 patients with other diseases (group iii), and 78 healthy individuals (gr ...200212135276
disseminated leishmaniasis: a new and emerging form of leishmaniasis observed in northeastern brazil.during the past decade, there has been an increase in the number of patients with disseminated leishmaniasis (dl), which is characterized by a large number of acneiform and papular skin lesions, with very few or no parasites in the skin tissue. the present report describes 42 cases of dl identified between 1992 and 1998 in an area where leishmania braziliensis transmission is endemic; 8 of the patients were prospectively diagnosed. in a contrast to localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (lcl), acquis ...200212447770
genetic polymorphism and molecular epidemiology of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis from different hosts and geographic areas in brazil.numerical zymotaxonomy and variability of the internal transcribed spacers (its) between the small and large subunits of the rrna genes were used to examine strain variation and relationships in natural populations of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis. a total of 101 strains from distinct hosts and brazilian geographic regions were assigned to 15 zymodemes clustered in two major genetic groups. the great number of isolates (48.5%) placed in zymodeme ioc/z-27 were collected on the atlantic coast. ...200312843052
antibody subclass profile against leishmania braziliensis and leishmania amazonensis in the diagnosis and follow-up of mucosal leishmaniasis.sensitivities and specificities of igg subclasses-elisa and igg-indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) against leishmania braziliensis (lb) and l. amazonensis (la) antigens were determined in 17 patients with mucosal (ml) and 19 with muco-cutaneous (mcl) leishmaniasis. using ifat-igg both antigens gave high sensitivities and were statistically similar, being 89.5% with la and 100% with lb. using elisa, the highest sensitivity was achieved with total igg for ml (94.7% with both antigens) and m ...200314596966
short report: quantification of leishmaniavirus rna in clinical samples and its possible role in pathogenesis.leishmaniavirus (lrv) is a double-stranded rna virus that infects the protozoa leishmania and has been identified in numerous strains of leishmania braziliensis and l. braziliensis guyanensis. in general, the species of leishmania dictates disease manifestation except in the case of l. braziliensis, which is capable of causing either cutaneous or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. we wanted to determine 1) the quantity of lrv rna present in a clinical sample and 2) if infection with lrv was associated ...200314628949
multiclonal leishmania braziliensis population structure and its clinical implication in a region of endemicity for american tegumentary leishmaniasis.in corte de pedra (cp), northeastern brazil, leishmania braziliensis causes three distinct forms of american tegumentary leishmaniasis (atl). to test the hypothesis that strain polymorphism may be involved in this disease spectrum and accurately characterize the parasite population structure in cp, we compared one l. major, two non-cp l. braziliensis, one cp l. amazonensis, and 45 cp l. braziliensis isolates, obtained over a 10-year period from localized cutaneous, mucosal, and disseminated leis ...200414688132
antibody response in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis infected by leishmania (viannia) braziliensis or leishmania (viannia) guyanensis in brazil.the antibody response against leishmania (leishmania) amazonensis crude antigen was measured through the indirect immunofluorescent assay (ifa) and the immunoenzymatic assay (elisa) in 114 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) in brazil. fifty-four patients were infected by leishmania (viannia) braziliensis, and 60 patients had l. (v.) guyanensis infection. patients were comparable by age, sex, disease duration and the montenegro skin test diameter. l. (v.) braziliensis-infected patients sh ...200515589797
domestic and wild mammals infection by trypanosoma evansi in a pristine area of the brazilian pantanal region.the objective of this study was to estimate the trypanosoma evansi infection rate and epizootical status of wild and domestic animals from the brazilian pantanal region using a standardized polymerase chain reaction (pcr). we used a simple dna extraction method based on chelex resin (biorad, usa) on blood eluted from filter paper confetti. primers directed to repetitive nuclear dna sequences were used in the pcr, and could detect 30 fg of t. evansi dna. the analytical specificity of the assay wa ...200515824901
familial aggregation of mucosal leishmaniasis in northeast brazil.to evaluate whether familial clustering occurs in mucosal leishmaniasis (ml), patients with ml (index cases) were randomly selected from medical records at a health post in an endemic area for leishmania braziliensis infection. control individuals (index controls) matched by age, gender, and place of residence to index cases were selected. family members of index cases and controls were compared with respect to environmental factors and the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) and ml. delay ...200516014836
successful treatment of refractory cutaneous leishmaniasis with gm-csf and antimonials.therapeutic failure in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) occurs in 5% of patients infected by leishmania braziliensis. this study evaluates the use of topically applied granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (gm-csf) combined with the standard dose of antimony to treat refractory cases of cl. five patients who had received three courses or more of antimony were enrolled in an open-label clinical trial. one to 2 ml of the gm-csf solution (10 mug/ml in 0.9% saline) was reappl ...200516014838
a pyrimidine-beta-carboline and other alkaloids from annona foetida with antileishmanial activity.bioassay-guided fractionation of the bark extract of annona foetida afforded a new antileishmanial pyrimidine-beta-carboline alkaloid, n-hydroxyannomontine (1), together with the previously reported annomontine (2), o-methylmoschatoline (3), and liriodenine (4). the structure of compound 1 was established on the basis of extensive 1d and 2d nmr and ms analyses. this is the third reported pyrimidine-beta-carboline-type alkaloid and is particularly important for annona genus chemotaxonomy. in addi ...200616499336
montenegro's skin reactions and antibodies against different leishmania species in dogs from a visceral leishmaniosis endemic area.in this study, humoral (circulating anti-leishmania antibodies) and cellular (montenegro's skin test) immune responses of dogs from an endemic area of visceral leishmaniosis were tested using leishmania chagasi, leishmania amazonensis and leishmania braziliensis antigens. the antibody response was tested in three animal groups, selected according to their anti-l. chagasi antibody activity, as measured by elisa in the serum: 19 negative (o.d. below 0.30), seven with undefined (o.d. between 0.40 a ...200616567046
use of pcr-rflp to identify leishmania species in naturally-infected dogs.tissue imprints on giemsa stained slides from dogs were used to investigate the presence of leishmania amastigotes by either optical microscopy (om) or polymerase chain reaction (pcr) detection of dna. samples from skin, spleen, lymph node, liver and bone marrow from a leishmaniasis endemic area dogs where leishmania (leishmania) chagasi and leishmania (viannia) braziliensis are sympatric were studied. dogs were initially diagnosed by indirect immunofluorescence (iif), as which 39 were iif posit ...200616682124
il6 -174 g/c promoter polymorphism influences susceptibility to mucosal but not localized cutaneous leishmaniasis in brazil.mucosal leishmaniasis (ml) is associated with exaggerated tumor necrosis factor- alpha and interferon- gamma responses and tissue destruction. ml follows localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) caused by leishmania braziliensis infection. interleukin (il)-6 down-regulates t helper (th) cell type 1 differentiation and drives th2 cell differentiation. the il6 -174 g/c polymorphism is associated with proinflammatory diseases and il-6 regulation.200616845637
stages in the identification of phlebotomine sandflies as vectors of leishmaniases and other tropical diseases.the first time the term phlebotomine sandfly was used, was by an italian naturalist, philippo bonanni, in 1691. the first description though was made by another italian naturalist, scopoli, under the name bibio papatasi. the name of the genus, phlebotomus, was not given until 1840 by rondani and berté. the first description of an american phlebotomine sandfly was made by coquillett, in 1907. the discovery of the three first sandflies in brazil is the work of lutz and neiva, in 1912. from this da ...200516866034
detection of leishmania (viannia) dna in blood from patients with american cutaneous leishmaniasis.the aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of leishmania (viannia) subgenus dna in peripheral blood from patients with cutaneous lesions due to american cutaneous leishmaniasis. the buffy coats from 68 blood samples were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction using the mp1l/mp3h primers. the parasite dna was detected in 2 (3.4%) out of 59 patients who had amastigotes present in samples taken from lesions. the presence of leishmania (viannia) dna in the blood of these patients in ...200717118356
analysis of the cc chemokine receptor 5 delta32 polymorphism in a brazilian population with cutaneous leishmaniasis.patients with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (mcl) show a vigorous t-cell immune response against leishmania braziliensis. because the th response is associated with inflammation, the non-functional cc chemokine receptor 5 (ccr5) may rely in a less severe inflammatory state. the aim of this study was to investigate the ccr5 gene in a brazilian population with leishmaniasis compared with healthy control subjects and to determine the progression from cutaneous to mcl in the delta32 allele carriers. a ...200717214851
genetic structure of lutzomyia (nyssomyia) intermedia populations from two ecologic regions in brazil where transmission of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis reflects distinct eco-epidemiologic features.randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) analysis was performed to infer the magnitude and pattern of genetic differentiation among lutzomyia (nyssomyia) intermedia populations from two ecologic regions in southeast brazil where transmission of american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) by l. (viannia) braziliensis reflects distinct eco-epidemiologic features. two hundred thirty-five bands from six primers were analyzed for genetic variation within and between sand fly populations. a lower level of ...200717360884
exposure to mixed asymptomatic infections with trypanosoma cruzi, leishmania braziliensis and leishmania chagasi in the human population of the greater amazon.lack of conservation of the amazon tropical rainforest has imposed severe threats to its human population living in newly settled villages, resulting in outbreaks of some infectious diseases. we conducted a seroepidemiological survey of 1100 inhabitants of 15 villages of paço do lumiar county, brazil. thirty-five (3%) individuals had been exposed to trypanosoma cruzi (tc), 41 (4%) to leishmania braziliensis (lb) and 50 (4.5%) to leishmania chagasi (lc) infections. also, 35 cases had antibodies t ...200717445130
cellular localization and expression of gp63 homologous metalloproteases in leishmania (viannia) braziliensis strains.leishmania (viannia) braziliensis is the major causative agent of american tegumentary leishmaniasis, a disease that encompasses a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. in a previous study, we showed that brazilian and colombian l. braziliensis strains, isolated from patients with distinct clinical manifestations, display different pattern of metalloprotease activities. following these results, we investigated the cellular localization of these molecules and their relation to the major surf ...200818423419
reviewing the role of the dendritic langerhans cells in the immunopathogenesis of american cutaneous leishmaniasis.the role of dendritic langerhans cells (lcs) in the immunopathogenesis of american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) was reviewed in the light of more recent clinical and immunological features of acl, caused by the principal human pathogenic leishmanial parasites found in brazil: leishmania (viannia) braziliensis and l. (l.) amazonensis. the report shows a species-specific correlation between the lc density and the cd4+ and cd8+ t-cell profiles in the cellular infiltrate of skin lesions of acl pati ...200818602127
leishmania (viannia) guyanensis induces low immunologic responsiveness in leishmaniasis patients from an endemic area of the brazilian amazon highland.cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania (viannia) guyanensis (cl-lguy) is endemic in the brazilian amazon, differing from l. braziliensis infection in clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects. t-cell reactivity to leishmanial antigens possibly involved in the pathogenesis of cl-lguy was studied herein. variable lymphoproliferative responses (lprs) to leishmania antigens were found among the 23 studied patients, and 50% of them showed low or no response to these antigens. active disease ...200919270278
mucosal leishmaniasis: description of case management approaches and analysis of risk factors for treatment failure in a cohort of 140 patients in brazil.mucosal leishmaniasis is caused mainly by leishmania braziliensis and it occurs months or years after cutaneous lesions. this progressive disease destroys cartilages and osseous structures from face, pharynx and larynx.200919453817
geographic clustering of leishmaniasis in northeastern brazil.to determine whether disease outcomes and clades of leishmania braziliensis genotypes are associated, we studied geographic clustering of clades and most severe disease outcomes for leishmaniasis during 1999-2003 in corte de pedra in northeastern brazil. highly significant differences were observed in distribution of mucosal leishmaniasis versus disseminated leishmaniasis (dl) (p<0.0001). concordance was observed between distribution of these disease forms and clades of l. braziliensis genotypes ...200919523284
species diversity of leishmania (viannia) parasites circulating in an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis located in the atlantic rainforest region of northeastern brazil.to identify the aetiological agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis and to investigate the genetic polymorphism of leishmania (viannia) parasites circulating in an area with endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) in the atlantic rainforest region of northeastern brazil.200919708899
proven and putative vectors of american cutaneous leishmaniasis in brazil: aspects of their biology and vectorial competence.the aim of the present review is to give relevant information on aspects of the biology and ecology, including the vectorial competence of lutzomyia sand fly species suggested as vectors of american cutaneous leishmaniasis in brazil. the disease, due to leishmania (viannia) braziliensis, has been registered in most municipalities in all the brazilian states and its transmission is associated with more than one sand fly species in each geographical region. a variety of leishmania species can be f ...200920027458
genus-specific kinetoplast-dna pcr and parasite culture for the diagnosis of localised cutaneous leishmaniasis: applications for clinical trials under field conditions in brazil.the positivities of two methods for the diagnosis of localised cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) were estimated in 280 patients enrolled in a clinical trial. the trial was conducted in an endemic area of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis and trial participants were patients with skin ulcers and positive leishmanin skin tests. patients underwent aspirative skin punctures of the ulcerated lesions and lymph nodes for in vitro cultures, which were processed under field conditions at the local health cent ...200920027466
mucocutaneous leishmaniasis masquerading as wegener granulomatosis.a 43-year-old brazilian female presented in 2001 with nasal stuffiness and sinusitis. a biopsy was consistent with limited wegener's granulomatosis although antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were negative. her nasal inflammation progressed despite trials of prednisone, methotrexate, and azathioprine. a septal perforation developed and a repeat biopsy showed granulomatous inflammation. in 2006 the patient was referred to division of rheumatology, university of california, los angeles. the nos ...201020375822
the -2518bp promoter polymorphism at ccl2/mcp1 influences susceptibility to mucosal but not localized cutaneous leishmaniasis in brazil.mucosal leishmaniasis (ml) follows localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) caused by leishmania braziliensis. proinflammatory responses mediate cl self-healing but are exaggerated in ml. proinflammatory monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (mcp-1; encoded by ccl2) is associated with cl. we explore its role in cl/ml through analysis of the regulatory ccl2 -2518bp promoter polymorphism in cl/ml population samples and families from brazil. genotype frequencies were compared among ml/cl cases and contr ...201020430117
targeted gene expression profiling in leishmania braziliensis and leishmania guyanensis parasites isolated from brazilian patients with different antimonial treatment outcomes.in brazil, cutaneous leishmaniasis represents a serious public health problem, and chemotherapy is an important element of the clinical management of this disease. however, treatment efficacy is variable, a phenomenon that might be due to host and parasite (e.g., drug resistance) factors. to better understand the possible contribution of parasite factors to this phenomenon, we characterised 12 leishmania braziliensis (lb) and 25 leishmania guyanensis (lg) isolates collected from patients experie ...201020478409
phlebotomine sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) and leishmania infection in gafanhoto park, divinópolis, brazil.the potential of gafanhoto park as an american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) focus was evaluated by examination of sand fly vectors of the leishmania parasite. this forest remnant is located in a periurban area of divin6polis, brazil, where autochthonous cases of acl have been reported. sand fly populations were monitored over a 2-yr period (2006-2008) by using light traps (hp and shannon). during systematic collections with hp traps, 824 specimens in total (342 males and 482 females) of 21 spec ...201021175074
balb/c mice infected with antimony treatment refractory isolate of leishmania braziliensis present severe lesions due to il-4 production.leishmania braziliensis is the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in brazil. protection against infection is related to development of th1 responses, but the mechanisms that mediate susceptibility are still poorly understood. murine models have been the most important tools in understanding the immunopathogenesis of l. major infection and have shown that th2 responses favor parasite survival. in contrast, l. braziliensis-infected mice develop strong th1 responses and easily resolve ...201121390155
reappraisal of the immunopathogenesis of disseminated leishmaniasis: in situ and systemic immune response.disseminated leishmaniasis (dl) is an emerging form of leishmania braziliensis infection characterised by multiple cutaneous lesions on different parts of the body and a high rate of mucosal involvement. systemic production of tnf+¦ and ifn+¦ in dl patients is lower than in cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) caused by l. braziliensis, which may account for parasite dissemination due to the decreased ability to control parasite growth. in this study, the systemic and in situ immune response of dl and c ...201121723576
american tegumentary leishmaniasis and hiv-aids association in a tertiary care center in the brazilian amazon.american tegumentary leishmaniasis (atl) and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) are both common infectious diseases in the brazilian amazon with overlapping expansion areas, which leads to the occurrence of leishmania/hiv coinfection. most atl/hiv-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) association cases have been reported from areas where leishmania (viannia) braziliensis is the main pathogen; this finding is in contrast with the amazon region, where l. (v.) guyanensis is the most implicated ...201121896816
combining diagnostic procedures for the management of leishmaniasis in areas with high prevalence of leishmania guyanensis.the amazon region corresponds to approximately 40% of the cases of leishmaniasis in brazil. we report a prospective study with 180 patients conducted in a health care unit that diagnoses 10% of the cases of leishmaniasis in the brazilian amazon. the study addresses how a combination of procedures improves diagnosis in areas with high prevalence of leishmania guyanensis.201122281902
an integrated approach using spatial analysis to study the risk factors for leishmaniasis in area of recent transmission.some epidemiological aspects of leishmaniasis in the municipality of formiga, brazil, an important touristic site, were evaluated. those included phlebotomine sand fly vectors, canine infection, and geoprocessing analysis for determining critical transmission areas. sand flies (224 insects) belonging to ten different species were captured. the most captured species included lutzomyia longipalpis (35.3%), lutzomyia cortelezzii (33.5%), and lutzomyia whitmani (18.3%). a significant correlation bet ...201526229961
peridomiciliary breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) in an endemic area of american cutaneous leishmaniasis in southeastern brazil.the occurrence of american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) in areas modified by humans indicates that phlebotomine sand fly vectors breed close to human habitations. potential peridomiciliary breeding sites of phlebotomines were sampled in an area of transmission of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis in southeastern brazil. three concentric circles rounding houses and domestic animal shelters, with radii of 20, 40, and 60 m, defined the area to be monitored using adult emergence traps. of the 67 ph ...201223091196
repeated exposure to lutzomyia intermedia sand fly saliva induces local expression of interferon-inducible genes both at the site of injection in mice and in human blood.during a blood meal, lutzomyia intermedia sand flies transmit leishmania braziliensis, a parasite causing tegumentary leishmaniasis. in experimental leishmaniasis, pre-exposure to saliva of most blood-feeding sand flies results in parasite establishment in absence of any skin damages in mice challenged with dermotropic leishmania species together with saliva. in contrast, pre-immunization with lu. intermedia salivary gland sonicate (sgs) results in enhanced skin inflammatory exacerbation upon co ...201424421912
anti-infective potential of marine invertebrates and seaweeds from the brazilian coast.this manuscript describes the evaluation of anti-infective potential in vitro of organic extracts from nine sponges, one ascidian, two octocorals, one bryozoan, and 27 seaweed species collected along the brazilian coast. antimicrobial activity was tested against staphylococcus aureus (atcc 25923), enterococcus faecalis (atcc 29212), pseudomonas aeruginosa (atcc 27853), escherichia coli (atcc 25922) and candida albicans (atcc 10231) by the disk diffusion method. antiprotozoal activity was evaluat ...201323681060
leishmania chagasi naturally resistant to nitric oxide isolated from humans and dogs with visceral leishmaniasis in brazil.nitric oxide (no) plays an important role as a leishmanicidal agent in murine macrophages. no resistant escherichia coli and mycobacterium tuberculosis have been associated with poor outcomes of their resulting diseases. no resistant leishmania braziliensis has also been identified and exacerbates the clinical course of human leishmaniasis. we report, for the first time, natural resistance of leishmania chagasi promastigotes to no. these parasites were isolated from humans and dogs with visceral ...201222580230
comparative analysis of carbohydrate residues in the midgut of phlebotomines (diptera: psychodidae) from colony and field populations from amazon, brazil.leishmaniasis are worldwide diseases that occur in 98 countries including brazil, transmitted by the bite of female phlebotomines during blood feeding. in brazil it is known that some species of sand flies as lutzomyia longipalpis sensun latum (vector of leishmania infantum chagasi), lutzomyia flaviscutellata (vector of leishmania (leishmania) amazonensis) and lutzomyia antunesi [suspected vector of leishmania (viannia) lindenbergi] are incriminated of transmitting the parasite leishmania for th ...201627264642
further evidence of an association between the presence of leishmania rna virus 1 and the mucosal manifestations in tegumentary leishmaniasis patients.tegumentary leishmaniasis (tl) is endemic in latin america, and brazil contributes approximately 20 thousand cases per year. the pathogenesis of tl, however, is still not fully understood. clinical manifestations vary from cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) to more severe outcomes, such as disseminated leishmaniasis (dl), mucosal leishmaniasis (ml) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (dcl). many factors have been associated with the severity of the disease and the development of lesions. recent studie ...201526372217
leishmania spp. in didelphis spp. from northeastern brazil.the synanthropic behavior of marsupials of the genus didelphis in endemic areas of leishmaniasis suggests that these animals may play an important role in the epidemiology of this infection. the aim of the present study was to detect leishmania spp. dna in didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum) and didelphis aurita (big-eared opossum) living in forested and peridomestic areas of northeastern brazil. blood samples were collected from 25 animals (23 d. albiventris and 2 d. aurita ) by cardiac ...201627691942
differential gene expression and infection profiles of cutaneous and mucosal leishmania braziliensis isolates from the same patient.leishmaniasis is a complex disease in which clinical outcome depends on factors such as parasite species, host genetics and immunity and vector species. in brazil, leishmania (viannia) braziliensis is a major etiological agent of cutaneous (cl) and mucosal leishmaniasis (mcl), a disfiguring form of the disease, which occurs in ~10% of l. braziliensis-infected patients. thus, clinical isolates from patients with cl and mcl may be a relevant source of information to uncover parasite factors contri ...201526366580
mixed infection of leishmania infantum and leishmania braziliensis in rodents from endemic urban area of the new world.in brazil leishmania braziliensis and l. infantum are the principal species responsible for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases, respectively. domestic dogs are the main reservoirs of visceral leishmaniasis, while rodents and marsupials are the main reservoirs for cutaneous leishmaniasis. it has also been suggested that dogs could play a role in transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. the identification of the species of leishmania, the reservoirs, and the vectors involved in each particular t ...201525890323
epidemiological aspects of vector, parasite, and domestic reservoir in areas of recent transmission and no reported human cases of visceral leishmaniasis in brazil.about 97% of the human cases of the american visceral leishmaniasis (vl) occur in brazil. in the last few years, the disease expanded to medium- and large-sized cities, in which surveillance and control actions have been intensified, in an effort to control vl spreading. our two-year study was conducted in belo horizonte, the sixth most populous city in brazil, which is endemic for vl. we focused in two particular districts of recent transmission of the disease, with no reported human cases and ...201525882769
ecology of sand flies in a low-density residential rural area, with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation, in north-eastern brazil.cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania braziliensis is endemic in brazil, where lutzomyia whitmani is the most important vector involved in the transmission to humans, particularly in the peridomestic environment. herein, we assessed the ecology of sand flies, including lu. whitmani, in a low-density residential rural area with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation in north-eastern brazil, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. particularly, we hypothesized that sand fly abundance was ...201525792416
press imprint smear: a rapid, simple, and cheap method for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania (viannia) braziliensis.a modified imprint method, press-imprint-smear, was compared with histopathology for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. amastigotes were seen in 69 (92%) of 75 individuals in one or both assays. the press-imprint-smear was positive in 85.3%, and histopathology was positive in 44%. press-imprint-smear is a rapid and relatively sensitive method for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.201425114007
cytotoxic t cells mediate pathology and metastasis in cutaneous leishmaniasis.disease progression in response to infection can be strongly influenced by both pathogen burden and infection-induced immunopathology. while current therapeutics focus on augmenting protective immune responses, identifying therapeutics that reduce infection-induced immunopathology are clearly warranted. despite the apparent protective role for murine cd8⁺ t cells following infection with the intracellular parasite leishmania, cd8⁺ t cells have been paradoxically linked to immunopathological resp ...201323874205
small mammals as hosts of leishmania spp. in a highly endemic area for zoonotic leishmaniasis in north-eastern brazil.leishmania parasites cause leishmaniasis in humans and animals worldwide. these parasites are transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, which become infected upon feeding on an infected mammalian host. we assessed the occurrence of leishmania infection in small mammals in an area of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis endemicity.201323868744
assessment of drug resistance related genes as candidate markers for treatment outcome prediction of cutaneous leishmaniasis in brazil.the great public health problem posed by leishmaniasis has substantially worsened in recent years by the emergence of clinical failure. in brazil, the poor prognosis observed for patients infected by leishmania braziliensis (lb) or l. guyanensis (lg) may be related to parasite drug resistance. in the present study, 19 lb and 29 lg isolates were obtained from infected patients with different treatment outcomes. translated amino acid sequence polymorphisms from four described antimony resistance r ...201323416123
early enlargement of an ulcerated area during leishmaniasis treatment with meglumine antimoniate in brazil.cutaneous leishmaniasis is a public health problem in brazil, where meglumine antimoniate is the drug of choice for treatment. ulcers treated with pentavalent antimonials show increasing diameters during the first weeks of drug exposure.201323315614
association between an emerging disseminated form of leishmaniasis and leishmania (viannia) braziliensis strain polymorphisms.leishmania (viannia) braziliensis causes three main types of american tegumentary leishmaniasis (atl), localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl), mucosal leishmaniasis (ml), and disseminated leishmaniasis (dl). all forms are observed among individuals of corte de pedra, brazil. we previously used random amplified markers to identify a multiclonal population among l. (v.) braziliensis isolates from atl patients, defining parasite clades associated with different clinical syndromes. herein we compare ...201223035200
genetic polymorphism in leishmania (viannia) braziliensis detected in mucosal leishmaniasis of hiv-infected and non-hiv-infected patients.the genetic polymorphism of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis detected in cases of mucosal leishmaniasis (ml) from hiv-infected and non hiv-infected patients was evaluated. nine samples from three hiv-infected patients and five samples from five non hiv-infected patients were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), low-stringency single-specific primer pcr (lssp-pcr) and phenetic analysis. the presence of l. (v.) braziliensis dna was detected in all samples by specific pcr assay. the intras ...201222954800
wound healing genes and susceptibility to cutaneous leishmaniasis in brazil.leishmania braziliensis causes cutaneous (cl) and mucosal (ml) leishmaniasis. in the mouse, fli1 was identified as a gene influencing enhanced wound healing and resistance to cl caused by leishmania major. polymorphism at fli1 is associated with cl caused by l. braziliensis in humans, with an inverse association observed for ml disease. here we extend the analysis to look at other wound healing genes, including ctgf, tgfb1, tgfbr1/2, smads 2/3/4/7 and flii, all functionally linked along with fli ...201222554650
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