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dogs entering the united states from rabies-endemic countries, 2011-2012.international dog imports pose a risk because of the potential movement of disease agents, including the canine rabies virus variant which has been eliminated from the united states since 2007. us regulations require a rabies vaccination certificate for dogs arriving from rabies-endemic countries, but permit the importation of dogs that have not been adequately immunized against rabies, provided that the dogs are confined under conditions that restrict their contact with humans and other animals ...201525244531
assessment of rabies exposure risk in a group of u.s. air force basic trainees - texas, january 2014.in january 2014, members of the joint base san antonio (jbsa)-lackland, texas, preventive medicine and public health teams evaluated a u.s. air force basic training squadron for potential exposure in sleeping bays to rabies virus carried by mexican free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis). exposure to bats while asleep or otherwise unaware is an important risk factor for rabies in the united states. over the past several decades, most indigenous human rabies infections in the united states have ...201425166925
epidemiology of rabies in bats in texas (2001-2010).to obtain epidemiological information on rabies in bats in texas.201324094260
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2009.during 2009, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,690 rabid animals and 4 human rabies cases to the cdc, representing a 2.2% decrease from the 6,841 rabid animals and 2 human cases reported in 2008. approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,327 (34.8%) raccoons, 1,625 (24.3%) bats, 1,603 (24.0%) skunks, 504 (75%) foxes, 300 (4.5%) cats, 81 (1.2%) dogs, and 74 (1.1%) cattle. compared with 2008, numbers of rabid ...201020839985
ecology of rabies virus exposure in colonies of brazilian free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis) at natural and man-made roosts in texas.previous studies have investigated rabies virus (rabv) epizootiology in brazilian free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis) in natural cave roosts. however, little is known about geographic variation in rabv exposure, or if the use of man-made roosts by this species affects enzootic rabv infection dynamics within colonies. we sampled rabies viral neutralizing antibodies in bats at three bridge and three cave roosts at multiple time points during the reproductive season to investigate temporal and ...201019492942
human vaccinia infection after contact with a raccoon rabies vaccine bait - pennsylvania, 2009.since 2003, the u.s. department of agriculture's wildlife services has coordinated a multistate oral rabies vaccination (orv) program for wildlife in a 15-state zone extending from maine to alabama and in texas. the program seeks to enhance local control and prevent the spread of epizootic rabies among raccoons and, in texas, among gray foxes and coyotes. the program uses baits containing liquid vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (v-rg) recombinant virus vaccine. because contact with ruptured baits ca ...200919893480
bat rabies in the united states and canada from 1950 through 2007: human cases with and without bat contact.since the 1980s, rare cases of rabies in humans in canada and the united states have been almost exclusively caused by the bat-variant virus.200818419432
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2007.summary: during 2007, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,258 cases of rabies in animals and 1 case in a human to the cdc, representing a 4.6% increase from the 6,940 cases in animals and 3 cases in humans reported in 2006. approximately 93% of the cases were in wildlife, and 7% were in domestic animals. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,659 raccoons (36.6%), 1,973 bats (27.2%), 1,478 skunks (20.4%), 489 foxes (6.7%), 274 cats (3.8%), 93 dogs (1.3%), and 57 ca ...200818795848
economic evaluation of an oral rabies vaccination program for control of a domestic dog-coyote rabies epizootic: 1995-2006.to conduct a benefit-cost analysis of the results of the domestic dog and coyote (ddc) oral rabies vaccine (orv) program in texas from 1995 through 2006 by use of fiscal records and relevant public health data.200819046031
enzootic rabies elimination from dogs and reemergence in wild terrestrial carnivores, united states.to provide molecular and virologic evidence that domestic dog rabies is no longer enzootic to the united states and to identify putative relatives of dog-related rabies viruses (rvs) circulating in other carnivores, we studied rvs associated with recent and historic dog rabies enzootics worldwide. molecular, phylogenetic, and epizootiologic evidence shows that domestic dog rabies is no longer enzootic to the united states. nonetheless, our data suggest that independent rabies enzootics are now e ...200819046506
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2006.during 2006, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,940 cases of rabies in animals and 3 cases in humans to the cdc, representing an 8.2% increase from the 6,417 cases in animals and 1 case in a human reported in 2005. approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,615 raccoons (37.7%), 1,692 bats (24.4%), 1,494 skunks (21.5%), 427 foxes (6.2%), 318 cats (4.6%), 82 cattle (1.2%), and 79 dogs (1. ...200717696853
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2005.during 2005, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,417 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the cdc, representing a 6.2% decrease from the 6,836 cases in nonhuman animals and 8 cases in human beings reported in 2004. approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,534 raccoons (39.5%), 1,478 skunks (23%), 1,408 bats (21.9%), 376 foxes (5.9%), 269 cats (4.2%), 93 cat ...200617173527
status of oral rabies vaccination in wild carnivores in the united states.persistence of multiple variants of rabies virus in wild chiroptera and carnivora presents a continuing challenge to medical, veterinary and wildlife management professionals. oral rabies vaccination (orv) targeting specific carnivora species has emerged as an integral adjunct to conventional rabies control strategies to protect humans and domestic animals. orv has been applied with progress toward eliminating rabies in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in western europe and southern ontario, canada. mo ...200515896404
evaluation of oral rabies vaccination programs for control of rabies epizootics in coyotes and gray foxes: 1995-2003.to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention efforts to halt 2 wildlife rabies epizootics from 1995 through 2003, including 9 oral rabies vaccination campaigns for coyotes and 8 oral rabies vaccination campaigns for gray foxes.200516178403
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2004.during 2004, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,836 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 8 cases in human beings to the cdc, representing a 4.6% decrease from the 7,170 cases in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings reported in 2003. approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals (compared with 91% and 9%, respectively, in 2003). relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,564 raccoons (37.5%), 1,856 skunks (27.1%), 1,361 bat ...200516379626
bat rabies, texas, 1996-2000.bats submitted to the texas department of health (1996-2000) were speciated and tested for rabies virus antigen by direct immunofluorescence microscopy. antigenic analysis of rabies virus-positive specimens was performed with monoclonal antibodies against the nucleoprotein of the virus; atypical or unexpected results were confirmed by genetic analysis of nucleoprotein sequence.200415200840
investigation of rabies infections in organ donor and transplant recipients--alabama, arkansas, oklahoma, and texas, 2004.on june 30, 2004, cdc confirmed diagnoses of rabies in three recipients of transplanted organs and in their common donor, who was found subsequently to have serologic evidence of rabies infection. the transplant recipients had encephalitis of unknown etiology after transplantation and subsequently died. specimens were sent to cdc for diagnostic evaluation. this report provides a brief summary of the ongoing investigation and information on exposure risks and postexposure measures.200415241303
update: investigation of rabies infections in organ donor and transplant recipients--alabama, arkansas, oklahoma, and texas, 2004.on july 1, 2004, cdc reported laboratory confirmation of rabies as the cause of encephalitis in an organ donor and three organ recipients at baylor university medical center (bumc) in dallas, texas. hospital and public health officials in alabama, arkansas, oklahoma, and texas initiated public health investigations to identify donor and recipient contacts, assess exposure risks, and provide rabies postexposure prophylaxis (pep). as of july 9, pep had been initiated in approximately 174 (19%) of ...200415254455
update: investigation of rabies infections in organ donor and transplant recipients--alabama, arkansas, oklahoma, and texas, 2004. 200415554331
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2003.during 2003, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,170 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the cdc. this represents a 10% decrease from the 7,967 cases in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings reported in 2002. more than 91 (n = 6,556) were in wild animals, and 8.6% (614) were in domestic species (compared with 92.5% in wild animals and 74% in domestic species in 2002). the relative contributions of the major groups of animals were as follows: 2,635 raccoons ...200415643834
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2002.during 2002, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,967 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention, an increase of 7.2% from the 7,436 cases in non-human animals and 1 case in a human being reported in 2001. more than 92% (7,375 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 7.4% (592) were in domestic species (compared with 93.3% in wild animals and 6.7% in domestic species in 2001). compared with cases reported in 2001, the numbers of ...200314690203
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2001.during 2001, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,437 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the centers for disease control and prevention, an increase of < 1% from 7,364 cases in nonhuman animals and 5 human cases reported in 2000. more than 93% (6,939 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 6.7% (497 cases) were in domestic species (compared with 93.0% in wild animals and 6.9% in domestic species in 2000). the number of cases reported in 2001 increased among bats, cat ...200212494966
evaluating rabies exposure. 200111344926
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2000.during 2000, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,364 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 5 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention, an increase of 4.3% from 7,067 cases in nonhuman animals reported in 1999. ninety-three percent (6,855 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 6.9% (509 cases) were in domestic species (compared wth 91.5% in wild animals and 8.5% in domestic species in 1999). compared with cases reported in 1999, the numbe ...200111767918
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1999.during 1999, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,067 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals to the centers for disease control and prevention, a decrease of 11.2% from 7,961 cases in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being reported in 1998. more than 91% (6,466 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 8.5% (601 cases) were in domestic species (compared with 92.4% in wild animals and 7.6% in domestic species in 1998). no cases of rabies were reported in human beings in 1 ...200011132881
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1998.during 1998, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,961 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the centers for disease control and prevention, a decrease of 6.5% from 8,509 cases in nonhuman animals and 4 cases in human beings reported in 1997. more than 92% (7,358 cases) were in wild animals, whereas > 7.5% (603 cases) were in domestic species (compared with 93% in wild animals and 7% in domestic species in 1997). decreases were evident in al ...199910613210
human rabies--texas and new jersey, 1997.on october 19 and october 23, 1997, a man in texas and a man in new jersey, respectively, died from rabies. this report summarizes the clinical features of these cases and the epidemiologic investigations by the texas department of health and the new jersey state department of health and senior services, which indicated that a bat-associated variant of the rabies virus was responsible for infection in both cases.19989450721
from the centers for disease control and prevention. human rabies--texas and new jersey, 1997. 19989466619
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1997.in 1997, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 8,509 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 4 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention. nearly 93% (7,899) were wild animals, whereas 7% (610) were domestic species. the total number of reported cases increased 19.4% from that of 1996 (7,128 cases). increases were apparent in each of the major species groups, with the exception of cattle. the relative contributions of these groups to the total ...19989861958
molecular epidemiology of rabies epizootics in texas.texas is in the midst of two independent epizootics of rabies, involving coyotes (canis latrans) and domestic dogs (canis familiaris) in southern texas and grey foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) in west central texas. the domestic dog/coyote (ddc) and grey for (tf) rabies virus variants cannot be differentiated by antigenic typing with currently available monoclonal antibodies. these two variants also cannot be distinguished from a third variant, sonora dog (sd) rabies, that is not enzootic in te ...19979406651
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1996.in 1996, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,124 cases of rabies in non-human animals and 4 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention. nearly 92% (6,550 cases) were wild animals, whereas 8% (574 cases) were domestic species. the total number of reported cases decreased 9.6% from that of 1995 (7,881 cases). although much of the decline was the result of fewer reported cases of rabies in raccoons, fewer cases were also reported among most g ...19979412679
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1995.in 1995, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,877 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 4 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention. nearly 92% (7,247 cases) were wild animals, whereas 8% (630 cases) were domestic species. the total number of reported cases decreased 4.2% from that of 1994 (8,230 cases). most of the decline was the result of 17.1% fewer reported cases of rabies in raccoons in areas of the northeast, where rabies is now e ...19968960176
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1994.in 1994, 48 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 8,224 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 6 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention. nearly 93% (7,632 cases) were wild animals, whereas 7% (592 cases) were domestic species. the total number of reported cases decreased 13.4% from that of 1993 (9,498 cases), with most of the decline resulting from 19.2% fewer cases of rabies in raccoons. two previously described epizootics of rabies involvi ...19957493894
translocation of coyote rabies--florida, 1994.translocation of a rabies variant from one area to another has been identified increasingly in the united states. during november and december 1994, rabies was diagnosed in five dogs from two associated kennels in florida; in addition, two other dogs being kept at one of the kennels died with suspected, but unconfirmed, rabies. rabies virus recovered from the five dogs was identified as a variant not previously found in florida but endemic in coyotes (canis latrans) in south texas. the suspected ...19957623760
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1993.in 1993, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 9,495 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention. greater than 93% (8,889 cases) were wild animals, whereas 6.4% (606 cases) were domestic species. the total number of reported cases increased 9.9% over that of 1992 (8,645 cases), with most of the increase resulting from continued spread of rabies in raccoons (37.1% increase in reported cases over 1992). t ...19947744643
the epidemiology of bat rabies in new york state, 1988-92.in 1993 new york and texas each reported a human rabies case traced to a rare variant of rabies virus found in an uncommon species of bat. this study examined the epidemiology of bat rabies in new york state. demographic, species, and animal-contact information for bats submitted for rabies testing from 1988-92 was analysed. the prevalence of rabies in 6810 bats was 4.6%. nearly 90% of the 308 rabid bats identified to species were the common big brown bat (eptesicus fuscus), which comprised 62% ...19947995360
epizootic canine rabies transmitted by coyotes in south texas.prior to 1988, rabies was reported only sporadically in coyotes. however, in the final 4 months of 1988, starr county, tex, which is situated on the us-mexico border, experienced an epizootic of canine rabies, consisting of 6 laboratory-confirmed cases of rabies in coyotes and of 2 cases in domestic dogs. the first 3 cases were detected in coyotes, and the first case in a domestic dog was observed 84 days after the index case. adjacent hidalgo county reported 9 cases of rabies in dogs during the ...19948163414
naturally acquired rabies in an armadillo (dasypus novemcinctus) in texas.the first case of rabies in an armadillo is reported. the rabies fluorescent-antibody test and mouse inoculation procedure were used to substantiate the presence of the virus. the centers for disease control authenticated our findings and was able to determine the source of infection by monoclonal antibody typing.19892643619
geographic and seasonal distribution of rabies in skunks, foxes and bats in texas.the geographic and seasonal distributions of the pathobiocenoses formed by rabies virus, the biotic provinces of texas, and skunks, foxes and bats were described using synoptic mapping and enumeration by calendar month. autocorrelation functions with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the skunk pathobiocenose for lag periods up to 36 mo in length. the geographic distributions were fundamentally different, but all overlapped. the skunk and fox pathobiocenoses were associated with provin ...19827154216
airborne rabies virus isolation. 19684870805
recovery of rabies virus from colonial bats in texas. 195413186061
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2013.during 2013, 53 reporting jurisdictions reported 5,865 rabid animals and 3 human rabies cases to the cdc, representing a 4.8% decrease from the 6,162 rabid animals and 1 human case reported in 2012. ninety-two percent of reported rabid animals were wildlife. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 1,898 raccoons (32.4%), 1,598 bats (27.2%), 1,447 skunks (24.7%), 344 foxes (5.9%), 247 cats (4.2%), 86 cattle (1.5%), and 89 dogs (1.5%). one human case was reported from ma ...025356711
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