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long-term follow-up for immunity after monovalent or combined live measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccines.antibody in human subjects persisted without substantial decline for 8 years after mumps vaccine (jeryl lynn), for 6 years after measles (attenuvax), for 5 1/2 years after rubella vaccine (hpv-77 duck), for 5 years after measles-mumps-rubella and mumps-rubella combined vaccines, for 4 years after measles and rubella, and for 2 years after measles-mumps vaccines, the longest periods tested. protective immunity against mumps illness persisted through the eighth year. the patterns for antibody foll ...19751161394
influenza virus surveillance in waterfowl in pennsylvania after the h5n2 avian outbreak.during the latter stages of the lethal h5n2 influenza eradication program in domestic poultry in pennsylvania in 1983-84, surveillance of waterfowl was done to determine if these birds harbored influenza viruses that might subsequently appear in poultry. from late june to november 1984, 182 hemagglutinating viruses were isolated from 2043 wild birds, primarily ducks, in the same geographical area as the earlier lethal h5n2 avian influenza outbreak. the virus isolates from waterfowl included para ...19863015104
influenza viruses and paramyxoviruses in ducks in the atlantic flyway, 1977-1983, including an h5n2 isolate related to the virulent chicken virus.from 1977 to 1983, waterfowl migrating along the atlantic flyway were annually monitored for orthomyxoviruses and paramyxoviruses in an area in central new york state. a total of 168 influenza isolates were obtained from 1,430 waterfowl. twenty-four combinations of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtypes were detected, with as many as 12 found in a single year. one combination, an h5n2 isolate in 1982, was closely related to the virulent chicken virus that appeared in pennsylvania in 1983. the ...19853833237
isolation and molecular characterization of a new muscovy duck parvovirus from muscovy ducks in the usa.between 1997 and 1999 several cases of a new disease in muscovy ducks were reported in pennsylvania, usa. the cases were characterized by locomotor dysfunction, weakness, recumbency, 40 to 60% morbidity and 10 to 40% mortality. the most characteristic microscopic lesions were moderate to severe degenerative rhabodomyopathy. in order to characterize the aetiological agent, virus isolation was attempted from the spleen, liver, heart, skeletal muscle and intestine by inoculation of 14-day-old musco ...200617121731
to duck or not to duck: resistance advantages and disadvantages of the candy-cane stem phenotype in tall goldenrod, solidago altissima.solidago altissima populations consistently contain a minority of 'ducking', or 'candy-cane', stems. the goals of this study were to investigate whether these candy-cane stems may be an adaptation to resist herbivory, and to look for costs (namely, resistance tradeoffs or reduced reproduction) that might constrain the spread of the ducking trait. in this study, herbivory and seed set were recorded for 272 erect and 272 candy-cane stems in a field population of s. altissima. candy-cane plants wer ...200919496949
occurrence of duck virus enteritis (duck plague) in pennsylvania, 1968-74.during the 7-year period 1968-74 cases of duck virus enteritis (duck plague) were diagnosed in waterfowl in pennsylvania. muscovy ducks were affected in 8 cases, geese in 3 cases, and mallard ducks in 1 case. in 5 of these cases either domestic or wild ducks were closely associated with infected waterfowl but were unaffected.1975168855
organochlorine and heavy metal residues in black duck eggs from the atlantic flyway, 1978.black duck (anas rubripes) eggs were collected during 1978 in the atlantic flyway. one egg from each of 49 clutches was analyzed for organochlorine compounds and mercury. dde was detected in 39 eggs, ranging from 0.09 ppm to 3.4 ppm, wet weight. dde residues were highest in eggs from delaware, where the mean dde level was 2.0 ppm. ddt and tde were present at low levels in only five and four eggs, respectively. pcbs resembling aroclor 1260 were detected in 24 eggs and ranged from 0.43 ppm to 2.9 ...19807232104
receptor specificity of h5 influenza virus escape mutants.the binding of viruses to synthetic polyacrylamide (paa)-based sialylglycoconjugates was used to characterize the receptor specificities of antibody escape mutants of the influenza virus a/mallard/pennsylvania/10218/84 (h5n2). the sialylglycoconjugates that were used carried identical terminal neu5acalpha2-3gal moieties but differed in the structure of the next saccharide residue(s). our data show that mutations in the vicinity of the haemagglutinin (ha) receptor-binding site (rbs) effect the re ...200415019242
duck plague epizootics in the united states, 1967-1995.in 1967, the first confirmed diagnosis of duck plague (dp) in the usa was made from pekin ducks (anas platyrhynchos domesticus) on commercial duck farms on long island, new york. within 10 mo, dp was confirmed as the cause of death in migratory waterfowl on a long island bay. this paper reviews 120 dp epizootics reported from 1967 to 1995 that involved waterfowl species native to north america or were reported in areas with free-flying waterfowl at risk. duck plague epizootics occurred in 21 sta ...200111310887
influenza a viruses isolated from waterfowl in two wildlife management areas of pennsylvania.a survey was conducted at two wildlife management areas of pennsylvania (usa) to evaluate an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ac-elisa) for the detection of avian influenza viruses (aiv) in cloacal swabs from waterfowl and to determine the influenza a virus subtypes and the distribution of these viruses among waterfowl. we collected 330 cloacal swabs from hunter-killed waterfowl in the fall of 1990 and from cage-captured waterfowl in the summer of 1991. thirty-one hemagglutinat ...19958583635
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