the epidemiology of louping ill in ayrshire: the first year of studies in sheep. 196414128320
nitrogenous constituents of serum and urine in normal and scrapie sheep. 196514281671
a descriptive study of 'kangaroo gait' in sheep in northern britain.two questionnaires were undertaken to obtain improved knowledge of the signalment, incidence and risk factors of the condition termed 'kangaroo gait' (kg; a forelimb locomotor disorder of adult female sheep). the first survey was mailed to 221 veterinary surgeons in practices in northern britain which provided veterinary care for sheep, and the second was mailed to 438 sheep-flock owners and managers located in the scottish borders, who were recruited via their veterinary surgeons. responses of ...200314519343
soay rams target reproductive activity towards promiscuous females' optimal insemination period.female promiscuity is thought to have resulted in the evolution of male behaviours that confer advantages in the sperm competition that ensues. in mammalian species, males can gain a post-copulatory advantage in this sperm 'raffle' by inseminating females at the optimal time relative to ovulation, leading to the prediction that males should preferentially associate and copulate with females at these times. to the best of our knowledge, we provide the first high-resolution test of this prediction ...200314561297
scottish sheep scab initiative. 200314582736
a survey of anthelmintic resistant nematode parasites in scottish sheep flocks.the state of anthelmintic resistance in scottish sheep flocks was evaluated during april-august 2000 using in vitro bioassays, egg hatch assays for detecting thiabendazole (tbz) resistance and larval development assays for levamisole, ivermectin and tbz resistance. anaerobic sampling kits and detailed questionnaires outlining farm demographics and current management practices were mailed to 227 moredun foundation member farms, replies were received from 98 farms. kits received from 90 farms cont ...200314597280
epidemiology of salmonella enterica serovars enteritidis and typhimurium in animals and people in scotland between 1990 and 2001.two serovars of salmonella which are currently of particular importance in both human and animal infections are salmonella enterica serovars enteritidis phage type 4 (pt4) and typhimurium definitive type 104 (dt104). this paper describes the trends in the relationships between the levels of infection of people and a range of farm animal species with these two serovars and explores some of the reasons behind them. in 1996, there was a peak of 520 reports of s typhimurium dt104 infection in people ...200314620550
sir david monro, md (1813-1877), of new zealand: his antecedents and his descendants.david monro, md, was a son of the third professor monro of edinburgh. he went into practice in edinburgh and then emigrated to the nelson settlement in new zealand. there he practised a little medicine, but was mostly a gentleman sheep-farmer. he was a member of the first parliament of new zealand in 1854 and served as the second speaker, when he did much to set up proper standing orders for the colonial legislature. he was knighted in 1866.200414740022
the role of non-viraemic transmission on the persistence and dynamics of a tick borne virus--louping ill in red grouse ( lagopus lagopus scoticus) and mountain hares ( lepus timidus).there exist many tick borne infections that are of either economic or public health interest. mathematical models have previously been used to describe the dynamics of these infections. however it has recently come to light that there is an alternative mechanism for the transmission of these diseases that has not been considered in a modelling framework. this is transmission through ticks co-feeding on non-viraemic hosts. this paper extends a simple mathematical model to include this alternative ...200414745507
testing for maedi-visna. 200414994867
rising burden of immature sheep ticks (ixodes ricinus) on red grouse (lagopus lagopus scoticus) chicks in the scottish uplands.the sheep tick ixodes ricinus (l.) (acari: ixodidae) is an ectoparasite of major economic and pathogenic importance in scotland. its distribution in the scottish uplands is assumed to be governed by the abundance and distribution of its definitive hosts (deer and sheep) and climatic variables such as temperature and rainfall. as the numbers of its major host in scotland, red deer, have increased dramatically and climatic conditions have become more favourable, the level of parasitism could have ...200415009449
national survey for salmonella in pigs, cattle and sheep at slaughter in great britain (1999-2000).the objective of these surveys was to estimate the prevalence of faecal carriage of salmonella in healthy pigs, cattle and sheep at slaughter, and of pig carcase contamination with salmonella. these data can be used as a baseline against which future change in salmonella prevalence in these species at slaughter can be monitored.200415012813
red deer stocks in the highlands of scotland.grazing by hill sheep and red deer prevents the regeneration of woodland in many parts of the scottish highlands and has also led to extensive loss of heather cover. conservation bodies claim that there has been a rapid rise in highland deer numbers caused by inadequate management and that these need to be drastically reduced. here we show that the recent increase in red deer stocks has probably been overestimated and suggest that the gradual rise in numbers since 1970 may be a consequence of a ...200415152241
characterisation of two triple resistant field isolates of teladorsagia from scottish lowland sheep farms.the anthelmintic resistance status of two field isolates derived from farms (farm a and b) located near edinburgh were examined using both controlled efficacy tests (cet) and faecal egg count reduction tests (fecrt). efficacies against fenbendazole (fbz), levamisole (lev) and ivermectin (ivm) and, for one isolate, against combinations of these anthelmintics and moxidectin were determined in naïve lambs, artificially infected with the isolates and treated with the compounds at the manufacturers r ...200415325045
prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental pollutants in sewage sludge alters emotional reactivity and exploratory behaviour in order to find out whether exposure to environmental pollutants (ep) present in sewage sludge can change the behaviour of sheep, we compared the behaviour of two groups of 5-month old lambs (ovis aries) with respect to their emotional reactivity and exploratory behaviour. one group (treated, t) comprised the offspring of ewes who had been kept throughout their lives on pastures with slightly elevated, environmental levels of pollutants, as a result of the application of sewage sludge at rates ...200415336895
bacteriology and somatic cell counts in milk samples from ewes on a scottish farm.milk samples from 50 sheep on a single scottish research farm were collected weekly for 10 wk postpartum. samples were analyzed for somatic cell counts (scc) each week and bacteriologic culture was done for 7 of the 10 wk. a total of 492 udder half samples were cultured, of which 467 had corresponding cell count data. statistical analysis on complete scc and culture data showed no association between scc and bacterial isolation, even when more than 10 colonies of a single bacterial species were ...200415352543
modelling non-additive and nonlinear signals from climatic noise in ecological time series: soay sheep as an example.understanding how climate can interact with other factors in determining patterns of species abundance is a persistent challenge in ecology. recent research has suggested that the dynamics exhibited by some populations may be a non-additive function of climate, with climate affecting population growth more strongly at high density than at low density. however, we lack methodologies to adequately explain patterns in population growth generated as a result of interactions between intrinsic factors ...200415451687
cla survey in scotland. 200415461370
culicoides midge trap enhancement with animal odour baits in scotland.examples of the commercial trap mosquito magnet pro (mmp emitting attractant 1-octen-3-ol in carbon dioxide 500 ml/min generated from propane fuel), were run 24 h/day on the isle of skye, scotland, during june-august 2001 and evaluated for catching culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae). from 30 days trapping, the catch averaged 2626 +/- 1358 culicoides females/trap/day (mean +/- se, range 558 +/- 139 to 6088 +/- 3597, for five sets of six consecutive nights), predominantly the pest ...200415641999
contamination and compensation: gruinard as a 'menace to the mainland'.the decades-long contamination of gruinard island by anthrax is now a well-known part of the history of biological weapons (bw) development, as well as that of military encroachments in the scottish highlands and islands (and the authorities' rather less persistent efforts at damage limitation). some accounts have included the related episode, reportedly well-remembered by local people, of anthrax contamination on the mainland close to gruinard. this occurred in 1942--43, when bw experiments wer ...200415688884
maternal genetic effects set the potential for evolution in a free-living vertebrate population.heritable maternal effects have important consequences for the evolutionary dynamics of phenotypic traits under selection, but have only rarely been tested for or quantified in evolutionary studies. here we estimate maternal effects on early-life traits in a feral population of soay sheep (ovis aries) from st kilda, scotland. we then partition the maternal effects into genetic and environmental components to obtain the first direct estimates of maternal genetic effects in a free-living populatio ...200515715846
concentration and prevalence of escherichia coli o157 in sheep faeces at pasture in study the presence, numbers and virulence profiles of escherichia coli o157 in sheep faeces and validate the microbiological methods used to attain these data.200515715867
male mate choice influences female promiscuity in soay most animal species, males are predicted to compete for reproductive opportunities, while females are expected to choose between potential mates. however, when males' rate of reproduction is constrained, or females vary widely in 'quality', male mate choice is also predicted to occur. such conditions exist in the promiscuous mating system of feral soay sheep on st kilda, scotland, where a highly synchronized mating season, intense sperm competition and limitations on sperm production constrai ...200515734690
the foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in dumfries and galloway, 2001. 1: characteristics and control.the foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in dumfries and galloway in south-west scotland comprised 177 infected premises (ips) in 24 geographical clusters, and ran from march 1 until may 23, 2001. initial seeding of infection was by livestock (predominantly sheep) that had passed through longtown market in adjacent cumbria. thereafter, spread within existing, and to new, clusters was associated with the movement of personnel and vehicles, with further transmission by longtown market contacts and acro ...200515751571
the foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in dumfries and galloway, 2001. 2: serosurveillance, and efficiency and effectiveness of control procedures after the national ban on animal movements.after the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) epidemic in dumfries and galloway in south-west scotland in 2001, serosurveillance of sheep remaining in the 3 km radius protection zones around infected premises (ips), and within a 10 km radius of ips, revealed no evidence of infection. the epidemic was brought under control by a range of traditional techniques: slaughter of all animals on ips and of veterinary-assessed dangerous contacts (dcs), movement restrictions, biosecurity, tracing of potential sou ...200515765895
quantification of the escherichia coli o157 reservoir in grampian, scotland. 200515765897
dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (pcdd/fs and pcbs) in food from farms close to foot and mouth disease animal control the outbreak of foot and mouth disease, which occurred in the uk in early 2001, a large number of farm animals were slaughtered. where it was not possible to render or landfill the carcasses, they were destroyed by burning on open pyres, with wood, coal and other materials. uncontrolled combustion such as this is known to produce small quantities of dioxins and an investigation was made into whether, as a result of the burning, there was an elevation in the concentrations of these com ...200515798806
selection on mothers and offspring: whose phenotype is it and does it matter?reproductive and early life-history traits can be considered aspects of either offspring or maternal phenotype, and their evolution will therefore depend on selection operating through offspring and maternal components of fitness. furthermore, selection at these levels may be antagonistic, with optimal offspring and maternal fitness occurring at different phenotypic values. we examined selection regimes on the correlated traits of birth weight, birth date, and litter size in soay sheep (ovis ari ...200515807429
sheep farming in sutherland in the eighteenth century. 200215889509
natural cryptosporidium hominis infections in scottish cattle. 200515923554
modeling linkage disequilibrium in natural populations: the example of the soay sheep population of st. kilda, scotland.the use of linkage disequilibrium to localize the genes underlying quantitative traits has received considerable attention in the livestock genetics community over the past few years. this has resulted in the investigation of linkage disequilibrium structures of several domestic livestock populations to assess their potential use in fine-mapping efforts. however, the linkage disequilibrium structure of free-living populations has been less well investigated. as the direct evaluation of linkage d ...200515965254
the shetland islands scrapie monitoring and control programme: analysis of the clinical data collected from 772 scrapie suspects 1985-1997.there were 574 scrapie positive suspects (histopathological scrapie lesions present) and 198 scrapie negative suspects (histopathological scrapie lesions absent). the greatest number of scrapie cases were recorded in sheep of 2, 3 and 4 years of age which represented 17%, 36% and 23% of the scrapie positive suspects, respectively. the sign sensitivities and specificities for the ten recorded signs were, respectively: pruritus (62%, 42%), ataxia (23%, 74%), hyperaesthesia (32%, 74%), wool loss (2 ...200616045948
heterozygosity, inbreeding and neonatal traits in soay sheep on st kilda.we investigated whether birth weight and neonatal survival, a period within which 24% of all mortalities occur, were correlated with levels of inbreeding in st kilda soay sheep, using pedigree inbreeding coefficients and four marker-based estimators of inbreeding. none of the inbreeding estimators, either of the offspring, or of their mothers, explained significant variation in a lamb's birth weight or probability of surviving the neonatal period, suggesting low inbreeding depression for these t ...200516156810
glimpses of a hidden burden: hydatid disease in eighteenth-century scotland."hydatids" or watery cysts have been observed in animals and humans since ancient times, giving rise to frequent speculation as to their nature and origin. this essay focuses on an extremely rare clinical case managed at the edinburgh infirmary in 1785 by james gregory, professor of the theory of medicine. following the death of the patient, an autopsy disclosed lesions characteristic of a condition eventually labeled "echinococcosis of the liver," today one of the most common parasitic diseases ...200516184019
variation among faecal egg counts following natural nematode infection in scottish blackface lambs.faecal egg counts were examined in 2 flocks of naturally infected scottish blackface sheep in southern and central scotland. the distribution of mean counts was right skewed and similar to a gamma distribution. the counts varied with month, with mean counts rising from may to july, then falling but rising again in october, although data within each year did not always show such a clear pattern. there was no significant difference in mean egg count between the 2 farms examined. the distribution o ...200616209724
predictors of early survival in soay sheep: cohort-, maternal- and individual-level variation.a demographic understanding of population dynamics requires an appreciation of the processes influencing survival--a demographic rate influenced by parameters varying at the individual, maternal and cohort level. there have been few attempts to partition the variance in demography contributed by each of these parameter types. here, we use data from a feral population of soay sheep (ovis aries), from the island of st kilda, to explore the relative importance of these parameter types on early surv ...200516321784
respiratory disease causes losses in scottish cattle and poultry. 200616531579
in vivo prediction of internal fat weight in scottish blackface lambs, using computer tomography.from a calibration trial involving computer tomography (ct) scanning and dissection of 45 lambs, a prediction equation was derived to estimate total internal fat weight in scottish blackface lambs from measurements taken on cross-sectional ct images. using data from two cross-sectional images (at the hip and loin) internal fat can be predicted with relatively high accuracy (adjusted r(2) = 62.2%, r = 0.79). the derived equation was then used to predict internal fat weights in a further 427 scott ...200616533364
scientific community. bias claim stirs up ghost of dolly. 200616543428
prevalence and regional distribution of scab, lice and blowfly strike in great britain.the prevalence of psoroptic mange (sheep scab), louse infestation and blowfly strike in sheep in great britain between march 2003 and february 2004 was investigated by means of a retrospective postal survey, stratified by region. of the 3530 questionnaires sent out, 1067 were returned completed, a response rate of 30.2 per cent. overall, 9 per cent of the farmers reported at least one outbreak of scab, 10.7 per cent reported an outbreak of lice and 75 per cent reported at least one case of blowf ...200616751308
environmental coupling of selection and heritability limits evolution.there has recently been great interest in applying theoretical quantitative genetic models to empirical studies of evolution in wild populations. however, while classical models assume environmental constancy, most natural populations exist in variable environments. here, we applied a novel analytical technique to a long-term study of birthweight in wild sheep and examined, for the first time, how variation in environmental quality simultaneously influences the strength of natural selection and ...200616756391
gastrointestinal nematode species burdens and host mortality in a feral sheep population.every few years a large proportion of the feral sheep on hirta, st kilda die due to food shortage. the effects of malnutrition are exacerbated by gastrointestinal nematodes. as found in sheep flocks in mainland britain, teladorsagia circumcincta has long been considered the predominant and most pathogenic nematode species in all age classes of soay sheep. previous research indicated that intensity of this species showed a negative association with host age and comprised 75% of the entire gastroi ...200616817995
number of ovulations in texel x scottish hill ewes carrying the inverdale fecundity (fecx(i)) gene. 200616877682
descriptive spatial analysis of scrapie-affected flocks in great britain between january 1993 and december 2002.the spatial distribution of sheep flocks in great britain with confirmed clinical scrapie between january 1993 and december 2002 inclusive was investigated by using kernel density estimation and a cluster scan test statistic. six statistically significant clusters were identified: three were lower risk, and were centred on the north-western coast of scotland, the north-western coast of wales and the south yorkshire/pennine region; three were of higher risk, and were centred in the central south, ...200616891423
escherichia coli o157: burger bug or environmental pathogen?the three main pathways of escherichia coli o157 infection are foodborne, environmental (including direct contact with animals and their faeces and contaminated water supplies) or person to person contact. the disease is often nicknamed the 'burger bug' but it appears that environmental risk factors may be more important. in this study we use four techniques (outbreak analysis, case-control studies, disease mapping and quantitative microbial risk assessment (qmra)) to determine whether burgers o ...200616934897
epidemiology of parasitic protozoan infections in soay sheep (ovis aries l.) on st kilda.the feral soay sheep (ovis aries l.) population on hirta, st kilda, is host to a diverse component parasite community, but previous parasitological studies of the population have only focussed on the metazoan species. this paper reports the first epidemiological study of the protozoan species comprising cryptosporidium parvum, giardia duodenalis and 11 species of eimeria in soay sheep across 3 years of varying host population density. prevalence and intensity of almost all species of protozoa si ...200716978448
modelling the initial spread of foot-and-mouth disease through animal movements.livestock movements in great britain (gb) are well recorded and are a unique record of the network of connections among livestock-holding locations. these connections can be critical for disease spread, as in the 2001 epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in the uk. here, the movement data are used to construct an individual-farm-based model of the initial spread of fmd in gb and determine the susceptibility of the gb livestock industry to future outbreaks under the current legislative requir ...200617015320
nematodirosis frequently diagnosed in scottish lambs in june. 200617048366
deciphering the effects of climate on animal populations: diagnostic analysis provides new interpretation of soay sheep dynamics.soay sheep on the island of hirta exhibit periodic population collapses that have been proposed to result from nonlinear interactions between weather, population density, and age structure. here we employ a diagnostic approach to reanalyze the data from 1985 to 2004 and find that climate mainly affects the equilibrium population size, thus acting as a lateral perturbation. from this, we derive a simple energetic model for a population interacting with its food supply in the presence of variable ...200617109320
observations on the emergence of multiple anthelmintic resistance in sheep flocks in the south-east of scotland.multiple resistance to benzimidazole, imidazothiazole and macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics is an emerging problem in the south-east of scotland. the general management and nematode control strategies employed in four affected flocks (flocks 1-4) were investigated in an attempt to identify the risk factors which might have led to the appearance of production limiting disease associated with anthelmintic resistance. the important risk factors for multiple anthelmintic resistance could not be conf ...200717134836
livestock grazing affects the egg size of an insectivorous passerine.livestock grazing is a major driver of ecosystem change, and has been associated with significant declines in various bird species worldwide. in britain, there is particular concern that severe grazing pressure is deleteriously affecting vegetation and birds in upland regions. however, the mechanism by which grazing affects birds is unclear. here, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, that sheep grazing pressure affects the egg size of a common upland passerine: the meadow pipit anthus ...200517148198
climate, food, density and wildlife population growth rate.1. the aim of this study was to derive and evaluate a priori models of the relationship between annual instantaneous population growth rate (r) and climate. these were derived from the numerical response of annual r and food, and the effect of climate on a parameter in the numerical response. the goodness of fit of a range of such deductive models to data on annual r of soay sheep and red deer were evaluated using information-theoretic (aicc-based) analyses. 2. the analysis for sheep annual r sh ...200717302843
the evolutionary demography of ecological change: linking trait variation and population growth.population dynamics and evolutionary change are linked by the fundamental biological processes of birth and death. this means that population growth may correlate with the strength of selection, whereas evolutionary change can leave an ecological signature. we decompose population growth in an age-structured population into contributions from variation in a quantitative trait. we report that the distribution of body sizes within a population of soay sheep can markedly influence population dynami ...200717363672
unusual outbreak of orf affecting the body of sheep associated with plunge dipping. 200717369478
haemonchosis and teladorsagiosis in a scottish sheep flock putatively associated with the overwintering of hypobiotic fourth stage larvae.the cause of ill thrift and deaths was investigated in a group of 40 scottish lowground ewes, which had been treated with levamisole and then turned onto clean grazing after lambing, 6-8 weeks previously. concurrent haemonchosis and teladorsagiosis were diagnosed, putatively associated with the spring maturation of large numbers of hypobiotic larvae. ill thrift due to parasitic gastroenteritis consequently occurred in the lambs which had been turned onto the 'clean' grazing with their dams, desp ...200717531390
'crook' pipettes: embryonic emigrations from agriculture to reproductive biomedicine.while cloning, stem cells, and regenerative medicine are often imagined in a futurial idiom--as expectations, hype, hope and promises--this article approaches the remaking of genealogy in such contexts from a historical route. through a series of somewhat disparate historical connections linking australian sheep to the development of clinical ivf and the cloning of dolly at the roslin institute in scotland in 1996, this article explores the linkages through which agriculture, embryology, and rep ...200717543836
fewer cases of neonatal septicaemia in scottish calves. 200717694616
the transfer of radionuclides from saltmarsh vegetation to sheep tissues and milk.radionuclides released into the irish sea by the sellafield reprocessing plant are deposited onto tide-washed pastures along the western coast of the united kingdom. many of these pastures are grazed by sheep or cattle. this paper describes a controlled feeding study, in which saltmarsh vegetation harvested from close to the sellafield plant, was fed to lambs and adult female sheep for a period of 8 weeks. activity concentrations of (60)co, (95)nb, (106)ru, (134)cs, (137)cs, (238)pu, (239,240)pu ...200717765368
acute fasciolosis diagnosed in young scottish calves. 200717915379
increase in cases of malignant catarrhal fever in cattle in scotland. 200718018324
can the high levels of human verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli o157 infection in rural areas of ne scotland be explained by consumption of contaminated meat?to determine if contamination levels of escherichia coli o157 and generic e. coli in retail-minced meat products are greater in rural shops compared with urban shops in grampian, ne scotland. we also investigated whether meat from supermarkets and meat from local butcher shops had a similar bacteriological quality.200718045444
a localized negative genetic correlation constrains microevolution of coat color in wild sheep.the evolutionary changes that occur over a small number of generations in natural populations often run counter to what is expected on the basis of the heritability of traits and the selective forces acting upon them. in soay sheep, dark coat color is associated with large size, which is heritable and positively correlated with fitness, yet the frequency of dark sheep has decreased. this unexpected microevolutionary trend is explained by genetic linkage between the causal mutation underlying the ...200818202287
q fever in migrant workers, scotland. 200718258064
atypical scrapie in a sheep in scotland. 200818424849
environmental heterogeneity generates fluctuating selection on a secondary sexual any population in which resources are limiting, the allocation of resources toward increased reproductive success may generate costs to survival [1-8]. the relationship between a sexually selected trait and fitness will therefore represent a balance between its relative associations with fecundity versus viability [3, 6, 7]. because the risk of mortality in a population is likely to be heavily determined by ecological conditions, survival costs may vary as a function of the prevailing environ ...200818485708
control and management of sheep mange and pediculosis in great britain.the patterns of insecticide use for the prevention and control of sheep lice and psoroptes mites, in england, wales and scotland, in 2003-2004, were examined using data from a retrospective questionnaire. overall, 375 of the 966 (39%) farmers who responded said that they treated at least once to prevent louse infestation. for scab, 426 of the 966 (44%) farmers who responded said that they had treated prophylactically to prevent the disease. there were no significant differences between regions i ...200818495347
a histopathologic and immunohistochemical review of archived uk caprine scrapie 2005, a prion disease identified in a goat from france was reported to be consistent with disease from the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) agent. subsequent retrospective examination of uk goat scrapie cases led to the identification of one potentially similar, but as yet unconfirmed, case from scotland. these findings strengthened concerns that small ruminant populations exposed to the bse agent have become infected. the lack of data relating specifically to scrapie in goats has been ...200818587090
estimating the functional form for the density dependence from life history data.two contrasting approaches to the analysis of population dynamics are currently popular: demographic approaches where the associations between demographic rates and statistics summarizing the population dynamics are identified; and time series approaches where the associations between population dynamics, population density, and environmental covariates are investigated. in this paper, we develop an approach to combine these methods and apply it to detailed data from soay sheep (ovis aries). we ...200818589530
the distribution of the pathogenic nematode nematodirus battus in lambs is zero-inflated.understanding the frequency distribution of parasites and parasite stages among hosts is essential for efficient experimental design and statistical analysis, and is also required for the development of sustainable methods of controlling infection. nematodirus battus is one of the most important organisms that infect sheep but the distribution of parasites among hosts is unknown. an initial analysis indicated a high frequency of animals without n. battus and with zero egg counts, suggesting the ...200818620622
evidence for transplacental and contact transmission of bluetongue virus in cattle.this paper presents evidence that a field strain of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (btv-8) was transmitted transplacentally and that it was also spread by a direct contact route. twenty pregnant heifers were imported from the netherlands into northern ireland during the midge-free season. tests before and after the animals were imported showed that eight of them had antibodies to bluetongue virus, but no viral rna was detected in any of them by reverse transcriptase-pcr (rt-pcr). two of the seropos ...200818708653
back to the future: developing hypotheses on the effects of climate change on ovine parasitic gastroenteritis from historical data.although the influence of temperature and moisture on the free-living stages of gastrointestinal nematodes has been described in detail, and evidence for global climate change is mounting, serious attempts to relate altered incidence or seasonal patterns of disease to climate change are lacking. in great britain, veterinary surveillance laboratory diagnoses of ovine parasitic gastroenteritis (pge) have been categorised in species groups and recorded since 1975. here we present a detailed analysi ...200818824303
woodland restoration in scotland: ecology, history, culture, economics, politics and the latter half of the 20th century, native pine woodlands in scotland were restricted to small remnant areas within which there was little regeneration. these woodlands are important from a conservation perspective and are habitat for numerous species of conservation concern. recent developments have seen a large increase in interest in woodland restoration and a dramatic increase in regeneration and woodland spread. the proximate factor enabling this regeneration is a reduction in grazing p ...200918838205
aerococcus urinae in ovine reproductive disease. 200819011254
within-holding prevalence of sheep classical scrapie in great from the compulsory scrapie flocks scheme (csfs), part of the compulsory eradication measures for the control of scrapie in the eu, have been used to estimate the within-holding prevalence of classical scrapie in great britain (gb). specifically data from one of the testing routes within the csfs have been used; the initial cull (ic), whereby two options can be applied: the whole flock cull option by which the entire flock is depopulated, and the genotyping and cull of certain genotypes.200919133119
johne's disease commonly diagnosed in cattle in south-west scotland. 200919252211
attribution of campylobacter infections in northeast scotland to specific sources by use of multilocus sequence typing.we show that a higher incidence of campylobacteriosis is found in young children (age, <5 years) living in rural, compared with urban, areas. association of this difference with particular animal sources was evaluated using multilocus sequence typing. this evaluation was achieved by comparing campylobacter isolates originating from these children, retail poultry, and a range of animal sources by use of source attribution and phylogenetic analysis methods. the results indicate that chicken is a m ...200919265482
campylobacter genotypes from food animals, environmental sources and clinical disease in scotland 2005/6.a nationwide multi-locus sequence typing (mlst) survey was implemented to analyze patterns of host association among campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates from clinical disease in scotland (july 2005-september 2006), food animals (chickens, cattle, sheep, pigs and turkey), non-food animals (wild birds) and the environment. sequence types (sts) were determined for 5247 clinical isolates and 999 from potential disease sources (augmented with 2420 published sts). certain sts were ove ...200919269051
e. coli o157 from sheep in northeast scotland: prevalence, concentration shed, and molecular characterization by multilocus variable tandem repeat analysis.we report the prevalence, concentrations, and strain diversity of escherichia coli o157 shed by sheep fed on root crops during a winter period in northeast scotland. e. coli o157 was isolated on 6 farms from 14 studied during january to march 2005. the individual sheep prevalence was 5.8% and concentration excreted was <10(2) colony-forming units/g for all but one fecal sample. verocytotoxigenic e. coli o157, determined by polymerase chain reaction and verocell assay, was recovered from 27% of s ...200919292688
trading offspring size for number in a variable environment: selection on reproductive investment in female soay sheep.1. given energetic constraints, female reproductive strategy is expected to be shaped by a trade-off between offspring size and offspring number, the optimal resolution of which may vary with environmental conditions. 2. we tested the hypothesis that selection will favour the production of larger litters, even at some expense to offspring size, under good conditions (and vice versa in harsh environments) using data from a long-term study of an unmanaged population of soay sheep on the islands of ...200919302125
unusual cases of illthrift associated with pge in scottish cattle. 200919429934
sheep helminth parasitic disease in south eastern scotland arising as a possible consequence of climate change.the climate in the uk is changing, with a trend towards increased rainfall in the autumn and winter and warmer average temperatures throughout the year. there has also been a 4-week extension of the herbage growing season over the past 40 years. these changes may have implications for the epidemiology of sheep helminth parasites. here, we describe production-limiting disease outbreaks caused by haemonchus contortus, nematodirus battus, teladorsagia circumcincta and fasciola hepatica in sheep flo ...200919556065
ageing in a variable habitat: environmental stress affects senescence in parasite resistance in st kilda soay sheep.despite widespread empirical evidence for a general deterioration in the majority of traits with advancing age, it is unclear whether the progress of senescence is chronologically determined, or whether factors such as environmental conditions experienced over the lifespan are more important. we explored the relative importance of 'chronological' and 'environmental' measures of age to changes in parasite resistance across the lifespan of free-living soay sheep. our results show that individuals ...200919586947
causes of abortion in scottish sheep in 2009. 200919684343
spatiotemporal homogeneity of campylobacter subtypes from cattle and sheep across northeastern and southwestern scotland.source attribution using molecular subtypes has implicated cattle and sheep as sources of human campylobacter infection. whether the campylobacter subtypes associated with cattle and sheep vary spatiotemporally remains poorly known, especially at national levels. here we describe spatiotemporal patterns of prevalence, bacterial enumeration, and subtype composition in campylobacter isolates from cattle and sheep feces from northeastern (63 farms, 414 samples) and southwestern (71 farms, 449 sampl ...200919700557
mapping risk foci for endemic sheep scab.psoroptic mange in sheep, resulting from infestation by the astigmatid mite psoroptes ovis, is increasingly prevalent in europe and other parts of the world. as a step towards improved national control, regional or local scab management programmes that target high-risk areas and aim to maintain the number of outbreaks below an acceptable level may be an effective initial use of time and resource. to facilitate such a management approach, in this paper scab outbreak farms are identified using a q ...200919713045
coccidiosis in cattle, sheep and gamebirds in scotland. 200919717828
campylobacter excreted into the environment by animal sources: prevalence, concentration shed, and host intensive study of 443 isolates of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli from 2031 fecal samples excreted by animal sources including cattle, sheep, and pigs, a range of wild and domesticated avian species and pets is described. the prevalence found in the majority of animal sources ranged from 22% to 28% with poultry being highest at 41% and cats and dogs lowest (<5%). the average count excreted for each animal source was found not to be significantly different ranging from approximate ...200919839759
fasciolosis becoming more prevalent in cattle and sheep in scotland. 200919880859
investigation of a q fever outbreak in a scottish co-located slaughterhouse and cutting plant.outbreaks of q fever are rare in the uk. in 2006, the largest outbreak of q fever in scotland occurred at a co-located slaughterhouse and cutting plant with 110 cases. preliminary investigations pointed to the sheep lairage being the potential source of exposure to the infective agent. a retrospective cohort study was carried out among workers along with environmental sampling to guide public health interventions. a total of 179 individuals were interviewed of whom 66 (37%) were migrant workers. ...201019912614
diagnostic accuracy of pcr for jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus using field data from 125 scottish sheep flocks.using a representative sample of scottish sheep comprising 125 flocks, the sensitivity and specificity of pcr for jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (jsrv) was estimated. by combining and adapting existing methods, the characteristics of the diagnostic test were estimated (in the absence of a gold standard reference) using repeated laboratory replicates. as the results of replicates within the same animal cannot be considered to be independent, the performance of the pcr was calculated at individual re ...201119931475
variation in the hatching behaviour of nematodirus battus: polymorphic bet hedging?previous work on the transmission dynamics of nematodirus battus, an important nematode parasite of farmed ruminants in temperate regions, suggests that it operates a bet-hedging strategy. hatching of cold-sensitised eggs is concentrated in spring, while alternative hatching of non-cold-sensitised eggs in autumn mitigates the risk of poor conditions for hatching in spring or host absence during peak larval availability. isolates from scotland showed much less propensity to hatch without chilling ...201019944106
causes of abortion and stillbirth in cattle in scotland. 200919966330
continuous covariates in mark-recapture-recovery analysis: a comparison of methods.time varying, individual covariates are problematic in experiments with marked animals because the covariate can typically only be observed when each animal is captured. we examine three methods to incorporate time varying, individual covariates of the survival probabilities into the analysis of data from mark-recapture-recovery experiments: deterministic imputation, a bayesian imputation approach based on modeling the joint distribution of the covariate and the capture history, and a conditiona ...201020163405
streptococcus pluranimalium in ovine reproductive material. 201020173114
landscape with dead sheep: what they did to gruinard island. 2002. 200920178200
selenium toxicity causes paralysis in scottish pigs. 201020190214
multi-locus sequence types of campylobacter carried by flies and slugs acquired from local ruminant assess whether flies and slugs acquire strains of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli present in local ruminant faeces.201020337762
significant losses due to fasciolosis in scottish sheep flocks. 201020348466
risk of carcase contamination with campylobacter in sheep sent for slaughter into an abattoir in scotland.campylobacter species have been identified as the major cause of acute bacterial enteritis in the uk. however, the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis remains poorly understood. it has been suggested that the role of sheep in the epidemiology of campylobacter has been underestimated. the objective of the present study was to assess the infection risk of campylobacter in sheep meat as a potential risk for human campylobacteriosis and to establish any possible associations between the epidemiologic ...201020381181
cryptosporidiosis associated with wildlife center, scotland. 201020409402
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