Publications

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factors involved in middle ear infection (otitis media) in lambs. 19725079245
the epidemiology of louping ill in ayrshire, scotland. ii. ectoparasites of small mammals (ixodidae). 19715163209
epidemiological studies on salmonella senftenberg. ii. infections in farm animals. 19695278164
salmonellosis in man and animals in n.e. scotland. a ten year review--1959-1968. 19705461451
the reproductive efficiency of british breeds of sheep in an equatorial environment. 19705529154
variation in carrier rates of pasteurella haemolytica in sheep flocks. i. normal flocks. 19705531124
osteodystrophic diseases of sheep. iv. osteomalacia and osteoporosis in lactating ewes on west scotland hill farms. 19705531125
seasonal variations in ovine urinary constituents, with special reference to ph and potassium concentration. 19715577426
observations on the development of periodontal disease in hill sheep and the effect of selenium injections. 19685689041
studies on the epidemiology of ovine fasciolosis in scotland. 19685753139
brucellosis in sheep. 19695812825
the isolation of a haemolytic neisseria from cattle and sheep in the north of scotland. 19665948840
virus infections in cattle and sheep in scotland 1975-1978.over the four-year period 1975-78 attempts were made to identify virus in samples from 1231 outbreaks of disease in cattle, and 682 outbreaks of disease in sheep. a virus identification was possible in 26 per cent of these disease outbreaks. the nature and significance of these virus infections is discussed.19806244693
outbreak of listeria meningoencephalitis in young lambs.an outbreak of listeriosis occurred in five-week-old lambs in a flock of 200 dorset ewes and 240 lambs in-wintered. nine lambs were lost within a period of 10 days. no cases of stillbirth or abortion or cerebral listeriosis occurred in the ewes. silage had been fed on this farm to both cattle and sheep for 10 years without any previous problems. a description of the outbreak and the findings are reported.19836415890
cysts of sarcocystis tenella in north ronaldsay sheep. 19836419441
assessment of ram fertility in hill flocks in argyll.examination of 1260 rams, involving 1540 semen examinations, revealed that 9 per cent of rams in hill flocks in argyll were subfertile as assessed by semen evaluation. although 34 lesions of the genitalia were identified, only 13 were associated with poor semen quality. a five year survey of one blackface flock resulted in the elimination, after three years, of a 17 per cent level of infertility following routine examination of all rams, with an increase of 2.27 per cent in the lamb crop. based ...19846464323
autumn nematodiriasis. 19846516192
autumn nematodiriasis. 19846523718
role of enzootic abortion and toxoplasmosis in an outbreak of abortion in a scottish sheep flock.during 1978-79 there was an outbreak of abortion in a large sheep flock during which approximately 10 per cent of the breeding ewes aborted. both toxoplasma gondii and chlamydia ovis (the agent of enzootic abortion of ewes) were considered to be involved. in the year following this outbreak (1979-80), 156 ewes (11.4 per cent) aborted and the majority of cases were diagnosed as enzootic abortion: only one case showed gross pathology typical of toxoplasmosis. serology carried out on sera collected ...19836649377
the herring gull larus argentatus as a likely transmitting agent of salmonella montevideo to sheep and cattle.this paper presents evidence for the involvement of herring gulls (larus argentatus) as vectors in the recent outbreaks of salmonella montevideo in sheep and cattle in scotland and suggests that the transfer can take place over considerable distances. the breeding area in scotland of herring gulls which overwinter in n.e. england is remarkably similar to the geographical distribution of the outbreaks. this pattern, together with the feeding behaviour of herring gulls on farmland, the presence of ...19836663059
salmonella montevideo infection in sheep and cattle in scotland, 1970-81.outbreaks of abortion associated with infection by salmonella montevideo have affected sheep in the east, especially the south-east, of scotland each year since 1972. disease in the north and north-east was usually less severe. between 1 january 1970 and 31 december 1981, a total of 67 incidents affecting sheep were reported by veterinary laboratories to the communicable diseases (scotland) unit, 87% of which presented during the main lambing months of february, march and april. twenty-one episo ...19836833746
warble infestation of sheep. 19836836895
the diagnosis, occurrence and distribution of sheep pulmonary adenomatosis in scotland 1975 to 1981. 19836839123
copper poisoning in sheep from north ronaldsay maintained on a diet of terrestrial herbage.copper toxicity occurred in north ronaldsay sheep fed on a diet of terrestrial herbage relatively high in molybdenum. five sheep were taken from the island of north ronaldsay, orkney to the veterinary investigation centre at thurso and fed solely on the herbage of the laboratory paddocks, supplemented in winter by hay made from these paddocks. the level of copper, molybdenum, zinc and total sulphur in the terrestrial herbage was analysed, together with the seaweeds which form the major part of t ...19827147642
an accidental laboratory infection with trypanosomes of a defined stock. ii. studies on the serological response of the patient and the identity of the infecting organism. 19807185920
an outbreak of diarrhoea associated with cryptosporidiosis in naturally reared lambs. 19827186701
flies associated with cattle in south west scotland during the summer months.the sheep headfly, hydrotaea irritans, and morellia simplex were the species most frequently associated with cattle at pasture and comprised 69.01 per cent and 13.93 per cent, respectively, of the total fly collection made from grazing cattle. the most prevalent biting fly was haematobosca stimulans which comprised 4.46 per cent of the total catch. a few clegs, haematopota pluvialis, and horse flies, hybomitra distinguenda, were also recorded. a few of the headflies swarming around cattle entere ...19817244374
investigations on a babesia isolated from scottish sheep.the pathognomic, serologic and morphometric identity of a babesia sp. recently isolated from sheep in argyllshire was studied. initially, problems were encountered due to the occurrence of eperythrozoon ovis as a contaminant of the isolate and treatment with neoarsphenamine failed to remove it. finally, a combination of oxytetracycline therapy and rapid passage allowed isolation of the babesia sp. and its preservation in the form of a glycerolized, infected blood stabilate. inoculation of the st ...19817329723
a survey of sheep losses and their causes on commercial farms in the north of scotland.a three year survey on sheep deaths and their causes was conducted on 10 commercial farms in the north of scotland. diseases and other trauma associated with the perinatal period accounted for 56.81% of all ewe deaths, while pneumonia, parasitic gastroenteritis, torsion of the bowel and haemorrhagic enteritis (redgut) accounted for a further 21.7%. no one disease condition predominated in the rams and hoggs. in lambs, most deaths occurred between birth and four days old (77.86%). causes came in ...19807361390
the distribution of faecal nematode egg counts in scottish blackface lambs following natural, predominantly ostertagia circumcincta infection.faecal samples were taken in 2 consecutive years from scottish blackface lambs on a commercial farm in central scotland to examine variation among lambs in the number of nematode eggs in their faeces. samples were taken at intervals of 4 weeks from 1 to 5 months of age. lambs were treated with a broad-spectrum anthelmintic at each sample date. ewes and lambs were naturally infected by grazing pasture contaminated with mixed, predominantly ostertagia circumcincta, nematode species. the ewes were ...19957596641
molecular genetic variation and individual survival during population crashes of an unmanaged ungulate population.theoretical models of the effect of population bottlenecks on genetic variation assume that individuals are removed at random from the population. we investigated this assumption in a naturally regulated, unstable population of soay sheep (ovis aries). during rapid population declines or 'crashes', individuals were not removed at random with respect to genotype: we found associations between individual survival and certain genotypes at five polymorphic protein or microsatellite dna loci (ada, go ...19957777592
the association of a codon 136 prp gene variant with the occurrence of natural scrapie.incidence of both experimental and natural scrapie in sheep has been associated with polymorphisms of the prp gene. in case/control studies the prp allele which encodes valine at codon 136 (val136) is found in 96-100% of naturally infected scrapie sheep of shetland, scottish halfbred and blue du maine breeds. in contrast, in healthy animals from the same flocks, the most frequent allele encodes ala136 (91-100% of sheep). however val136 does not correlate with incidence of scrapie in two other fl ...19947979991
an outbreak of pregnancy toxaemia in a flock of scottish blackface sheep. 19938116171
identification of bloodmeals of the scottish biting midge, culicoides impunctatus, by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa).an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) has been developed to identify the bloodmeal sources of culicoides impunctatus goetghebuer. nightly light trapping in scotland, between april and september 1992, caught a total of 344 blood-engorged female c. impunctatus, all in may, june and july. the insects were stored in 70% ethanol and tested 5-7 months later. bloodmeal sources were positively identified for 246 (71.5%). bovine hosts were most common (38.4%), followed by deer (23.0%) and ...19948161839
lyme disease in scotland: results of a serological study in sheep. 19938212486
an estimate of the prevalence of enzootic abortion of ewes in scotland.the prevalence of enzootic abortion of ewes in scotland was estimated over a period of five years. between 1987 and 1991, 30.7 per cent of all flocks with breeding ewes in scotland submitted ovine abortion material, and of these flocks 28 per cent showed evidence of the infection, giving a prevalence of 8.6 per cent. regional differences were observed in both the submission rate and the prevalence.19938236713
oil on shetland. 19938456544
apparent resistance of p ovis to flumethrin. 19958525587
differentiation between human and ovine isolates of bordetella parapertussis using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.the genetic relatedness of 18 human and 29 ovine isolates of bordetella parapertussis was examined by macrorestriction digestion of dna with the rarely cutting enzyme xbai and resolution by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. there was clear separation of human and ovine isolates and variation within host types. the human isolates were separated into three types as were the 24 scottish ovine isolates. species-specific bands were observed with the human isolates at 114, 134, 166, 213, 346 and 372 k ...19968598269
bloodless castration of lambs: results of a questionnaire.interviews of nine flockmasters who used bloodless castrators to castrate lambs revealed wide variation in the size of castrator used and the techniques employed. eight flockmasters used inappropriately sized instruments which were cumbersome to operate and probably applied excessive crushing pressures over an unnecessarily large area of the lambs' scrotums. the methods of restraining lambs were often inefficient in terms of labour requirement. in 11 of 15 flocks, some lambs were not properly ca ...19968634865
leptospirosis in farm animals. 19968711882
insulin-like growth factors-i and -ii, somatotropin, prolactin, and placental lactogen are not acute effectors of lipolysis in ruminants.the acute regulation of lipolysis in the adipose tissue of ruminants was evaluated with lactating cows (n = 4) and growing ewe lambs (n = 11). subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained by biopsy or at slaughter and was incubated with varying concentrations of biologically active insulin-like growth factors-i and -ii (igf-i, igf-ii), somatotropin (st), prolactin (prl), or placental lactogen (pl) to determine the effect of these hormones on lipolysis. complimentary studies were conducted to examine ...19968738865
lyme disease in scotland. 19948778964
microbiological research at the centre for tropical veterinary medicine (ctvm).the nature of the research carried out by the staff of the microbiology section of the centre for tropical veterinary medicine (ctvm) at home and abroad is illustrated by precis of projects on rinderpest, orf in goats and sheep, bovine dermatophilosis, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, tick-borne fever in goats and sheep, bovine petechial fever, and caprine cowdriosis.19968815612
ovine psoroptic otoacariasis: an abattoir survey. 19968883348
acute fascioliasis in sheep. 19968890467
resistance of the sheep scab mite psoroptes ovis to propetamphos. 19968931304
intestinal torsion and red gut in sheep. 19968931306
the incidence and level of listeria monocytogenes contamination of food sources at primary production and initial processing.listeria monocytogenes was isolated in low numbers from a variety of environmental samples associated with the primary production of food, including vegetation, faeces and meat. the organism was rarely detected on growing grass and vegetables prior to processing. the excretion of l. monocytogenes by farm animals was linked to their diet, with animals fed entirely on hay or manufactured diets not excreting detectable levels of listeria (i.e. absence in 25 g). however, animals fed on silage, which ...19968972091
association between natural scrapie and prp genotype in a flock of suffolk sheep in scotland.the incidence of natural scrapie in sheep is associated with polymorphisms of the prp gene, particularly those at codons 136, 154 and 171. in many breeds, the prp allele encoding valine at codon 136 confers an extremely high risk of scrapie, but in suffolk sheep this allele is vanishingly rare. in this study of a single closed flock of suffolk sheep in scotland, scrapie occurred primarily in animals which were homozygous for glutamine at codon 171, a genotype which was significantly less frequen ...19979023905
cloning technique 'reveals legal loophole'. 19979039895
human cloning requires a moratorium, not a ban. 19979052767
scientists flock to hear cloner wilmut at the nih. 19979087453
clone sheds light on research, ethical questions. 19979140547
e coli o157: lessons of the scottish outbreak. 19979141219
roslin patents come under the spotlight. 19979153376
streamwater nitrate concentrations in six agricultural catchments in scotland.the concentrations of nitrate-n (no3-n) in catchment inputs and outputs have been compared and contrasted between 6 farm catchments in scotland, 3 in the west and 3 in the north-east. forms of intensive animal farming ranging between beef and dairy cattle, sheep and poultry give different sources for potential no3-n leakage from the systems. while stream reaches bordered by intensive cereal production give rise to the largest inputs to surface waters, climatic influences result in the more-effic ...19979232025
blowfly species composition in sheep myiasis in scotland.samples of dipteran larvae were collected from live sheep throughout scotland, reared in the laboratory, and identified once adult flies emerged. lucilia sericata was found in 77% of samples, and other species in 49%. the most common alternative species were l.caesar, which occurred in 31% of samples, and protophormia terraenovae, which occurred in 18%. three other calliphorid species, calliphora vomitoria, c.vicina and l.illustris, and the muscid muscina pabulorum were also found. the proportio ...19979330256
caseous lymphadenitis in a commercial ram stud in scotland. 19979413123
serological survey of chlamydial antibody in post-natal sera.questionnaires (3426; 72.8%) and blood samples (3890; 82.6%) were analysed from 4704 women post-natally. the answers to the questionnaire confirmed that those patients living in areas with the highest percentage employed in agriculture were most likely to be in direct or indirect contact with sheep or sheep products. when the 788 (20.3%) of the sera with group specific antibody were examined for type-specific antibody, 291 (7.5%) reacted with chlamydia trachomatis, 153 (3.9%) with chlamydia pneu ...19979459402
electrophoretic and antigenic characterisation of dermatophilus congolensis extracellular products.dermatophilus congolensis is the causative agent of bovine dermatophilosis and lumpy wool in sheep. two field isolates of d. congolensis, one each from a cow in ghana and a sheep in scotland, were cultured for 24-72 h in a synthetic medium based on rpmi-1640. culture filtrates were examined by sds-page and considered to contain extracellular products released by growing hyphae and filaments. electrophoretic profiles of culture filtrates of the two isolates contained common bands and bands that w ...19979460195
dolly researcher plans further experiments after challenges. 19989495322
little lamb, who made thee? a letter from edinburgh. 19989532398
tracing the origins of louping ill virus by molecular phylogenetic analysis.the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of louping ill (li) virus isolates, collected from representative regions of the british isles and norway, were determined for either the entire envelope gene (20 isolates) or for a portion of the envelope gene that spans a hypervariable region and includes an li virus specific marker sequence (53 isolates). phylogenetic analysis reveals the presence of three major geographical populations of li virus in the british isles, viz. irish, welsh and bri ...19989603312
molecular variation, evolution and geographical distribution of louping ill virus.following the demonstration that the tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) subgroup viruses are distributed as a cline across the northern hemisphere (zanotto et al., 1995), we have analyzed the dispersal pattern of louping ill (li) virus, the most westerly located member in the cline. a total number of 21 li or li-related virus e gene sequences have been used for a detailed molecular analysis of the evolution, phylogeny and geographical distribution of li virus in the british isles and ireland. the res ...19979607079
patent clash looming over cloning techniques? 19989697758
india's short cow drags roslin institute into controversy. 19989732859
natural prevalence of infection with ehrlichia (cytoecetes) phagocytophila of ixodes ricinus ticks in scotland.ixodes ricinus nymphs and adults were collected from vegetation and from sheep at four sites in scotland typical of areas endemic for tick-borne fever in sheep caused by infection with ehrlichia (cytoecetes) phagocytophila (rickettsiales). the great majority of ticks examined was from woodland sites adjacent to sheep farms where there was a high probability of them feeding on roe deer (capreolus capreolus) in a non-domestic focus of infestation and infection. ticks were examined for infection by ...19989760062
human but not ovine isolates of bordetella parapertussis are highly clonal as determined by pcr-based rapd fingerprinting.the dna fingerprints of 170 human isolates and ten ovine isolates of bordetella parapertussis were examined by arbitrarily-primed pcr/rapd with 29 primers. based on this technique, all the human isolates appear highly genetically homogeneous. the ovine isolates could be distinguished from human isolates and they showed diversity among themselves. therefore, human isolates of b. parapertussis are a highly clonal group adapted to infect humans and they are distinct from polymorphic ovine isolates.19989795782
the epidemiology of louping-ill, a tick borne infection of red grouse (lagopus lagopus scoticus).the epidemiology of louping-ill in red grouse was studied in northern britain concentrating on the possible role of other species and mechanisms of disease persistence. this tick borne viral disease caused heavy mortality in red grouse, particularly chicks. louping-ill induced mortality reduced the strength of the density dependence that generates the tendency of grouse populations to cycle and in some populations may cause population sinks. four routes of transmission were examined and non-vira ...19979802086
epidemiological study of paratuberculosis in wild rabbits in scotland.a survey of 22 farms confirmed the presence of paratuberculosis in wild rabbits in scotland. regional differences were apparent in the prevalence of the disease in rabbits, with a significantly higher incidence occurring in the tayside region. statistical analysis showed a significant relationship between a previous history or current problem of paratuberculosis in cattle and the presence of paratuberculosis in rabbits on the farms. molecular genetic typing techniques could not discriminate betw ...199910325318
the role of lambs in louping-ill virus amplification.in some areas of scotland, the prevalence of louping-ill virus has not decreased despite the vaccination of replacement ewes for over 30 years. the role of unvaccinated lambs in viral persistence was examined through a combination of an empirical study of infection rates of lambs and mathematical modelling. serological sampling revealed that most lambs were protected by colostral immunity at turnout in may/june but were fully susceptible by the end of september. between 8 and 83% of lambs were i ...200010726271
role of small mammals in the persistence of louping-ill virus: field survey and tick co-feeding studies.louping-ill (li) is a tick-borne viral disease of red grouse, lagopus lagopus scoticus lath. (tetraonidae: galliformes), and sheep, ovis aries l. (bovidae: artiodactyla), that causes economic loss to upland farms and sporting estates. unvaccinated sheep, grouse and mountain hares, lepus timidus l. (leporidae: lagomorpha), are known to transmit li virus, whereas red deer, cenrus elaphus l. (cervidae: artiodactyla), and rabbits, oryctolagus cuniculus l. (leporidae: lagomorpha), do not. however, th ...200011016435
prevalence of vacuolar lesions consistent with scrapie in the brains of healthy cull sheep of the shetland islands.to determine the levels of background scrapie-like pathology in the brains of clinically normal adult sheep, the brains of 1106 sheep from 28 known scrapie-infected flocks and nine apparently uninfected flocks were examined during 1998 and 1999. one per cent of the brains had vacuolar pathology and disease-specific accumulations of prion protein consistent with a diagnosis of scrapie. all the positive animals had at least one allele of the prion protein gene encoding valine at codon 136, and ori ...200011079439
arsenic metabolism in seaweed-eating sheep from northern scotland.cation exchange and anion exchange liquid chromatography were coupled to an icp-ms and optimised for the separation of 13 different arsenic species in body fluids (arsenite, arsenate, dimethylarsinic acid (dmaa), monomethylarsonic acid (mmaa), trimethylarsine oxide (tmao), tetramethylarsonium ion (tma), arsenobetaine (asb), arsenocholine (asc), dimethylarsinoyl ethanol (dmae) and four common dimethylarsinoylribosides (arsenosugars). the arsenic species were determined in seaweed extracts and in ...200011220824
an outbreak of e. coli o157 infection with evidence of spread from animals to man through contamination of a private water supply.an outbreak of e. coli o157 infection occurred in the highland region of scotland in the summer of 1999. the source of the outbreak was traced to an untreated private water supply. all six cases identified arose in visitors to the area, and most had very limited exposure to the contaminated water. permanent residents on the same supply were unaffected. the e. coli o157 isolates from the water, sheep faeces collected from around the source and the human stool samples were indistinguishable using ...200111293673
a survey of the prevalence of escherichia coli o157 in raw meats, raw cow's milk and raw-milk cheeses in south-east scotland.2429 samples of foodstuffs were examined for the presence of verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli o157 (vtec o157) by means of immunomagnetic separation (ims) over a 2-year period commencing april 1997. specimens comprised 1190 raw meats, 500 raw milks and 739 raw-milk cheeses. the meat and cheese samples were purchased from retail premises in south-east scotland; raw milk samples were obtained directly from farms. in addition, total e. coli counts were performed on milk and cheese samples, and th ...200111407549
anthelmintic-resistant nematodes in sheep in scotland. 200111497405
population dynamics of a scrapie outbreak.a detailed analysis of a scrapie outbreak in a flock of cheviot sheep is described. a total of 33 cases of 1473 sheep born to the flock were reported between 1985 and 1994. the epidemiology of scrapie can only be understood with reference to sheep demography, the population genetics of susceptibility to scrapie, pathogenesis during a long incubation period, and the rate of transmission (by both horizontal and vertical routes), all of which interact in complex ways. in recent work a mathematical ...200111504423
an epidemiological study of the relations between exposure to organophosphate pesticides and indices of chronic peripheral neuropathy and neuropsychological abnormalities in sheep farmers and dippers.to investigate the hypothesis that chronic low level exposure to organophosphates (ops) in sheep dips is related to clinically detectable measures of polyneuropathy.200111600725
the size and weight of cattle and sheep in early modern scotland. 198811616468
scottish scientists clone adult sheep: technique's use with humans is feared. 199711647144
with cloning of a sheep, the ethical ground shifts. 199711647276
one small step for a sheep. 199711656628
suffering of the lambs. 199711656635
positive genetic correlation between parasite resistance and body size in a free-living ungulate population.parasite resistance and body size are subject to directional natural selection in a population of feral soay sheep (ovis aries) on the island of st. kilda, scotland. classical evolutionary theory predicts that directional selection should erode additive genetic variation and favor the maintenance of alleles that have negative pleiotropic effects on other traits associated with fitness. contrary to these predictions, in this study we show that there is considerable additive genetic variation for ...200111761070
hepatic encephalopathy associated with cobalt deficiency and white liver disease in lambs. 200111808665
bse in sheep? humiliated lab fights to save face. 200211823623
increased risk of maedi-visna. 200212036248
landscape with dead sheep: what they did to gruinard island.in the context of intensified international concern about biological weapons (bw), this article looks at the pioneering british research in this field during the second world war, which caused the long-term contamination of gruinard island in north-west scotland. public record office documents have been examined to show how scientists reported on the experiments at the time and what they thought about their (top secret) work, as well as how politicians directed their efforts and used their resul ...200212044028
ringworm caused by trichophyton verrucosum--an emerging problem in sheep flocks. 200212092624
reporting of sheep lameness conditions to veterinarians in the scottish borders. 200212120925
survey of sheep nematode parasite control methods in south-east scotland. 200312553582
fine-scale genetic structure in a free-living ungulate population.the fine-scale genetic structure of wild animal populations has rarely been analysed, yet is potentially important as a confounding factor in quantitative genetic and allelic association studies, as well as having implications for population dynamics, inbreeding and kin selection. in this study, we examined the extent to which the three spatial subunits, or hefts, of the village bay population of soay sheep (ovis aries) on st kilda, scotland, are genetically structured using data from 20 microsa ...200312675828
the potential role of wild rabbits oryctolagus cuniculus in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in domestic ruminants.mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, the organism responsible for paratuberculosis in cattle and sheep has been found in wild rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) in the east of scotland. few studies have investigated either the level of faecal contamination by rabbits on farms, or the potential infectivity of rabbit excreta. the rate of rabbit faecal contamination deposited and the numbers encountered were estimated for 21 fields on 4 farms with a paratuberculosis problem. 7357 +/- 2571 ...200312825741
the risk of disease transmission to livestock posed by contamination of farm stored feed by wildlife excreta.livestock feed is susceptible to contamination from wildlife excreta during on farm storage. pathogens associated with diseases such as paratuberculosis, salmonella and cryptosporidiosis are present in wild rodent and bird excreta. feed stores on four farms in the east of scotland were monitored monthly over the winter of 1998/9 to quantify the levels of wildlife faecal contamination. a mean of 79.9 rodent (95% confidence interval: 37.5-165.9) and 24.9 (14.3-41.7) bird faeces were deposited per ...200312825742
biotechnology. sheep fail to produce golden fleece. 200312829753
nematodiriosis and spring teladorsagiosis in lambs. 200312846297
foot and mouth epidemic reduces cases of human cryptosporidiosis in scotland.in scotland, rates of cryptosporidiosis infection in humans peak during the spring, a peak that is coincident with the peak in rates of infection in farm animals (during lambing and calving time). here we show that, during the outbreak of foot and mouth disease (fmd) in 2001, there was a significant reduction in human cases of cryptosporidiosis infection in southern scotland, where fmd was present, whereas, in the rest of scotland, there was a reduction in cases that was not significant. we asso ...200312934196
a preliminary investigation of photosensitization in scottish sheep. 196414105239
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