an accidental laboratory infection with trypanosomes of a defined stock. ii. studies on the serological response of the patient and the identity of the infecting organism. 19807185920
an assessment of the risks to the health of grazing animals from the radioactive contamination of a result of the chernobyl accident sheep and cattle in wales, cumbria and scotland became contaminated with radionuclides of caesium and iodine. in the worst case, the maximum levels of contamination were of the order of 4000 bq/kg of caesium-137 and 2000 bq/kg of caesium-134 in muscle and 2,000,000 bq/kg of iodine-131 in the thyroid gland. calculations show that the radiation dose rates to the animals from these burdens of the radionuclides of caesium would have been approximately one thousa ...19892736377
flies associated with cattle in south west scotland during the summer months.the sheep headfly, hydrotaea irritans, and morellia simplex were the species most frequently associated with cattle at pasture and comprised 69.01 per cent and 13.93 per cent, respectively, of the total fly collection made from grazing cattle. the most prevalent biting fly was haematobosca stimulans which comprised 4.46 per cent of the total catch. a few clegs, haematopota pluvialis, and horse flies, hybomitra distinguenda, were also recorded. a few of the headflies swarming around cattle entere ...19817244374
turkey problems herald christmas. 19892694581
a survey of sheep losses and their causes on commercial farms in the north of scotland.a three year survey on sheep deaths and their causes was conducted on 10 commercial farms in the north of scotland. diseases and other trauma associated with the perinatal period accounted for 56.81% of all ewe deaths, while pneumonia, parasitic gastroenteritis, torsion of the bowel and haemorrhagic enteritis (redgut) accounted for a further 21.7%. no one disease condition predominated in the rams and hoggs. in lambs, most deaths occurred between birth and four days old (77.86%). causes came in ...19807361390
a myopathy of sheep associated with sarcocystis infection and monensin outbreak of muscle disease affected approximately 20 of 600 ewes in spring 1987 in south-east scotland. the clinical signs were a flaccid paralysis of the hind limbs and in severe cases collapse. serum creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities were increased. clinically affected sheep had a mean reciprocal serum antibody titre in a sarcocystis immunofluorescence antibody test of 557 whereas 22 sheep from the same flock, sampled one year earlier, showed a mean reciprocal titre ...19892501929
molecular biology lies down with the lamb. 19902371561
causes of death in the native sheep of north ronaldsay, orkney. ii. lambs.investigation showed that the common causes of death in north ronaldsay lambs were trauma due to behavioural patterns and starvation/hypothermia due in part to poor condition of the ewes.19902331591
causes of death and illness in the native sheep of north ronaldsay, orkney. i. adult examinations on 71 native sheep found dead on the island of north ronaldsay, orkney in four visits between april 1983 and july 1985 were carried out. the sheep in this almost feral flock have access to a small area of unmanaged moorland pasture but are otherwise restricted to the foreshore where they subsist largely on laminaria spp. and other seaweeds. young adult animals died largely of heavy parasite burdens combined with inadequate nutrition, while the older sheep often starved b ...19902331590
use of long-acting oxytetracycline against pasteurellosis in lambs.the efficacy of long-acting oxytetracycline in the control of pneumonic pasteurellosis in lambs was tested on seven scottish farms. after laboratory confirmation of pasteurella-related deaths in lambs, half the lambs in each flock were given long-acting oxytetracycline (20 mg/kg intramuscularly) and half were left untreated. on three farms a single treatment was given and on four farms two doses were administered four days apart. eighteen of the 878 control lambs died as a result of confirmed pa ...19902321337
alexander wood (1725-1807): deacon of the incorporation of surgeons, surgeon-in-ordinary, edinburgh royal infirmary, and 'doctor of mirth'.this account of the edinburgh surgeon, alexander wood (1725-1807), brings together information from a number of sources including the diaries of his friend and patient, james boswell, and anecdotes recorded by james paterson who wrote the biographical notes for kay's portraits. wood was a fashionable eccentric who took a sheep and raven on his home visits and he was as popular with the poor and working classes as he was with more well-to-do patients. he was a deacon of the incorporation of surge ...19883067353
an estimate of the prevalence of enzootic abortion of ewes in scotland.the prevalence of enzootic abortion of ewes in scotland was estimated over a period of five years. between 1987 and 1991, 30.7 per cent of all flocks with breeding ewes in scotland submitted ovine abortion material, and of these flocks 28 per cent showed evidence of the infection, giving a prevalence of 8.6 per cent. regional differences were observed in both the submission rate and the prevalence.19938236713
ram fertility in south-west scotland. 19883345416
apparent resistance of p ovis to flumethrin. 19958525587
incidence of rupture of the liver in neonatal lambs in the north of scotland. 19863487877
liver fluke in great britain: a survey of affected livers.over a period of 15 months data were collected from abattoirs in great britain on 213,082 cattle and 362,838 sheep livers to determine the distribution and prevalence of damage by fasciola hepatica. the stock came from 8239 farms, and from livestock markets in 81 counties. 53 per cent of the farms had sent affected stock, with significant percentages in eastern as well as the western counties of england and scotland. 21 per cent of all cattle and 7 per cent of all sheep livers examined were affe ...19751202744
leptospirosis in farm animals. 19968711882
an investigation into dystocia in a south country cheviot abnormally high incidence of dystocia was encountered in the south country cheviot flock at the hill farming research organisation's research station at sourhope, yetholm, roxburghshire over the past four years, 1970 to 1973. lambing records were only available for 1972 and 1973 for sourhope ewes and gimmers of all breeds and showed the following: (see article) this meant that in terms of attention and vigilance, a high shepherding input was necessary with the south country cheviot flock. int ...19751202743
a census of the prevalence of vaginal prolapse in sheep flocks in the borders region of scotland.a postal census of vaginal prolapse in sheep flocks in the borders region of scotland yielded 540 replies from 963 owners (56 per cent). there were 262,250 ewes in 976 flocks and 2573 vaginal prolapses were reported. analysis of the data revealed that 390 (40 per cent) of the flocks had no vaginal prolapses and in 237 (24.3 per cent) the reported prevalence was between 0.1 per cent and 1.0 per cent. only 63 (6.5 per cent) of flocks had a greater than 5 per cent prevalence of vaginal prolapses. t ...19873617413
microbiological research at the centre for tropical veterinary medicine (ctvm).the nature of the research carried out by the staff of the microbiology section of the centre for tropical veterinary medicine (ctvm) at home and abroad is illustrated by precis of projects on rinderpest, orf in goats and sheep, bovine dermatophilosis, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, tick-borne fever in goats and sheep, bovine petechial fever, and caprine cowdriosis.19968815612
observation of 110m ag in chernobyl fallout. 19863736660
acute fascioliasis in sheep. 19968890467
resistance of the sheep scab mite psoroptes ovis to propetamphos. 19968931304
intestinal torsion and red gut in sheep. 19968931306
the incidence and level of listeria monocytogenes contamination of food sources at primary production and initial processing.listeria monocytogenes was isolated in low numbers from a variety of environmental samples associated with the primary production of food, including vegetation, faeces and meat. the organism was rarely detected on growing grass and vegetables prior to processing. the excretion of l. monocytogenes by farm animals was linked to their diet, with animals fed entirely on hay or manufactured diets not excreting detectable levels of listeria (i.e. absence in 25 g). however, animals fed on silage, which ...19968972091
some aspects of tick-borne diseases of british sheep.the significance of tick-borne fever (tbf) and other tick-borne diseases of british sheep are reviewed. experimental and field studies were carried out to clarify the role of tbf as a pathogen per se and as a predisposing factor in other diseases. experimental tbf infection caused anorexia and depression in two- to three-week-old lambs, which under the stress of a hill environment could alone be a cause of mortality. nine out of 10 lambs experimentally inoculated with staphylococcus aureus durin ...19863754669
further investigations of a hydatid focus in north-west scotland.a serological survey carried out on 1379 school-children from skye and mallaig in the n.w. of scotland failed to show evidence of subclinical cases of hydatidosis. there appeared to be a relatively low level of exposure to the parasite, as judged by elisa and iha tests. thirty-one children reacted positively in the elisa; only one child had a transient positive result in the iha test. surveillance of these children will be continued for the present but the duration required is uncertain. the loc ...19863950391
observations on watery mouth in newborn lambs. 19853995251
scientists flock to hear cloner wilmut at the nih. 19979087453
clone sheds light on research, ethical questions. 19979140547
e coli o157: lessons of the scottish outbreak. 19979141219
a survey of sheep sera for antibodies to an ovine strain of parainfluenza 3 virus. 19694309313
a serological examination of scottish strains of louping ill and their relation to other members of the complex. 19664964505
role of enzootic abortion and toxoplasmosis in an outbreak of abortion in a scottish sheep flock.during 1978-79 there was an outbreak of abortion in a large sheep flock during which approximately 10 per cent of the breeding ewes aborted. both toxoplasma gondii and chlamydia ovis (the agent of enzootic abortion of ewes) were considered to be involved. in the year following this outbreak (1979-80), 156 ewes (11.4 per cent) aborted and the majority of cases were diagnosed as enzootic abortion: only one case showed gross pathology typical of toxoplasmosis. serology carried out on sera collected ...19836649377
the herring gull larus argentatus as a likely transmitting agent of salmonella montevideo to sheep and cattle.this paper presents evidence for the involvement of herring gulls (larus argentatus) as vectors in the recent outbreaks of salmonella montevideo in sheep and cattle in scotland and suggests that the transfer can take place over considerable distances. the breeding area in scotland of herring gulls which overwinter in n.e. england is remarkably similar to the geographical distribution of the outbreaks. this pattern, together with the feeding behaviour of herring gulls on farmland, the presence of ...19836663059
salmonella montevideo infection in sheep and cattle in scotland, 1970-81.outbreaks of abortion associated with infection by salmonella montevideo have affected sheep in the east, especially the south-east, of scotland each year since 1972. disease in the north and north-east was usually less severe. between 1 january 1970 and 31 december 1981, a total of 67 incidents affecting sheep were reported by veterinary laboratories to the communicable diseases (scotland) unit, 87% of which presented during the main lambing months of february, march and april. twenty-one episo ...19836833746
an outbreak of diarrhoea associated with cryptosporidiosis in naturally reared lambs. 19827186701
investigations on a babesia isolated from scottish sheep.the pathognomic, serologic and morphometric identity of a babesia sp. recently isolated from sheep in argyllshire was studied. initially, problems were encountered due to the occurrence of eperythrozoon ovis as a contaminant of the isolate and treatment with neoarsphenamine failed to remove it. finally, a combination of oxytetracycline therapy and rapid passage allowed isolation of the babesia sp. and its preservation in the form of a glycerolized, infected blood stabilate. inoculation of the st ...19817329723
the distribution of faecal nematode egg counts in scottish blackface lambs following natural, predominantly ostertagia circumcincta infection.faecal samples were taken in 2 consecutive years from scottish blackface lambs on a commercial farm in central scotland to examine variation among lambs in the number of nematode eggs in their faeces. samples were taken at intervals of 4 weeks from 1 to 5 months of age. lambs were treated with a broad-spectrum anthelmintic at each sample date. ewes and lambs were naturally infected by grazing pasture contaminated with mixed, predominantly ostertagia circumcincta, nematode species. the ewes were ...19957596641
molecular genetic variation and individual survival during population crashes of an unmanaged ungulate population.theoretical models of the effect of population bottlenecks on genetic variation assume that individuals are removed at random from the population. we investigated this assumption in a naturally regulated, unstable population of soay sheep (ovis aries). during rapid population declines or 'crashes', individuals were not removed at random with respect to genotype: we found associations between individual survival and certain genotypes at five polymorphic protein or microsatellite dna loci (ada, go ...19957777592
molecular variation, evolution and geographical distribution of louping ill virus.following the demonstration that the tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) subgroup viruses are distributed as a cline across the northern hemisphere (zanotto et al., 1995), we have analyzed the dispersal pattern of louping ill (li) virus, the most westerly located member in the cline. a total number of 21 li or li-related virus e gene sequences have been used for a detailed molecular analysis of the evolution, phylogeny and geographical distribution of li virus in the british isles and ireland. the res ...19979607079
the association of a codon 136 prp gene variant with the occurrence of natural scrapie.incidence of both experimental and natural scrapie in sheep has been associated with polymorphisms of the prp gene. in case/control studies the prp allele which encodes valine at codon 136 (val136) is found in 96-100% of naturally infected scrapie sheep of shetland, scottish halfbred and blue du maine breeds. in contrast, in healthy animals from the same flocks, the most frequent allele encodes ala136 (91-100% of sheep). however val136 does not correlate with incidence of scrapie in two other fl ...19947979991
india's short cow drags roslin institute into controversy. 19989732859
natural prevalence of infection with ehrlichia (cytoecetes) phagocytophila of ixodes ricinus ticks in scotland.ixodes ricinus nymphs and adults were collected from vegetation and from sheep at four sites in scotland typical of areas endemic for tick-borne fever in sheep caused by infection with ehrlichia (cytoecetes) phagocytophila (rickettsiales). the great majority of ticks examined was from woodland sites adjacent to sheep farms where there was a high probability of them feeding on roe deer (capreolus capreolus) in a non-domestic focus of infestation and infection. ticks were examined for infection by ...19989760062
an outbreak of pregnancy toxaemia in a flock of scottish blackface sheep. 19938116171
the epidemiology of louping-ill, a tick borne infection of red grouse (lagopus lagopus scoticus).the epidemiology of louping-ill in red grouse was studied in northern britain concentrating on the possible role of other species and mechanisms of disease persistence. this tick borne viral disease caused heavy mortality in red grouse, particularly chicks. louping-ill induced mortality reduced the strength of the density dependence that generates the tendency of grouse populations to cycle and in some populations may cause population sinks. four routes of transmission were examined and non-vira ...19979802086
epidemiological study of paratuberculosis in wild rabbits in scotland.a survey of 22 farms confirmed the presence of paratuberculosis in wild rabbits in scotland. regional differences were apparent in the prevalence of the disease in rabbits, with a significantly higher incidence occurring in the tayside region. statistical analysis showed a significant relationship between a previous history or current problem of paratuberculosis in cattle and the presence of paratuberculosis in rabbits on the farms. molecular genetic typing techniques could not discriminate betw ...199910325318
identification of bloodmeals of the scottish biting midge, culicoides impunctatus, by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa).an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) has been developed to identify the bloodmeal sources of culicoides impunctatus goetghebuer. nightly light trapping in scotland, between april and september 1992, caught a total of 344 blood-engorged female c. impunctatus, all in may, june and july. the insects were stored in 70% ethanol and tested 5-7 months later. bloodmeal sources were positively identified for 246 (71.5%). bovine hosts were most common (38.4%), followed by deer (23.0%) and ...19948161839
lyme disease in scotland: results of a serological study in sheep. 19938212486
prevalence of vacuolar lesions consistent with scrapie in the brains of healthy cull sheep of the shetland determine the levels of background scrapie-like pathology in the brains of clinically normal adult sheep, the brains of 1106 sheep from 28 known scrapie-infected flocks and nine apparently uninfected flocks were examined during 1998 and 1999. one per cent of the brains had vacuolar pathology and disease-specific accumulations of prion protein consistent with a diagnosis of scrapie. all the positive animals had at least one allele of the prion protein gene encoding valine at codon 136, and ori ...200011079439
oil on shetland. 19938456544
differentiation between human and ovine isolates of bordetella parapertussis using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.the genetic relatedness of 18 human and 29 ovine isolates of bordetella parapertussis was examined by macrorestriction digestion of dna with the rarely cutting enzyme xbai and resolution by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. there was clear separation of human and ovine isolates and variation within host types. the human isolates were separated into three types as were the 24 scottish ovine isolates. species-specific bands were observed with the human isolates at 114, 134, 166, 213, 346 and 372 k ...19968598269
bloodless castration of lambs: results of a questionnaire.interviews of nine flockmasters who used bloodless castrators to castrate lambs revealed wide variation in the size of castrator used and the techniques employed. eight flockmasters used inappropriately sized instruments which were cumbersome to operate and probably applied excessive crushing pressures over an unnecessarily large area of the lambs' scrotums. the methods of restraining lambs were often inefficient in terms of labour requirement. in 11 of 15 flocks, some lambs were not properly ca ...19968634865
anthelmintic-resistant nematodes in sheep in scotland. 200111497405
insulin-like growth factors-i and -ii, somatotropin, prolactin, and placental lactogen are not acute effectors of lipolysis in ruminants.the acute regulation of lipolysis in the adipose tissue of ruminants was evaluated with lactating cows (n = 4) and growing ewe lambs (n = 11). subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained by biopsy or at slaughter and was incubated with varying concentrations of biologically active insulin-like growth factors-i and -ii (igf-i, igf-ii), somatotropin (st), prolactin (prl), or placental lactogen (pl) to determine the effect of these hormones on lipolysis. complimentary studies were conducted to examine ...19968738865
lyme disease in scotland. 19948778964
the size and weight of cattle and sheep in early modern scotland. 198811616468
ovine psoroptic otoacariasis: an abattoir survey. 19968883348
association between natural scrapie and prp genotype in a flock of suffolk sheep in scotland.the incidence of natural scrapie in sheep is associated with polymorphisms of the prp gene, particularly those at codons 136, 154 and 171. in many breeds, the prp allele encoding valine at codon 136 confers an extremely high risk of scrapie, but in suffolk sheep this allele is vanishingly rare. in this study of a single closed flock of suffolk sheep in scotland, scrapie occurred primarily in animals which were homozygous for glutamine at codon 171, a genotype which was significantly less frequen ...19979023905
human cloning requires a moratorium, not a ban. 19979052767
bracken retinopathy in sheep. 19724515549
an epidemiological survey of infectious necrotic hepatitis (black disease) of sheep in southern scotland. 19734591586
hepatic encephalopathy associated with cobalt deficiency and white liver disease in lambs. 200111808665
blowfly species composition in sheep myiasis in scotland.samples of dipteran larvae were collected from live sheep throughout scotland, reared in the laboratory, and identified once adult flies emerged. lucilia sericata was found in 77% of samples, and other species in 49%. the most common alternative species were l.caesar, which occurred in 31% of samples, and protophormia terraenovae, which occurred in 18%. three other calliphorid species, calliphora vomitoria, c.vicina and l.illustris, and the muscid muscina pabulorum were also found. the proportio ...19979330256
increased risk of maedi-visna. 200212036248
landscape with dead sheep: what they did to gruinard the context of intensified international concern about biological weapons (bw), this article looks at the pioneering british research in this field during the second world war, which caused the long-term contamination of gruinard island in north-west scotland. public record office documents have been examined to show how scientists reported on the experiments at the time and what they thought about their (top secret) work, as well as how politicians directed their efforts and used their resul ...200212044028
ringworm caused by trichophyton verrucosum--an emerging problem in sheep flocks. 200212092624
reporting of sheep lameness conditions to veterinarians in the scottish borders. 200212120925
caseous lymphadenitis in a commercial ram stud in scotland. 19979413123
serological survey of chlamydial antibody in post-natal sera.questionnaires (3426; 72.8%) and blood samples (3890; 82.6%) were analysed from 4704 women post-natally. the answers to the questionnaire confirmed that those patients living in areas with the highest percentage employed in agriculture were most likely to be in direct or indirect contact with sheep or sheep products. when the 788 (20.3%) of the sera with group specific antibody were examined for type-specific antibody, 291 (7.5%) reacted with chlamydia trachomatis, 153 (3.9%) with chlamydia pneu ...19979459402
the potential role of wild rabbits oryctolagus cuniculus in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in domestic ruminants.mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, the organism responsible for paratuberculosis in cattle and sheep has been found in wild rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) in the east of scotland. few studies have investigated either the level of faecal contamination by rabbits on farms, or the potential infectivity of rabbit excreta. the rate of rabbit faecal contamination deposited and the numbers encountered were estimated for 21 fields on 4 farms with a paratuberculosis problem. 7357 +/- 2571 ...200312825741
electrophoretic and antigenic characterisation of dermatophilus congolensis extracellular products.dermatophilus congolensis is the causative agent of bovine dermatophilosis and lumpy wool in sheep. two field isolates of d. congolensis, one each from a cow in ghana and a sheep in scotland, were cultured for 24-72 h in a synthetic medium based on rpmi-1640. culture filtrates were examined by sds-page and considered to contain extracellular products released by growing hyphae and filaments. electrophoretic profiles of culture filtrates of the two isolates contained common bands and bands that w ...19979460195
biotechnology. sheep fail to produce golden fleece. 200312829753
dolly researcher plans further experiments after challenges. 19989495322
little lamb, who made thee? a letter from edinburgh. 19989532398
a preliminary investigation of photosensitization in scottish sheep. 196414105239
the epidemiology of louping ill in ayrshire: the first year of studies in sheep. 196414128320
nitrogenous constituents of serum and urine in normal and scrapie sheep. 196514281671
tracing the origins of louping ill virus by molecular phylogenetic analysis.the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of louping ill (li) virus isolates, collected from representative regions of the british isles and norway, were determined for either the entire envelope gene (20 isolates) or for a portion of the envelope gene that spans a hypervariable region and includes an li virus specific marker sequence (53 isolates). phylogenetic analysis reveals the presence of three major geographical populations of li virus in the british isles, viz. irish, welsh and bri ...19989603312
patent clash looming over cloning techniques? 19989697758
scottish sheep scab initiative. 200314582736
human but not ovine isolates of bordetella parapertussis are highly clonal as determined by pcr-based rapd fingerprinting.the dna fingerprints of 170 human isolates and ten ovine isolates of bordetella parapertussis were examined by arbitrarily-primed pcr/rapd with 29 primers. based on this technique, all the human isolates appear highly genetically homogeneous. the ovine isolates could be distinguished from human isolates and they showed diversity among themselves. therefore, human isolates of b. parapertussis are a highly clonal group adapted to infect humans and they are distinct from polymorphic ovine isolates.19989795782
epidemiology of salmonella enterica serovars enteritidis and typhimurium in animals and people in scotland between 1990 and 2001.two serovars of salmonella which are currently of particular importance in both human and animal infections are salmonella enterica serovars enteritidis phage type 4 (pt4) and typhimurium definitive type 104 (dt104). this paper describes the trends in the relationships between the levels of infection of people and a range of farm animal species with these two serovars and explores some of the reasons behind them. in 1996, there was a peak of 520 reports of s typhimurium dt104 infection in people ...200314620550
the role of lambs in louping-ill virus some areas of scotland, the prevalence of louping-ill virus has not decreased despite the vaccination of replacement ewes for over 30 years. the role of unvaccinated lambs in viral persistence was examined through a combination of an empirical study of infection rates of lambs and mathematical modelling. serological sampling revealed that most lambs were protected by colostral immunity at turnout in may/june but were fully susceptible by the end of september. between 8 and 83% of lambs were i ...200010726271
role of small mammals in the persistence of louping-ill virus: field survey and tick co-feeding studies.louping-ill (li) is a tick-borne viral disease of red grouse, lagopus lagopus scoticus lath. (tetraonidae: galliformes), and sheep, ovis aries l. (bovidae: artiodactyla), that causes economic loss to upland farms and sporting estates. unvaccinated sheep, grouse and mountain hares, lepus timidus l. (leporidae: lagomorpha), are known to transmit li virus, whereas red deer, cenrus elaphus l. (cervidae: artiodactyla), and rabbits, oryctolagus cuniculus l. (leporidae: lagomorpha), do not. however, th ...200011016435
arsenic metabolism in seaweed-eating sheep from northern scotland.cation exchange and anion exchange liquid chromatography were coupled to an icp-ms and optimised for the separation of 13 different arsenic species in body fluids (arsenite, arsenate, dimethylarsinic acid (dmaa), monomethylarsonic acid (mmaa), trimethylarsine oxide (tmao), tetramethylarsonium ion (tma), arsenobetaine (asb), arsenocholine (asc), dimethylarsinoyl ethanol (dmae) and four common dimethylarsinoylribosides (arsenosugars). the arsenic species were determined in seaweed extracts and in ...200011220824
rising burden of immature sheep ticks (ixodes ricinus) on red grouse (lagopus lagopus scoticus) chicks in the scottish uplands.the sheep tick ixodes ricinus (l.) (acari: ixodidae) is an ectoparasite of major economic and pathogenic importance in scotland. its distribution in the scottish uplands is assumed to be governed by the abundance and distribution of its definitive hosts (deer and sheep) and climatic variables such as temperature and rainfall. as the numbers of its major host in scotland, red deer, have increased dramatically and climatic conditions have become more favourable, the level of parasitism could have ...200415009449
national survey for salmonella in pigs, cattle and sheep at slaughter in great britain (1999-2000).the objective of these surveys was to estimate the prevalence of faecal carriage of salmonella in healthy pigs, cattle and sheep at slaughter, and of pig carcase contamination with salmonella. these data can be used as a baseline against which future change in salmonella prevalence in these species at slaughter can be monitored.200415012813
red deer stocks in the highlands of scotland.grazing by hill sheep and red deer prevents the regeneration of woodland in many parts of the scottish highlands and has also led to extensive loss of heather cover. conservation bodies claim that there has been a rapid rise in highland deer numbers caused by inadequate management and that these need to be drastically reduced. here we show that the recent increase in red deer stocks has probably been overestimated and suggest that the gradual rise in numbers since 1970 may be a consequence of a ...200415152241
characterisation of two triple resistant field isolates of teladorsagia from scottish lowland sheep farms.the anthelmintic resistance status of two field isolates derived from farms (farm a and b) located near edinburgh were examined using both controlled efficacy tests (cet) and faecal egg count reduction tests (fecrt). efficacies against fenbendazole (fbz), levamisole (lev) and ivermectin (ivm) and, for one isolate, against combinations of these anthelmintics and moxidectin were determined in naïve lambs, artificially infected with the isolates and treated with the compounds at the manufacturers r ...200415325045
an outbreak of e. coli o157 infection with evidence of spread from animals to man through contamination of a private water outbreak of e. coli o157 infection occurred in the highland region of scotland in the summer of 1999. the source of the outbreak was traced to an untreated private water supply. all six cases identified arose in visitors to the area, and most had very limited exposure to the contaminated water. permanent residents on the same supply were unaffected. the e. coli o157 isolates from the water, sheep faeces collected from around the source and the human stool samples were indistinguishable using ...200111293673
bacteriology and somatic cell counts in milk samples from ewes on a scottish farm.milk samples from 50 sheep on a single scottish research farm were collected weekly for 10 wk postpartum. samples were analyzed for somatic cell counts (scc) each week and bacteriologic culture was done for 7 of the 10 wk. a total of 492 udder half samples were cultured, of which 467 had corresponding cell count data. statistical analysis on complete scc and culture data showed no association between scc and bacterial isolation, even when more than 10 colonies of a single bacterial species were ...200415352543
modelling non-additive and nonlinear signals from climatic noise in ecological time series: soay sheep as an example.understanding how climate can interact with other factors in determining patterns of species abundance is a persistent challenge in ecology. recent research has suggested that the dynamics exhibited by some populations may be a non-additive function of climate, with climate affecting population growth more strongly at high density than at low density. however, we lack methodologies to adequately explain patterns in population growth generated as a result of interactions between intrinsic factors ...200415451687
a survey of the prevalence of escherichia coli o157 in raw meats, raw cow's milk and raw-milk cheeses in south-east scotland.2429 samples of foodstuffs were examined for the presence of verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli o157 (vtec o157) by means of immunomagnetic separation (ims) over a 2-year period commencing april 1997. specimens comprised 1190 raw meats, 500 raw milks and 739 raw-milk cheeses. the meat and cheese samples were purchased from retail premises in south-east scotland; raw milk samples were obtained directly from farms. in addition, total e. coli counts were performed on milk and cheese samples, and th ...200111407549
population dynamics of a scrapie outbreak.a detailed analysis of a scrapie outbreak in a flock of cheviot sheep is described. a total of 33 cases of 1473 sheep born to the flock were reported between 1985 and 1994. the epidemiology of scrapie can only be understood with reference to sheep demography, the population genetics of susceptibility to scrapie, pathogenesis during a long incubation period, and the rate of transmission (by both horizontal and vertical routes), all of which interact in complex ways. in recent work a mathematical ...200111504423
an epidemiological study of the relations between exposure to organophosphate pesticides and indices of chronic peripheral neuropathy and neuropsychological abnormalities in sheep farmers and investigate the hypothesis that chronic low level exposure to organophosphates (ops) in sheep dips is related to clinically detectable measures of polyneuropathy.200111600725
maternal genetic effects set the potential for evolution in a free-living vertebrate population.heritable maternal effects have important consequences for the evolutionary dynamics of phenotypic traits under selection, but have only rarely been tested for or quantified in evolutionary studies. here we estimate maternal effects on early-life traits in a feral population of soay sheep (ovis aries) from st kilda, scotland. we then partition the maternal effects into genetic and environmental components to obtain the first direct estimates of maternal genetic effects in a free-living populatio ...200515715846
scottish scientists clone adult sheep: technique's use with humans is feared. 199711647144
with cloning of a sheep, the ethical ground shifts. 199711647276
the foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in dumfries and galloway, 2001. 1: characteristics and control.the foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in dumfries and galloway in south-west scotland comprised 177 infected premises (ips) in 24 geographical clusters, and ran from march 1 until may 23, 2001. initial seeding of infection was by livestock (predominantly sheep) that had passed through longtown market in adjacent cumbria. thereafter, spread within existing, and to new, clusters was associated with the movement of personnel and vehicles, with further transmission by longtown market contacts and acro ...200515751571
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