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human babesiosis in new york state: an epidemiological description of 136 cases.epidemiological data on 136 cases of human babesiosis reported from laboratories and clinicians in the state of new york from 1982 to 1991 were reviewed. all but two patients, who had traveled to nantucket island in massachusetts, acquired disease in suffolk county, long island. the highest average age-group-specific annual incidence rates occurred among men > or = 80 years of age (7.72 per 100,000) and among women 70-79 years of age (3.61 per 100,000). seven patients (5%) had previously undergo ...19921457632
serologic survey for borrelia burgdorferi antibody in horses referred to a mid-atlantic veterinary teaching hospital.blood samples obtained from 13 of 100 (13%) and 6 of 91 (7%) horses at the george d. widener hospital for large animals in the months of june and october, respectively, had antibody to borrelia burgdorferi as determined by elisa. horses from the states of new york, maryland, delaware, new jersey, and pennsylvania were seropositive for b burgdorferi. the frequency of antibody response in horses from new jersey was greater (p less than 0.05) than the frequency of antibody response in horses from p ...19902332371
ticks parasitizing humans in a lyme disease endemic area of southern new york state.a total of 126 tick specimens were submitted by tick bite victims to the westchester county department of health, white plains, new york, and to the new york medical college, medical entomology laboratory, armonk, new york, during 1985. these included 96 (76.2%) ixodes dammini, 26 (20.6%) dermacentor variabilis, and two (1.6%) amblyomma americanum. i. dammini parasitism was reported during all months of the year except december and february and involved all life stages. only d. variabilis adults ...19883189288
borreliosis in equids in northeastern united states.during 1982 and 1985, blood samples from 705 equids were examined for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi. by indirect immunofluorescence staining, igm and total immunoglobulin (igm and igg) antibodies were detected in 37 (5.3%) and 90 (12.8%) serum specimens, respectively. the geometric mean titer for igm antibody (140.4) was highest during july, whereas total immunoglobulin ranged from 94.1 in october to 338 in may. eighty-six equids with total immunoglobulin to b burgdorferi lived in areas of ...19883282461
serologic analyses of peromyscus leucopus, a rodent reservoir for borrelia burgdorferi, in northeastern united states.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and indirect fluorescent-antibody test were used to detect antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, in peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse). of the 661 mice captured in connecticut, rhode island, and new york during 1980 and 1983 to 1987, 166 (25.1%) had antibodies to b. burgdorferi by elisa. comparative analyses of 210 serum specimens, collected in areas where lyme disease is endemic, revealed a threefold differenc ...19883384925
spirochetes in ticks and antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in white-tailed deer from connecticut, new york state, and north carolina.ticks were screened for spirochetes and serum samples from white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were assayed for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi during 1983-1984. using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled rabbit antibodies produced to b. burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme disease, spirochetes were detected in ixodes dammini (10.5% of 1,193) and dermacentor albipictus (0.6% of 157) adults from connecticut, i. dammini nymphs (49.1% of 108) and adults (64.7% of 99) from armonk, new yo ...19863520030
the prevalence and significance of borrelia burgdorferi in the urine of feral reservoir hosts.live borrelia burgdorferi were isolated from the blood and/or urine of white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) collected on shelter island, new york, in 1984 and 1985. prevalence of spirochetes in urine was consistently higher than in blood or both fluids simultaneously. spirochetes remained viable for 18-24 hours in urine and were maintained in culture for one week. mice removed from the field were spirocheturic for at least 13 months. one spirocheturic mouse developed spirochetemia one month a ...19863577491
comparison of rates of infection by the lyme disease spirochete in selected populations of ixodes dammini and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).at a major endemic focus in new jersey, 50% of 290 adult ixodes dammini collected in the fall of 1984 were infected with the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi), which was statistically higher than the rate found in the 202 adult ticks (39.6%) examined during the spring. neither sex nor site of collection within the focus significantly affected the infection rate. the observed infection rates were similar to those reported in endemic areas of new york and connecticut. borrelia burgdor ...19863577494
prevalence of ixodes dammini near the homes of lyme disease patients in westchester county, new york.cases of lyme disease that occurred in westchester county, an affluent suburb north of new york city, in 1983 were investigated in 1983 and 1984 to determine the presence of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) in the vicinity of the patients' homes. small mammal trapping, drag cloth, and carbon dioxide-baited tick traps were used to sample ticks. in all but one of 11 cases investigated, i. dammini was found on or near well-maintained lawns in the immediate vicinity of the residences. a mark-release ...19883354547
clinical and geographic characteristics of lyme disease in new york.the clinical and geographic characteristics of 679 patients who met the clinical definition of lyme disease and who had antibody titers of greater than or equal to 1: 128 to borrelia burgdorferi for a two year period, 1983-1984, are described. males outnumbered females 60% to 40% for the two year period and nearly half of all cases were children and young adults nineteen years old or younger. forty percent of the patients reported single or multiple tick bites prior to the onset of illness and t ...19873591104
occupational risk of lyme disease in endemic areas of new york state.although lyme disease (ld) is the most common tick-borne disease in the united states, little is known about the frequency of and risk factors for infection with borrelia burgdorferi in occupational groups. in 1986, we recruited primarily outdoor workers from six employee groups in southeastern new york where ld is endemic. of 414 participants who completed questionnaires and had blood samples tested for antibodies against b. burgdorferi by elisa and western immunoblot, 27 (6.5%) were seropositi ...19883190100
the geographic distribution of lyme disease in the united states.in 1982, national surveillance for lyme disease was established by the centers for disease control to monitor trends and determine endemic geographic areas. initially, the endemic areas corresponded to the known distribution of ixodes dammini, a five-state area of the northeastern seaboard (new york, new jersey, connecticut, rhode island, and massachusetts) and wisconsin and minnesota. increasing numbers of cases have been reported outside these areas, however, 86% of the provisional 5731 cases ...19883190099
antigenically variable borrelia burgdorferi isolated from cottontail rabbits and ixodes dentatus in rural and urban areas.spirochetes were isolated from 71 subadult ixodes dentatus removed from cottontail rabbits captured in millbrook, n.y., and in new york, n.y. spirochetes were also cultured from kidney tissues of six rabbits. while all isolates reacted with monoclonal antibody h9724, which identifies the spirochetes as borreliae, more than half did not bind with antibody h5332 and even fewer reacted with h3ts, both of which were produced to outer surface protein a of borrelia burgdorferi. sodium dodecyl sulfate- ...19892913024
host associations of ticks (acari: ixodidae) parasitizing medium-sized mammals in a lyme disease endemic area of southern new york.ticks of eight medium-sized mammal species were studied in an area of endemic lyme disease in westchester county, n.y., from 1 april 1984 to 31 march 1985. most (81%) of the 266 total mammal captures were raccoon, procyon lotor (l.) (47%), opossum, didelphis virginiana (kerr) (19%), and striped skunk, mephitis mephitis schreber (15%); these host species accounted for 91% of the 1,519 ticks collected. although the total number of ticks was rather evenly distributed among these mammals, species co ...19892724317
habitat distribution of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) an lyme disease spirochetes on fire island, new york.the distributions of ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman, and corwin and lyme disease spirochetes were studied on fire island, n.y. adult ticks were more common in high-shrub habitats (shrubby vegetation greater than or equal to 1 m high) than in grassy and lowshrub habitats (vegetation less than 1 m) in spring and fall. in the fall, adults were also common in the woods. adults were more abundant on narrow trails than in nearby vegetation. during the summer, questing nymphs and larvae wer ...19892724316
lyme disease in childhood: clinical and epidemiologic features of ninety cases.in 1982 and 1983 practicing pediatricians in a lyme disease-endemic county, reported 90 cases of lyme disease among children 19 years of age and younger (median age, 9 years). three-fourths of the children had initial symptom onset in the summer months, with peak incidence in july. infection occurred twice as often in boys than in girls, and tick bites were recalled by less than half (49%) of the children or parents. erythema chronicum migrans was present in two-thirds (67%) of the cases with me ...19902300409
interlaboratory and intralaboratory comparisons of indirect immunofluorescence assays for serodiagnosis of lyme disease.a conventional indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) and an anticomplement indirect immunofluorescence assay (acif) for detecting serum antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in humans were evaluated during a prevalence survey in northern california. sera obtained from 119 current or former residents of an area in which lyme disease is endemic were split and tested by the ifa in two laboratories and the acif in a third. the seropositivity rate ranged from 15 to 20% with 88 to 93% agreement among l ...19902203813
comparative analysis of genetic variability among borrelia burgdorferi isolates from europe and the united states by restriction enzyme analysis, gene restriction fragment length polymorphism, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.the genomes of 62 north american and european borrelia burgdorferi isolates were examined by restriction endonuclease analysis (rea), gene probe restriction fragment length polymorphism, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge). hybridization of restriction fragments with the immunologically relevant 83-kda antigen gene revealed polymorphisms and divided the isolates into three major groups. group i included all but two of the american isolates and some of the european isolates. one of two ca ...19937905881
evaluation of host-targeted acaricide for reducing risk of lyme disease in southern new york state.a 2-yr evaluation of a commercial product designed to reduce the risk of lyme disease by delivering permethrin-treated cotton to white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) was conducted at three sites in westchester county, n.y., an area where lyme disease is endemic. we examined the numbers of host-seeking nymphal ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin, the numbers of larval i. dammini infesting mice, and the proportion of nymphs infected with borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent ...19911941916
the geographic spread and temporal increase of the lyme disease epidemic.to describe the temporal and geographic progression of the lyme disease epidemic in new york state from 1977 through 1989.19911870248
perspective on the development of vaccines against lyme disease.lyme disease, the multisystem illness caused by the tick-borne spirochaete, borrelia burgdorferi, has emerged as a threat to public health worldwide. it is a particularly vexing problem in the united states where it is growing in range and intensity. in fact, in some hyperendemic regions of new york and new england, lyme disease is now such a threat that it interferes with all sorts of outdoor activities, and has even led to depreciation of real estate values. family dogs in these areas seem to ...19911771965
persistence of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in dogs of new york and connecticut.multiple blood samples were obtained from privately owned dogs living in tick-infested areas of new york (westchester county) and connecticut, where lyme disease in human beings has been reported. of the 175 dogs examined, 127 (72.6%) had limb/joint disorder, whereas the remaining 48 dogs were considered healthy. results of analysis of 419 serum samples revealed igm antibody to borrelia burgdorferi in healthy and lame dogs during all seasons. prevalence of seropositivity was significantly (p les ...19902329074
dna analysis of borrelia burgdorferi nch-1, the first northcentral u.s. human lyme disease isolate.the dna of the first northcentral united states human lyme disease isolate, borrellia burgdorferi nch-1, was characterized and compared with the dnas of nine other b. burgdorferi isolates. strain nch-1 was isolated in august 1989 from a human skin biopsy specimen. dna was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and restriction endonuclease analysis. contour-clamped homogeneous electric field pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of in situ-lysed cells was performed to compare the plasmid profile ...19921551988
ixodes dammini and borrelia burgdorferi in northern new england and upstate new york. 19873585637
deer, ticks, and lyme disease. 19921574226
clinical and serologic studies of canine borreliosis.during 1984 and 1985, blood samples were obtained from 271 dogs that were suspected of having borreliosis. the dogs lived in areas known to be infested with ticks and had been examined because of limb/joint disorders or for unknown illnesses marked by fever, anorexia, or fatigue. lameness had been the most frequently reported clinical manifestation. analyses of serum specimens, by an indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) method or by an elisa, detected antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi, the etiol ...19873319989
incidence and prevalence of lyme disease in a suburban westchester county community.this study was designed to determine the incidence and prevalence of lyme disease in a section of chappaqua, ny, a residential community in which lyme disease is epidemic, and to identify risk factors for this disease. on the basis of clinical history and baseline serologic testing, the overall prevalence of lyme disease for 114 persons entering the study was 8.8%. the incidence during the 5-month study period of may through september 1989 was 2.6%; all three incident cases had erythema migrans ...19921574232
new borrelia burgdorferi antigenic variant isolated from ixodes dammini from upstate new york.a previously undescribed borrelia burgdorferi antigenic variant was isolated from each of four ixodes dammini larvae removed from white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus, captured in millbrook, n.y. this site is in the northern range of the known distribution of the tick in the northeastern united states. the molecular weights of approximately 32,500 and 35,500 for outer surface a and outer surface b proteins, respectively, were distinctly higher than those for previously characterized isolates f ...19883183008
a comparison of methods for sampling the deer tick, ixodes dammini, in a lyme disease endemic area.the purpose of this study was to compare the trapping and examining of mice, drag sampling, and co2-baited traps for their ability to detect the presence and abundance of immature deer ticks, ixodes dammini, in a lyme disease endemic area in southern new york state. eight study sites were sampled 14 times between 28 may and 31 august by setting 49 live-traps, four co2-baited traps, and drag sampling 500 m2. a total of 1540 nymphs and 3079 larvae was collected during the study. drag sampling coll ...19921638929
potential for exposure to tick bites in recreational parks in a lyme disease endemic area.eight recreational parks located in a lyme disease endemic area of southern new york state were surveyed for the presence of ticks during the summer of 1985 by drag sampling. ixodes dammini, the primary vector of lyme disease in the northeast, was found in all but one park and accounted for 580 (91.8 per cent) of the 632 ticks collected. of these, 18 per cent were larvae, 80 per cent were nymphs, and 2 per cent were adults. an i. dammini encounter distance, defined as the mean number of meters t ...19892909174
detection of borrelia burgdorferi dna in museum specimens of ixodes dammini ticks.in order to investigate the potential for borrelia burgdorferi infection before the recognition of lyme disease as a clinical entity, the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to examine museum specimens of ixodes dammini (deer ticks) for the presence of spirochete-specific dna sequences. one hundred and thirty-six archival tick specimens were obtained representing various continental u.s. locations; dna sequences characteristic of modern day isolates of b. burgdorferi were detected in 13 194 ...19902402635
the role of medium-sized mammals as reservoirs of borrelia burgdorferi in southern new york.the ability of raccoons (procyon lotor), striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) and opossums (didelphis virginiana) to serve as reservoirs of borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of lyme disease, was compared with that of white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus). twenty-eight (28) medium-sized mammals and 34 white-footed mice were captured in westchester county, new york (usa) in summer 1986. animals were caged over pans of water for 1 to 2 days to recover engorged tick larvae (ixodes dammini) ...19902388356
identification of an uncultivable borrelia species in the hard tick amblyomma americanum: possible agent of a lyme disease-like illness.bites from the hard tick amblyomma americanum are associated with a lyme disease-like illness in the southern united states. to identify possible etiologic agents for this disorder, a. americanum ticks were collected in missouri, texas, new jersey, and new york and examined microscopically. uncultivable spirochetes were present in approximately 2% of the ticks. borrelia genus-specific oligonucleotides for the flagellin and 16s rrna genes were used for amplification of dna. products were obtained ...19968568302
prevalence of the lyme disease spirochete in populations of white-tailed deer and white-footed mice.the prevalence of the ixodes dammini spirochete (ids) in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) was studied on the eastern end of long island, new york. both species commonly occur in a variety of habitats, are preferred hosts of ixodes dammini, and can harbor the spirochetes in the blood. each animal was examined for spirochetemia, tick infestation, and ids infection rates in the ticks that were removed from it. the results obtained suggest that i ...19846516461
landscape ecology of lyme disease in a residential area of westchester county, new york.the landscape ecology of lyme disease was studied in 1989 on 67 residences in an endemic area of armonk, westchester county, a northern suburb of new york city. four main habitat types were defined, and each property was surveyed for immature and adult lxodes dammini ticks; 98.6% of 1,790 ticks collected were i. dammini. overall, 67.3% were collected from woods, 21.6% from ecotone (unmaintained edge), 9.1% from ornamental vegetation, and 2% from lawns. larval ticks were concentrated in woods, bu ...19912035514
babesiosis: an underdiagnosed disease of children.babesiosis is a malaria-like illness caused by the intraerythrocytic parasite babesia microti and is transmitted by the same tick that transmits borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease. babesiosis is well recognized in adult residents of southern new england and new york but has been described in only five children. to determine whether children are infected with b microti less often than are adults, a prospective serosurvey was carried out on block island, ri, where babesiosis ...19921594345
vesicular erythema migrans.lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the united states. the characteristic rash, erythema migrans, is an early sign of the disease. clinical criteria remain the "gold standard" for diagnosis at this stage of illness.19921444504
maternal lyme disease and congenital malformations: a cord blood serosurvey in endemic and control areas.this report describes a cohort study of over 5000 infants and their mothers who participated in a cord blood serosurvey designed to examine the relationship between maternal exposure to lyme disease and adverse pregnancy outcome. based on serology and reported clinical history, mothers of infants in an endemic hospital cohort are 5 to 20 times more likely to have been exposed to b. burgdorferi as compared with mothers of infants in a control hospital cohort. the incidence of total congenital mal ...19957479280
deer ticks (ixodes scapularis) and the agents of lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in a new york city park.rodent trapping and drag sampling in van cortlandt park, new york city, yielded all stages of ixodes scapularis, the deer tick vector of lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge). polymerase chain reaction analyses of the ticks showed borrelia burgdorferi and the ehrlichia sp. that causes hge.19979284380
genotypic and phenotypic characterization of borrelia burgdorferi isolated from ticks and small animals in illinois.we have characterized 33 isolates of borrelia burgdorferi from northern illinois (32 isolates) and wisconsin (1 isolate) representing the largest series of midwestern isolates investigated to date. the techniques used for molecular analysis of strains included (i) genospecies typing with species-specific pcr primers, (ii) plasmid profiling by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of total genomic dna, (iii) large-restriction-fragment pattern (lrfp) analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of mlui ...19957494019
evaluation of ixodes scapularis, amblyomma americanum, and dermacentor variabilis (acari: ixodidae) from georgia as vectors of a florida strain of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi.the ability of three common tick species from georgia to maintain and transmit the causative agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, was compared under laboratory conditions. a b. burgdorferi cotton rat isolate (mi-6) from florida was selected as a strain from the south, and the sh2-82 isolate from new york was used as a positive control. amblyomma americanum (l.) and dermacentor variabilis (say) did not transmit the mi-6 isolate from inoculated hamsters to naive laboratory mice, and nympha ...19957650697
increase in abundance of immature ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) in an emergent lyme disease endemic area.changes in the abundance of immature ixodes scapularis say, the primary vector of lyme disease, were assessed over a 7-yr period in westchester county, new york, where the disease is endemic. in total, 4,000 m2 were drag sampled at each of 6 study sites in june and july of 1984 and 1991. the abundance of nymphs collected from all sites was 2.6-fold greater in 1991 than in 1984. four of the 6 sites had significantly more nymphs in 1991, with increases ranging from 1.1- to 46.5-fold. the abundance ...19957650715
ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) deer tick mesoscale populations in natural areas: effects of deer, area, and location.nymphal ixodes scapularis say deer ticks were collected at 22 parks or other natural areas on long island, new york, to examine the relationship between tick populations and geographic position, size of area, presence of white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus (zimmerman), and numbers of human lyme disease cases in adjacent communities. nymphal ticks were 93% less abundant when deer were absent and were also less common in smaller natural areas. geographic position on long island was not impor ...19948158618
choroid plexitis in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in southern new york state.brains, spinal cords, nerve roots, nerves and muscle tissues were removed from deer in southern new york state and examined for histologic evidence of infection by the causative agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi. there was no histologic evidence of this infection and only four of 26 deer had serologic evidence of past infection despite the fact that all were parasitized by the tick vector, ixodes dammini. of these ticks, 21% were carrying b. burgdorferi. in contrast, most of the deer h ...19873603961
spirochete-associated arthritis (lyme disease) in a dog. 19846746395
the distribution of canine exposure to borrelia burgdorferi in a lyme-disease endemic area.a serosurvey of canine exposure to borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of human lyme disease, was conducted in westchester county, new york, to determine the distribution of exposure in an area endemic for lyme disease.19938363007
entomologic and demographic correlates of anti-tick saliva antibody in a prospective study of tick bite subjects in westchester county, new york.we measured anti-tick saliva antibody (atsa) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using whole sonicated ixodes dammini salivary glands as antigen in subjects with 1) a recent and confirmed i. dammini (n = 100) or dermacentor variabilis bite (n = 3), 2) erythema migrans (n = 15), 3) late-stage lyme disease (n = 4), and 4) normal controls without a history of tick bites (n = 5). tick bite subjects had three atsa determinations over approximately six weeks. on the first atsa measurement at a mean + ...19938427388
antibodies to ehrlichia equi in dogs from the northeastern united states.to determine whether dogs living in tickinfested areas of the northeastern united states had been exposed to ehrlichia equi, an etiologic agent of granulocytic ehrlichiosis.19979364226
implementation of a proficiency testing program for lyme disease in new york state.nine proficiency test events for lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi) antibody were carried out from october 1988 to january 1992 by the new york state department of health, albany, overall sensitivity for the 846 participants averaged 95.4%, with varying sensitivities of 98.7% for users (71 laboratories) of immunofluorescence assays, 97.4% for users (144 laboratories) of solid-phase fluorescence immunoassays, and 94.6% for users (631 laboratories) of enzyme immunoassays. thirty percent of the en ...19948192559
occurrence and distribution in rhode island of hunterellus hookeri (hymenoptera: encyrtidae), a wasp parasitoid of ixodes dammini.the wasp hunterellus hookeri howard parasitizes several species of ixodid ticks including ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin, the vector of lyme disease spirochetes, borrelia burgdorferi, in the northeastern united states. we detected the occurrence and evaluated the distribution of this wasp parasitoid in populations of i. dammini in rhode island. there has been no intentional introduction of a tick parasitoid recorded anywhere in rhode island; yet, we found this wasp at one of ...19938433338
canine exposure to borrelia burgdorferi and prevalence of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) on deer as a measure of lyme disease risk in the northeastern united states.surveillance programs that identify areas where both the vector (ixodes dammini) and etiologic agent (borrelia burgdorferi) are present may identify the risk of lyme disease and its spread earlier and more accurately than do programs relying on any single method, particularly human case reports. hunter-killed deer (n = 1,204) from 22 counties in maryland, massachusetts, new hampshire, new york, and pennsylvania were examined in fall 1989 and all ectoparasites were identified. the following sprin ...19938433324
two geographically distinct isolates of borrelia burgdorferi from the united states share a common unique ancestor.the genetic diversity of borrelia burgdorferi isolates from several geographic regions was evaluated by nucleotide sequence analysis of the genes encoding 23s ribosomal rna and outer surface protein a. comparison of nucleotide sequences spanning 738 bp of the 23s ribosomal dna from two unusual isolates, dn127 (del norte county, california) and 25015 (millbrook, new york), to homologous sequences from other b. burgdorferi isolates from the united states and russia identified several nucleotide se ...19958525058
analyses of mammalian sera in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with different strains of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.blood samples were collected from cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus), raccoons (procyon lotor), white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus), and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) between 1977 and 1991 in southern connecticut and new york state (usa) and were tested for antibodies against eight strains of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. among these spirochetes were six strains of b. burgdorferi sensu stricto, one strain of b. garinii (=ip90) and ...19958583632
screening for lyme disease in hospitalized psychiatric patients: prospective serosurvey in an endemic area.nervous system involvement in lyme disease may mimic certain psychiatric disorders. we studied whether it is worthwhile to conduct routine screening of psychiatric inpatients for serologic evidence of lyme disease.19979364837
duration of tick bites in a lyme disease-endemic area.regression equations, based on scutal index (body length/scutal width), were developed to determine the duration of attachment for nymphal and adult female lxodes scapularis ticks. feeding times were calculated for 444 nymphal and 300 female ticks submitted by bite victims between 1985 and 1989 in westchester county, new york, an area where lyme disease is highly endemic. nymphs were attached for a mean of 34.7 hours, with 26.8% removed after 48 hours, the critical time for transmission of borre ...19968546120
lyme disease and pregnancy outcome: a prospective study of two thousand prenatal patients.the purpose of the study was to determine if prenatal exposure to lyme disease was associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome.19938362948
lyme disease: an infectious and postinfectious syndrome.to determine chronic morbidity and the variables that influence recovery in patients who had been treated for lyme disease.19948006888
molecular typing of borrelia burgdorferi from lyme disease patients by pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.ninety-three borrelia burgdorferi isolates obtained from erythema migrans lesions or blood of lyme disease patients in westchester county, n.y., between 1991 and 1994 were characterized by pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) analysis of the 16s-23s rrna gene spacer. all isolates could be classified into three distinct rflp types. among the 82 skin biopsy isolates studied, 21 (25.6%) were type 1, 37 (45.1%) were type 2, and 21 (25.6%) were type 3. three (3.7%) cultures contain ...19968727927
effects of acorn production and mouse abundance on abundance and borrelia burgdorferi infection prevalence of nymphal ixodes scapularis ticks.risk of exposure to lyme disease is a function of the local abundance of nymphal ixodes ticks that are infected with the etiological agent, the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. we monitored abundance of white-footed mice (the principal b. burgdorferi reservoir in the eastern and central united states) and acorns (a critical food resource for mice), and ixodes scapularis ticks, as well as ambient temperature (cumulative growing degree days) and growing season precipitation, in a forested landscap ...200112653136
spatiotemporal variation in a lyme disease host and vector: black-legged ticks on white-footed mice.we monitored population density of white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus), burdens of immature black-legged ticks (ixodes scapularis) on mice, and infection prevalence of host-seeking ticks on six forest plots in southeastern new york state from 1995 through 1999. despite densities of mice that fluctuated two orders of magnitude, average larval and nymphal tick burdens per mouse remained remarkably constant. spatial variability in mouse density and tick burdens was modest. the total number of l ...200112653143
cultivation of borrelia burgdorferi from human tick bite sites: a guide to the risk of infection.the risk of acquiring lyme disease has been evaluated by xenodiagnostic procedures with laboratory strains of borrelia burgdorferi and laboratory-reared ixodes ticks, or by clinical trials in which diagnosis was based on clinical findings, culture, or serologic tests.19957829700
timing of ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) oviposition and larval activity in southern new york.timing of oviposition and larval eclosion for fall- and spring-fed female blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say, and effect of temperature on those events in southern new york state, where lyme disease is endemic, were determined in the field. we also examined seasonal pattern of larval host-seeking activity, as well as rate of survival for overwintering, unfed larvae. totals of 9 and 8 replete female i. scapularis were released in fall 1988 and spring 1989, respectively. for the 10 females th ...19968906918
childhood neurologic disorders and lyme disease during pregnancy.to determine the prevalence of clinically significant nervous system disease attributable to transplacental transmission of borrelia burgdorferi, we surveyed neurologists in areas of the united states in which lyme disease is endemic (i.e., massachusetts, rhode island, connecticut, new york, new jersey, wisconsin, and minnesota). overall, 162 of the 176 (92%) pediatric neurologists contacted responded to the survey with a range of 90-100% in the different geographic areas. one pediatric neurolog ...19947986291
application of desiccant and insecticidal soap treatments to control ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) nymphs and adults in a hyperendemic woodland site.the desiccant drione (1% pyrethrin) and safer's insecticidal soap (0.2% pyrethrin) formulated with and without isopropyl alcohol (roh) were field tested against nymphal and adult populations of ixodes scapularis say in a hyperendemic woodlot in westchester county, new york. drione, insecticidal soap, and insecticidal soap with roh provided equivalent levels of control for nymphs and adults. compared with untreated plots, nymphal populations were significantly reduced 1 (93.3-100%) and 2 (66.4-85 ...19958551510
serological responses in lyme disease: the influence of sex, age, and environment.in the laboratory, the serodiagnosis of lyme disease is a difficult decision, especially in early disease. the variability in the immune response to the borrelia burgdorferi spirochete and the lack of specificity and sensitivity of commercial assays for the detection of antibodies in early disease have contributed to the difficulty of serodiagnosis. this study examines the serological data of over 20,000 serum specimens submitted for enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and/or western blot ...19938323257
transmission of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis by host-seeking ixodus scapularis (acari:ixodidae) in southern new york state.ixodes scapularis say nymphs collected from a natural focus of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) in westchester county, new york, transmitted the hge agent to uninfected mice in the laboratory. infection was demonstrated in 3 of 8 mice by polymerase chain reaction analysis of whole blood and microscopic examination of blood smears for morulae. two of these mice were also positive by xenodiagnosis. positive xenodiagnostic larvae maintained infection through molting and transferred infection t ...19979220669
reduced abundance of ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) and lyme disease risk by deer exclusion.the effect of deer exclosures upon the numbers of immature ixodes scapularis say, the vector of lyme disease in the eastern united states, was examined at five sites in westchester county, ny. study areas ranged in size from 6 to 101 ha where deer had been excluded for a period of 25 yr by > 2.4-m-high fencing that surrounded each site. a total area of 40,506 m2 was drag-sampled during the study to measure tick abundance. nymphal densities (ticks per 1,000 m2) averaged 4.6 (range, 1.3-9.6) insid ...19938271246
lyme disease: a growing threat to urban populations.lyme disease or lyme borreliosis, which is caused by three groups of the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, is transmitted in north america, europe, and asia by ticks of the ixodes ricinus complex. the primary areas around the world that are now affected by lyme disease are near the terminal moraine of the glaciers 15,000 years ago. the emergence of lyme disease in the united states in this century is thought to have occurred because of ecological conditions favorable for deer. from 1982 through 1 ...19948146126
human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in new york.human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge), a potentially fatal tick-borne disease, was first described in the upper midwest in 1994. following reports of suspected cases of ehrlichiosis from new york physicians, descriptive and case-control studies were conducted to characterize the epidemiology and risk factors for hge in new york residents.19989554683
coinfection of blacklegged ticks (acari: ixodidae) in dutchess county, new york, with the agents of lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis.adult blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say, collected from forested sites in dutchess county, ny, were tested for infection with the etiologic agents of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner, and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge). rates of infection with the 2 pathogens were high and independent of one another, confirming prior findings and suggesting that a variety of hosts may be competent reservoirs of the hge agent.19989775627
seroprevalence and seroconversion for tick-borne diseases in a high-risk population in the northeast united states.to determine the prevalence of serologic reactivity, the 1-year incidence of seroconversion, and the frequency of multiple infections, and their associations with symptoms in a group of volunteers at high risk for tick-borne infections in new york state.199910225242
relative importance of bird species as hosts for immature ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) in a suburban residential landscape of southern new york state.abundance of birds and their tick parasites were estimated in a residential community located in westchester county, ny, where lyme disease is endemic. in total, 36 bird species (416 captures) were collected, of which 25 species (69%) were parasitized by ticks. ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin composed 96.4% of the 1,067 ticks found on birds. the bird species most heavily parasitized was house wren, troglodytes aedon vieillot (11.1 ixodes dammini per bird). relative density es ...19938360897
a proposal for the reliable culture of borrelia burgdorferi from patients with chronic lyme disease, even from those previously aggressively treated.since culture of borrelia burgdorferi from patients with chronic lyme disease has been an extraordinarily rare event, clarification of the nature of the illness and proving its etiology as infectious have been difficult. a method for reliably and reproducibly culturing b. burgdorferi from the blood of patients with chronic lyme disease was therefore sought by making a controlled blood culture trial studying 47 patients with chronic lyme disease. all had relapsed after long-term oral and intraven ...19989861561
geographic risk for lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in southern new york state.ixodes scapularis, the tick vector of lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge), is prevalent in much of southern new york state. the distribution of this species has increased, as have reported cases of both lyme disease and hge. the unreliability of case reports, however, demonstrates the need for tick and pathogen surveillance in order to accurately define areas of high risk. in this study, a total of 89,550 m2 at 34 study sites was drag sampled in 1995 and a total of 51,540 m2 a ...19989835546
estimation of the incidence of lyme disease.the incidence of lyme disease in most endemic areas is unknown but will be an important factor in determining the cost-effectiveness of lyme disease vaccines in those areas. the authors developed a deterministic model with nine components to estimate the frequency of ixodes scapularis tick bites and the resulting incidence of lyme disease in residents of endemic areas. for each component, best point estimates and plausible ranges of values were based on the published literature, unpublished data ...19989829875
molecular characterization of borrelia spp. isolates from greater metropolitan chicago reveals the presence of borrelia bissettii. preliminary report.lyme disease in the us is concentrated in three endemic areas: the northeast, the upper mid-west, and the pacific coast. in the mid-west, the range of lyme disease has expanded to include large parts of wisconsin and minnesota. despite its proximity to the mid-western focus, illinois, so far, has not been considered an endemic area. however, more recent data suggest that this situation may be changing. also, the extent of borrelial diversity in the mid-west remains largely unexplored. here, we p ...200011075925
borrelia burgdorferi genotype predicts the capacity for hematogenous dissemination during early lyme disease.lyme disease, the most common tickborne disease in the united states, is caused exclusively by borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in north america. the present study evaluated the genotypes of >400 clinical isolates of b. burgdorferi recovered from patients from suburban new york city with early lyme disease associated with erythema migrans; it is the largest number of borrelial strains from north america ever to be investigated.200818781866
serological responses to ehrlichia equi, ehrlichia chaffeensis, and borrelia burgdorferi in patients from new york state.serological testing at the new york state department of health for human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in the residents of westchester county, n.y., was performed with specimens from 176 patients by the indirect fluorescent-antibody (ifa) technique with ehrlichia equi mrk-infected neutrophils. to understand whether human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis also occurs in this northeastern geographic region, specimens were also tested for antibodies to ehrlichia chaffeensis arkansas. screening tests and immu ...19979276387
detection of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent and borrelia burgdorferi in ticks by polymerase chain reaction.adult ixodid ticks were collected from westchester county, new york, and ipswich, massachusetts, to determine the presence of infection with a human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) agent by using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the presence of borrelia burgdorferi in ticks collected from new york was also determined by pcr. of the 229 ticks from new york and 47 ticks from massachusetts, 9% (22/229) and 25% (12/47) of ticks contained hge agent, respectively. fifty-four percent (123/229) of t ...19989526861
assessment of polymicrobial infections in ticks in new york state.ixodes scapularis ticks are clinically important hematophagous vectors. a single tick bite can lead to a polymicrobial infection. we determined the prevalence of polymicrobial infection with borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, babesia microti, borrelia miyamotoi, and powassan virus in 286 adult ticks from the two counties in new york state where lyme disease is endemic, utilizing a masstag multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. seventy-one percent of the ticks harbored at least ...201019725770
prospective clinical evaluation of patients from missouri and new york with erythema migrans-like skin lesions.the most common and most recognizable feature of borrelia burgdorferi infection (lyme disease) is the skin lesion erythema migrans (em). an illness associated with an em-like skin lesion, but which is not caused by b. burgdorferi, occurs in many southern states in the united states (southern tick-associated rash illness [stari], also known as masters disease).200516142659
comparison of erythema migrans caused by borrelia burgdorferi and borrelia garinii.abstract background: a comparison of patients with erythema migrans due to borrelia garinii versus borrelia burgdorferi has not been reported. patients and methods: one hundred nineteen patients from new york state with erythema migrans caused by b. burgdorferi were compared with 116 patients from slovenia with erythema migrans due to b. garinii infection. results: patients with b. garinii infection were older, more often reported a tick bite, and developed larger lesions (median largest diamete ...201121612533
comparative study of early lyme disease: erythema migrans in new york state and northeastern poland.the objective was to compare the clinical features of early local lyme disease: erythema migrans (em) between two highly endemic areas: new york state and northeastern poland. study was based on self reporting questionnaires, physical examination, and laboratory results.200211782679
population genetics and phylogenetic analysis of colorado borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi is transmitted in an enzootic cycle in colorado between the tick ixodes spinipalpis and the woodrat neotoma mexicana. the genetic relationship of colorado isolates to other b. burgdorferi isolates is unknown nor have relationships among various colorado isolates been determined. portions of the flagellin (fla), 66-kd protein, and outer surface protein a (ospa) genes were amplified from 71 colorado isolates, screened for genetic variability using single strand conformation po ...199910348251
a population genetic study of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto from eastern long island, new york, suggested frequency-dependent selection, gene flow and host adaptation.eastern long island, new york, is one of the major foci of lyme disease in the united states. as in almost all other parts of north america, lyme disease in this region is caused by a single genomic species of spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. for three consecutive years, natural populations of lyme borrelia in this region were sampled and studied for gene flow among different locations, changes in population structure over time, and selective forces. the genetic diversity of borre ...19979474903
new distribution records of amblyomma americanum (l.) (acari: ixodidae) in new york state.amblyomma americanum, commonly called the lone star tick, has been widely-distributed in the southeastern united states for many years. distribution of this species apparently did not extend to new york state until the 1970s, after which the northern distribution in new york was limited to long island (suffolk and nassau counties), where it has become locally abundant. since then, there has been just one published record from new york state, in westchester county, just north of new york city. fr ...19979491364
Molting success of Ixodes scapularis varies among individual blood meal hosts and species.The blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) is an important vector of emerging human pathogens. It has three blood-feeding stages, as follows: larva, nymph, and adult. Owing to inefficient transovarial transmission, at least for the Lyme disease agent (Borrelia burgdorferi), larval ticks rarely hatch infected, but they can acquire infection during their larval blood meal. Nymphal ticks are primarily responsible for transmitting pathogens to hosts, including humans. The transition from uninfected ho ...201121845946
of mice and moths--and lyme disease? 19989490486
serologic evaluation of patients from missouri with erythema migrans-like skin lesions with the c6 lyme test.southern tick-associated rash illness (stari), also known as masters disease, affects people predominantly in the southeast and south central united states. these patients exhibit skin lesions that resemble erythema migrans (em), the characteristic skin lesion in early lyme disease. the etiology of stari remains unknown, and no serologic test is available to aid in its diagnosis. the c6 lyme enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to evaluate coded serum specimens from patients with stari at ...200617028220
potential role of deer tick virus in powassan encephalitis cases in lyme disease-endemic areas of new york, u.s.a.powassan virus, a member of the tick-borne encephalitis group of flaviviruses, encompasses 2 lineages with separate enzootic cycles. the prototype lineage of powassan virus (powv) is principally maintained between ixodes cookei ticks and the groundhog (marmota momax) or striped skunk (mephitis mephitis), whereas the deer tick virus (dtv) lineage is believed to be maintained between ixodes scapularis ticks and the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus). we report 14 cases of powassan encephalit ...201324274334
the prevalence of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in ixodes scapularis collected in the hudson valley, new york state.ixodes scapularis, the blacklegged tick, is capable of transmitting the pathogens that cause lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi), babesiosis (babesia microti), anaplasmosis (anaplasma phagocytophilum), and to a lesser extent powassan encephalitis (deer tick virus [dtv]). these pathogens represent significant public health problems, but little is known about the occurrence and co-infection prevalence of these pathogens in i. scapularis. here, we used standard pcr and pathogen-specific primers to ...201424689680
landscape characterization of peridomestic risk for lyme disease using satellite imagery.remotely sensed characterizations of landscape composition were evaluated for lyme disease exposure risk on 337 residential properties in two communities of suburban westchester county, new york. properties were categorized as no, low, or high risk based on seasonally adjusted densities of ixodes scapularis nymphs, determined by drag sampling during june and july 1990. spectral indices based on landsat thematic mapper data provided relative measures of vegetation structure and moisture (wetness) ...19979430528
prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi in small mammals in new york state.intensive small mammal trapping was conducted in 12 counties in new york state during 1998-2000 to investigate the prevalence and site specificity of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi in, and presence of the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say on, the wild mice peromyscus leucopus rafinesque and peromyscus maniculatus wagner and other small mammal species. previously captured mice (1992-1997) from throughout new york state also were recruited into the study, providing a total ...200617017230
lyme disease--united states, 2003-2005.lyme disease is caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected blacklegged ticks (ixodes spp.). early manifestations of infection include fever, headache, fatigue, and a characteristic skin rash called erythema migrans. left untreated, late manifestations involving the joints, heart, and nervous system can occur. a healthy people 2010 objective (14-8) is to reduce the annual incidence of lyme disease to 9.7 new cases per 100,000 population in 1 ...200717568368
human babesiosis in new york state: review of 139 hospitalized cases and analysis of prognostic factors.babesiosis infections are infrequent, occur in limited geographic locations, and range from asymptomatic infection to severe illness and death.19989801183
conspicuous impacts of inconspicuous hosts on the lyme disease epidemic.emerging zoonotic pathogens are a constant threat to human health throughout the world. control strategies to protect public health regularly fail, due in part to the tendency to focus on a single host species assumed to be the primary reservoir for a pathogen. here, we present evidence that a diverse set of species can play an important role in determining disease risk to humans using lyme disease as a model. host-targeted public health strategies to control the lyme disease epidemic in north a ...200818029304
expanded diversity among californian borrelia isolates and description of borrelia bissettii sp. nov. (formerly borrelia group dn127).up to now, the only species in the complex borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato known to cause lyme borreliosis in the united states has been b. burgdorferi sensu stricto. however, some atypical strains closely related to the previously designated genomic group dn127 have been isolated in the united states, mostly in california. to explore the diversity of b. burgdorferi sensu lato group dn127, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the rrf-rrl intergenic spacer regions from 19 atypical strains (18 ...19989817861
borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto is clonal in patients with early lyme borreliosis.lyme borreliosis, the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in north america, is caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. given the extensive genetic polymorphism of b. burgdorferi, elucidation of the population genetic structure of the bacterium in clinical samples may be relevant for understanding disease pathogenesis and may have applicability for the development of diagnostic tests and vaccine preparations. in this investigation, the genetic polymorphism of the 16s-23s rrna (rrs- ...200818539816
molecular analysis of microbial communities identified in different developmental stages of ixodes scapularis ticks from westchester and dutchess counties, new york.ixodes scapularis ticks play an important role in the transmission of a wide variety of pathogens between various mammalian species, including humans. pathogens transmitted by ticks include borrelia, anaplasma and babesia. although ticks may harbour both pathogenic and non-pathogenic microflora, little is known about how the diversity of the microflora within ticks may influence the transmission of pathogens. to begin addressing this question, we examined the composition of bacterial communities ...200616623735
effect of borrelia burgdorferi genotype on the sensitivity of c6 and 2-tier testing in north american patients with culture-confirmed lyme disease.a potential concern with any serologic test to detect antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi is whether the epitopes incorporated in the test provide sufficient cross-reactivity to detect infection with all of the pathogenic strains of the species. this is a particular concern for the c6 test, which is based on reactivity to a single peptide.200818724824
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