serological responses to ehrlichia equi, ehrlichia chaffeensis, and borrelia burgdorferi in patients from new york state.serological testing at the new york state department of health for human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in the residents of westchester county, n.y., was performed with specimens from 176 patients by the indirect fluorescent-antibody (ifa) technique with ehrlichia equi mrk-infected neutrophils. to understand whether human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis also occurs in this northeastern geographic region, specimens were also tested for antibodies to ehrlichia chaffeensis arkansas. screening tests and immu ...19979276387
reactivity of dog sera to whole-cell or recombinant antigens of borrelia burgdorferi by elisa and immunoblot analysis.enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) with separate preparations of 10 purified recombinant antigens of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto were used to test sera from 36 dogs not vaccinated with whole cells of this agent and from five dogs vaccinated with whole-cell b. burgdorferi bacteria. all dogs lived in tick-infested areas of connecticut and south-eastern new york state, usa. the non-vaccinated dogs had limb or joint disorder, lameness and fever during the period 1984-1991 and had ant ...200111599738
lyme disease in new york state: spatial pattern at a regional scale.lyme disease occurs commonly in new york state, but its geographic distribution is heterogeneous. over each of nine consecutive years, incidence rates from 57 new york state counties were subjected to spatial autocorrelation analysis. although the epidemic advanced during the study period, the analyses reveal a consistent pattern of spatial dependence. the correlation distance, the distance over which incidence rates covary positively, remained near 120 km over the nine years. a local spatial an ...200111716111
health survey of free-ranging raccoons (procyon lotor) in central park, new york, new york, usa: implications for human and domestic animal health.we conducted health assessments on 113 free-ranging raccoons ( procyon lotor ) in central park, new york city, us, in february 2010, september 2010, and november 2011 in conjunction with a trap-vaccinate-release program to control a raccoon rabies epizootic. five individuals were sampled at two time points for 118 raccoon examinations in total. we tested 13 of 13 and 8 of 13 euthanized raccoons for rabies and canine distemper virus (cdv), respectively, by antigen testing on brain tissue; all wer ...201728135131
babesiosis in lower hudson valley, new york, usa.although lyme disease has been endemic to parts of the lower hudson valley of new york, united states, for >2 decades, babesiosis has emerged there only since 2001. the number of lower hudson valley residents in whom babesiosis was diagnosed increased 20-fold, from 6 to 119 cases per year during 2001-2008, compared with an ≈1.6-fold increase for the rest of new york. during 2002-2009, a total of 19 patients with babesiosis were hospitalized on 22 occasions at the regional tertiary care center. c ...201121529393
the effects of bird feeders on lyme disease prevalence and density of ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) in a residential area of dutchess county, new york.the effects of bird feeders on local densities of ixodes scapularis ticks and prevalence of lyme disease were examined in residential areas of dutchess county, ny. ticks were collected, counted, and analyzed for borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes in 2001-2002 on residential properties with and without bird feeders. tick densities and infection prevalence were not significantly different on properties with and without bird feeders. furthermore, analysis of a questionnaire, administered to 580 local ...200314680124
of mice and moths--and lyme disease? 19989490486
detection of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in naturally infected horses in the usa by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using whole-cell and recombinant antigens.blood samples were collected from 98 horses suspected of having borreliosis or granulocytic ehrlichiosis in connecticut and new york state, usa during 1985, 1995, and 1996. serum antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), based on whole-cell and recombinant antigens, in 82 (84%) horses. of the 181 sera tested, 59% were positive, using whole-cell antigens, compared to 48% with protein (p)37 and 35% with vlse antigens. an elisa containing eith ...200515924926
strategies for reducing the risk of lyme borreliosis in north america.the incidence of lyme borreliosis continues to increase in the united states. in 1991, when lyme borreliosis first became a nationally reportable disease to the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc), a total of 9470 cases were reported; in contrast, by 2002 a total of 23,763 cases were reported, >2.5x the total in 1991. area-wide acaricides can be highly effective in killing nymphal ixodes scapularis, with >95% of nymphs killed in studies using cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, or carbaryl. t ...200616524769
agents of human anaplasmosis and lyme disease at camp ripley, minnesota.the transmission dynamics of anaplasma phagocytophilum (ap) and borrelia burgdorferi (bb) among ixodes scapularis (is) and mammalian hosts was investigated at camp ripley, an area representative of central minnesota. prevalence of white-footed mouse infection with ap and bb were 20% and 42%, respectively, with a coinfection level of 14%. peak levels of infection with both agents occurred in may. the average levels of seropositivity to ap and bb were 29.3% and 48%, respectively. of the mice infec ...201121867420
Molting success of Ixodes scapularis varies among individual blood meal hosts and species.The blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) is an important vector of emerging human pathogens. It has three blood-feeding stages, as follows: larva, nymph, and adult. Owing to inefficient transovarial transmission, at least for the Lyme disease agent (Borrelia burgdorferi), larval ticks rarely hatch infected, but they can acquire infection during their larval blood meal. Nymphal ticks are primarily responsible for transmitting pathogens to hosts, including humans. The transition from uninfected ho ...201121845946
effects of acorn production and mouse abundance on abundance and borrelia burgdorferi infection prevalence of nymphal ixodes scapularis ticks.risk of exposure to lyme disease is a function of the local abundance of nymphal ixodes ticks that are infected with the etiological agent, the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. we monitored abundance of white-footed mice (the principal b. burgdorferi reservoir in the eastern and central united states) and acorns (a critical food resource for mice), and ixodes scapularis ticks, as well as ambient temperature (cumulative growing degree days) and growing season precipitation, in a forested landscap ...200112653136
temporal relation between ixodes scapularis abundance and risk for lyme disease associated with erythema migrans.understanding the role that nymphal and female ticks, ixodes scapularis, have in the epidemiology of lyme disease is essential to the development of successful prevention programs. in this study, the authors sought to evaluate the seasonal and annual relations between tick densities and patients > or = 16 years of age diagnosed with erythema migrans (em), the rash associated with early lyme disease. ticks were collected weekly by drag sampling throughout most of the year from 1991 to 1996 in wes ...199910206627
serum antibodies to whole-cell and recombinant antigens of borrelia burgdorferi in cottontail rabbits.archived serum samples, from 95 eastern cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) captured in new york, new york, usa and millbrook, new york, usa, during 1985-86, were analyzed in solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) for total and class-specific immunoglobulin (ig) m antibodies to whole-cell or recombinant antigens of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. using a polyvalent conjugate, rabbit sera contained antibodies to whole-cell and recombinant antigens (protein [p]35, p37, o ...201222247369
detection of borrelia miyamotoi and other tick-borne pathogens in human clinical specimens and ixodes scapularis ticks in new york state, 2012-2015.borrelia miyamotoi (bm) is a recently emerging bacterial agent transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks. diagnosis of bm infection can be challenging, as the organism is not easily cultivable. we have developed and validated a multiplex real-time pcr to simultaneously identify bm infection and the agents causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis and human monocytic ehrlichiosis, anaplasma phagocytophilum and ehrlichia chaffeensis, respectively. the assay is 100% specific; highly sensitive, d ...201728131594
the role of lizards in the ecology of lyme disease in two endemic zones of the northeastern united states.we examined the role of lizards in the ecology of lyme disease in new york and maryland. we collected data on vector tick infestations, measured lizard "realized" reservoir competence for the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, and estimated lizard population density. these data were incorporated into a model that predicts a host's ability to influence the prevalence of b. burgdorferi in the tick population, a primary risk factor in the epidemiology of lyme disease. published data on o ...200717626342
long-term follow-up of patients with culture-confirmed lyme determine the long-term outcome of patients with culture-confirmed lyme disease.200312893393
borrelia burgdorferi genotype predicts the capacity for hematogenous dissemination during early lyme disease.lyme disease, the most common tickborne disease in the united states, is caused exclusively by borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in north america. the present study evaluated the genotypes of >400 clinical isolates of b. burgdorferi recovered from patients from suburban new york city with early lyme disease associated with erythema migrans; it is the largest number of borrelial strains from north america ever to be investigated.200818781866
diluting the dilution effect: a spatial lyme model provides evidence for the importance of habitat fragmentation with regard to the risk of infection.this paper aims to construct a spatially-explicit model of ixodes scapularis infection in the state of new york, usa, based on climate traits, high-resolution landscape features and patch-connectivity according to graph theory. the degree of risk for infection is calculated based on empirical data of host abundance, previous studies on host infectivity rates and tick preferences towards a given host. the outcome signifies what is called the "recruitment of infection", i.e. an index representing ...200919440959
acaricidal treatment of white-tailed deer to control ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) in a new york lyme disease-endemic community.the efficacy of topically treating white-tailed deer with an acaricide was evaluated in a lyme disease-endemic community of southern new york state. twenty-four 4-poster feeders were placed in a 5.2 km(2) treatment area in bedford, ny, while a site in lewisboro, ny, 4.8 km distant, served as control. treatment periods ran from 15 september to 15 december each fall from 1997 to 2001, and from 15 march to 15 may each spring from 1998 to 2002. corn consumption averaged 15,779 kg in fall sessions an ...200919650732
borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto is clonal in patients with early lyme borreliosis.lyme borreliosis, the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in north america, is caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. given the extensive genetic polymorphism of b. burgdorferi, elucidation of the population genetic structure of the bacterium in clinical samples may be relevant for understanding disease pathogenesis and may have applicability for the development of diagnostic tests and vaccine preparations. in this investigation, the genetic polymorphism of the 16s-23s rrna (rrs- ...200818539816
comparative study of early lyme disease: erythema migrans in new york state and northeastern poland.the objective was to compare the clinical features of early local lyme disease: erythema migrans (em) between two highly endemic areas: new york state and northeastern poland. study was based on self reporting questionnaires, physical examination, and laboratory results.200211782679
prospective clinical evaluation of patients from missouri and new york with erythema migrans-like skin lesions.the most common and most recognizable feature of borrelia burgdorferi infection (lyme disease) is the skin lesion erythema migrans (em). an illness associated with an em-like skin lesion, but which is not caused by b. burgdorferi, occurs in many southern states in the united states (southern tick-associated rash illness [stari], also known as masters disease).200516142659
a new view on lyme disease: rodents hold the key to annual risk. 200620076583
dogs and horses with antibodies to outer-surface protein c as on-time sentinels for ticks infected with borrelia burgdorferi in new york state in 2011.reported cases of lyme disease (a chronic disease caused by infection with borrelia burgdorferi) in humans increased more than two-fold between 1992 and 2006 in the united states. recently, the annual number of reported human lyme disease cases stabilized (according to the center for disease control and prevention) but the geographic distribution seemed to increase. in new york (ny) state, usa, a spread from the original lyme disease focus in southeastern parts of the state has occurred. we dete ...201222841496
disparities in reportable communicable disease incidence by census tract-level poverty, new york city, 2006-2013.we described disparities in selected communicable disease incidence across area-based poverty levels in new york city, an area with more than 8 million residents and pronounced household income inequality.201526180961
lyme disease surveillance in new york state: an assessment of case underreporting.despite the mandatory nature of lyme disease (ld) reporting in new york state (nys), it is believed that only a fraction of the ld cases diagnosed annually are reported to public health authorities. lack of complete ld case reporting generally stems from (i) lack of report of provider-diagnosed cases where supportive laboratory testing is not ordered or results are negative (i.e. provider underreporting) and (ii) incomplete case information (clinical laboratory reporting only with no accompanyin ...201627612955
lyme disease surveillance in the united states, 1983-1986.during 1983-1986, 5,016 cases of lyme disease were reported to the centers for disease control. cases were acquired in 31 states; however, 86% of the cases were acquired in seven states: massachusetts, rhode island, connecticut, new york, new jersey, wisconsin, and minnesota. for 63% of patients the disease began in summer; 52% recalled a tick bite. erythema chronicum migrans (ecm) occurred in 91% of the patients; arthritis, in 57%; neurologic complications, in 18%; and cardiac manifestations, i ...20092682955
efficacy of an ospa vaccine preparation for prevention of lyme disease in new york state.a multicenter, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was done comparing a 30-microgram dose of a single protein recombinant ospa vaccine preparation with a saline placebo for efficacy in prevention of lyme disease in humans. the ospa vaccine (30-microgram dose) or saline placebo was given intramuscularly at day 0, 1 month later, and 12 months later. cases of possible lyme disease were evaluated clinically and using culture, polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot assays. safety data are bein ...20079717677
epidemic and spatial dynamics of lyme disease in new york state, 1990-2000.lyme disease (ld) occurrence in new york state (nys) has not only increased over time but also spread throughout the state from the original disease focus in southeastern nys. few studies have investigated this epidemic and spatial dynamic in great detail. using data from the nys department of health lyme registry surveillance system, we summarized epidemic and spatial characteristics of ld in nys for the 11-yr time period from 1990 through 2000. new epidemiological trends associated with age, s ...200516363174
impact of white-tailed deer on the spread of borrelia burgdorferi.there is a public perception that the white-tailed deer odocoileus virginianus (artiodactyla: cervidae) is the main reservoir supporting the maintenance and spread of the causative agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi. this study examines the pathogen prevalence rate of borrelia in adult ixodes scapularis (ixodida: ixodidae), the black-legged tick, collected from white-tailed deer and compares it with pathogen prevalence rates in adult ticks gathered by dragging vegetation in two contiguo ...201727699814
an evaluation of a lyme disease prevention program in a working population.lyme disease vaccine was offered to new york state department of health employees considered at risk for lyme disease because of their job duties. this evaluation was conducted to assess (1) attitudes that affected employees' decisions to accept or decline the vaccine, (2) preventive behaviors among employees who received the vaccine, and (3) effectiveness of the educational modalities offered in improving knowledge of lyme disease and lyme disease vaccine.200716871815
impact of host community composition on lyme disease risk.the drivers of variable disease risk in complex multi-host disease systems have proved very difficult to identify. here we test a model that explains the entomological risk of lyme disease (ld) in terms of host community composition. the model was parameterized in a continuous forest tract at the cary institute of ecosystem studies (formerly the institute of ecosystem studies) in new york state, u.s.a. we report the results of continuing longitudinal observations (10 years) at the cary institute ...200818959321
spatiotemporal bayesian analysis of lyme disease in new york state, 1990-2000.mapping ordinarily increases our understanding of nontrivial spatial and temporal heterogeneities in disease rates. however, the large number of parameters required by the corresponding statistical models often complicates detailed analysis. this study investigates the feasibility of a fully bayesian hierarchical regression approach to the problem and identifies how it outperforms two more popular methods: crude rate estimates (cre) and empirical bayes standardization (ebs). in particular, we ap ...200616892639
three sudden cardiac deaths associated with lyme carditis - united states, november 2012-july 2013.lyme disease is a multisystem illness caused by borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete transmitted by certain species of ixodes ticks. approximately 30,000 confirmed and probable cases of lyme disease were reported in the united states in 2012, primarily from high-incidence states in the northeast (connecticut, delaware, maine, maryland, massachusetts, new hampshire, new jersey, new york, pennsylvania, rhode island, and vermont) and upper midwest (minnesota and wisconsin). common manifestations incl ...201324336130
effect of borrelia burgdorferi genotype on the sensitivity of c6 and 2-tier testing in north american patients with culture-confirmed lyme disease.a potential concern with any serologic test to detect antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi is whether the epitopes incorporated in the test provide sufficient cross-reactivity to detect infection with all of the pathogenic strains of the species. this is a particular concern for the c6 test, which is based on reactivity to a single peptide.200818724824
detection of borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein antibodies in wild white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in new york and pennsylvania, usa.borrelia burgdorferi differentially exhibits outer surface proteins (osp) on its outer membrane, and detection of particular osp antibodies in mammals is suggestive of the infection stage. for example, ospf is typically associated with chronic infection, whereas ospc suggests early infection. a fluorescent bead-based multiplex assay was used to test sera from new york and pennsylvania white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) for the presence of antibodies to ospa, ospc, and ospf. ospf seroprev ...201323507438
lyme disease trends--dutchess county, new york, 1992-2000.lyme disease is a vector-borne infectious disease, accounting for more than 95% of all reported vector-borne illness in the united states. from 1992 2000, dutchess county reported more cases of lyme disease than any other county in the united states, consistently ranking among the top ten in incidence rates. we analyzed 1992-2000 dutchess county lyme disease surveillance data to characterize lyme disease trends, identify high-risk populations, and examine the frequency of the characteristic lesi ...200312764540
the united states department of agriculture northeast area-wide tick control project: history and protocol.the northeast area-wide tick control project (neatcp) was funded by the united states department of agriculture (usda) as a large-scale cooperative demonstration project of the usda-agricultural research service (ars)-patented 4-poster tick control technology (pound et al. 1994) involving the usda-ars and a consortium of universities, state agencies, and a consulting firm at research locations in the five states of connecticut (ct), maryland (md), new jersey (nj), new york (ny), and rhode island ...200919650730
seasonal activity, density, and collection efficiency of the blacklegged tick (ixodes scapularis) (acari: ixodidae) in mid-western pennsylvania.although pennsylvania has recently reported the greatest number of lyme disease cases in the united states, with the largest increase for pa occurring in its western region, the population biology of the blacklegged tick (ixodes scapularis say) has not been adequately characterized in western pa. we studied the seasonal activity of host-seeking i. scapularis larvae, nymphs, and adults in mid-western pa over the course of a year, including a severe winter, and determined their absolute densities ...201526336271
spirochetes isolated from the blood of two patients with lyme disease.we isolated spirochetes from the blood of 2 of 36 patients in long island and westchester county, new york, who had signs and symptoms suggestive of lyme disease. the spirochetes were morphologically similar and serologically identical to organisms recently found to infect lxodes dammini ticks, which are endemic to the area and have been epidemiologically implicated as vectors of lyme disease. in both patients, there was a rise in specific antispirochetal antibodies in paired specimens of serum. ...19836828119
lyme disease surveillance in new york state. 19892594266
epidemiologic features of lyme disease in new york.during 1982, surveillance identified 207 cases of lyme disease in new york state. cases were clustered in two geographic areas, eastern long island and northern westchester counties. symptoms and signs of lyme disease in cases were consistent with previous reports, with erythema chronicum migrans (ecm) being the most frequently (77 percent) reported sign of disease. facial palsy was reported in a surprisingly high 18 percent of cases. of 160 cases whose sera were submitted for lyme spirochete sp ...20136334940
lyme disease and infected ticks are spreading throughout new york state. 19911798631
lyme disease: epidemiologic characteristics of an outbreak in westchester county, ny.epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 210 cases of lyme disease in westchester county, new york, reported during 1982 and 1983 are described. most cases occurred during summer months in individuals under age 40 (male: female ratio 1:2 to 1). symptoms included skin rash (75 per cent), joint pain or swelling (50 per cent), bell's palsy (11 per cent), and aseptic meningitis (3 per cent). with greater public and medical awareness of this tick-borne disease, lyme disease is being recognized ...19863940454
incidence and cumulative frequency of endemic lyme disease in a community.we conducted an epidemiological study of the cumulative frequency and incidence of lyme disease in a summer community on fire island, new york, an area endemic for the disease. fifteen (7.5%) of 200 persons studied in the community in 1982 reported a history of lyme disease. an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay showed that seventeen (9.7%) of 176 persons had serological evidence of exposure to the lyme spirochete, including six of the 15 persons with a history of lyme disease. seven (0.7 ...19846386994
lyme disease surveillance using sampling estimation: evaluation of an alternative methodology in new york the 14-year period from 1993 to 2006, new york state (nys) accounted for over one-quarter (27.1%) of all confirmed lyme disease (ld) cases in the united states. during that time period, a nine-county area in south-east nys accounted for 90.6% of the reported ld cases in the state. based on concerns related to diminishing resources at both the state and local level and the increasing burden of traditional ld surveillance, the nys department of health (doh) sought to develop an alternative to t ...201626924579
activists decry physician disinterest in lyme disease during vancouver conference.although it was well advertised, few canadian physicians attended a recent conference on lyme disease in vancouver. the apparent lack of interest upsets the president of the lyme borreliosis society, who says many patients have been misdiagnosed, mistreated or untreated and "are now chronically disabled." interestingly, the disease seems to be much more common in the us than canada. in new york state, for instance, more than 26,000 cases have been diagnosed, but in nearby ontario the total is on ...19957664235
national surveillance of lyme disease, 1987 and 1988, 6876 lyme disease cases from 43 states were reported to the centers for disease control. the 4507 cases reported in 1988 was nearly double the case number reported in 1987, and ninefold the number reported in 1982, when a systematic system of national surveillance was established. the average annual incidence of reported lyme disease in the united states in 1987-1988 was 1.4/100,000. new york led the nation in reported cases in 1988 with 57% of the cases reported nationally. ei ...19892758820
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