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complete conservation of an immunogenic gene (lcr1) in leishmania infantum and leishmania chagasi isolated from iran, spain and brazil.kala-azar is the visceral and most severe form of leishmaniasis that leads to death if untreated. the causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) are members of leishmania (l.) donovani complex which includes l. chagasi and l. infantum. genome sequences have raised the question whether l. chagasi and l. infantum are synonymous or different. this question has important implications for clinical and epidemiological studies, evaluation of vaccines and drugs, and disease control. lcr1 is an immu ...201021178212
seroprevalence of feline leishmaniasis in areas of iran where leishmania infantum is endemic. 200919341541
canine visceral leishmaniasis in iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.visceral leishmaniasis is considered an endemic zoonosis in some parts of iran and dogs are main reservoirs, which play role in the transmission cycle of human leishmaniasis. this systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (cvl) in iran. data were systematically collected from 1982 to 2015 in iran on the following electronic databases: pubmed, google scholar, science direct, scopus, web of science, magiran, irandoc, iran medex a ...201727570207
development and evaluation of leishmania infantum rk26 elisa for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in iran.the purpose of this study was to prepare recombinant k26 antigen from leishmania infantum and evaluate its performance by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) test for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) in endemic regions of iran. the results were compared with those obtained by direct agglutination test (dat) and whole cell elisa using crude parasite antigen. of 93 sera from patients with confirmed vl, 90 sera were positive with rk26 elisa (sensitivity=96.8%), whereas 85 sera wer ...200818561868
expression of a2 proteins in amastigotes of leishmania infantum produced from canine isolates collected in the district of meshkinshahr, in north-western iran. 200818186982
predicted distribution of visceral leishmaniasis vectors (diptera: psychodidae; phlebotominae) in iran: a niche model study.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is an important vector-borne disease in iran. till now, leishmania infantum has been detected from five species of sand flies in the country including phlebotomus kandelakii, phlebotomus major s.l., phlebotomus perfiliewi, phlebotomus alexandri and phlebotomus tobbi. also, phlebotomus keshishiani was found to be infected with leishmania parasites. this study aimed at predicting the probable niches and distribution of vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in iran. data on ...201526032232
molecular detection of leishmania infection in sand flies in border line of iran-turkmenistan: restricted and permissive vectors.a molecular study was carried out to incriminate sand fly vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) in rural areas of sarakhs district, khorassane-razavi province, northeastern iran, in 2011. sand flies of sergentomyia with three species and phlebotomus with six species respectively comprised 73.3% and 26.7% of the specimens. phlebotomus papatasi was the most common phlebotomine species in outdoor and indoor resting places. leishmania infection was found at least in 17 (22%) specimens including ph ...201323933280
effect of insecticide-impregnated dog collars on incidence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in iranian children: a matched-cluster randomised trial.deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars reduce sandfly bite rates on dogs, and are effective in killing sandflies that attempt to feed. because domestic dogs are the principal reservoir hosts of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis, we tested whether community-wide application of dog collars could protect children against infection with leishmania infantum, the parasite that causes the disease.200212241778
preparation and evaluation of a glycerol-preserved direct agglutination antigen for long-term preservation: a comparative study of the detection of anti-leishmania infantum antibodies in human and dog.to prepare and evaluate a glycerol-preserved antigen from an iranian strain of leishmania infantum (l. infantum) for use in glycerol-preserved direct agglutination tests (gp-dat) as an alternative to freeze dried direct agglutination tests (fd-dat) that use freeze-dried antigen.201222221754
gentamicin-attenuated leishmania infantum vaccine: protection of dogs against canine visceral leishmaniosis in endemic area of southeast of iran.an attenuated line of leishmania infantum (l. infantum h-line) has been established by culturing promastigotes in vitro under gentamicin pressure. a vaccine trial was conducted using 103 naive dogs from a leishmaniosis non-endemic area (55 vaccinated and 48 unvaccinated) brought into an endemic area of southeast iran. no local and/or general indications of disease were observed in the vaccinated dogs immediately after vaccination. the efficacy of the vaccine was evaluated after 24 months (4 sand ...201424743691
immune responses of iranian patients with visceral leishmaniasis and recovered individuals to lcr1 of leishmania infantum.visceral leishmaniasis is a serious public health problem. leishmania infantum is one of its causative agents. lcr1 is an immunogen from l. infantum. antibodies against this protein have been detected in visceral leishmaniasis patients. the aim of this study was to define the antibody and cellular immune responses against lcr1 in iranian visceral leishmaniasis patients and recovered individuals. the lcr1 protein was produced in recombinant form. antibody responses against this protein were studi ...201424501341
phlebotomus perfiliewi transcaucasicus is circulating both leishmania donovani and l. infantum in northwest iran.leishmania infantum is the causative agent of infantile visceral leishmaniasis (ivl) in the mediterranean basin and, based on isoenzyme typing of the parasite isolated from dogs; this parasite was considered to predominate in the all foci of ivl in iran. however, based on pcr detection and sequencing of parasite cysteine protease b (cpb), only one out of seven sandfly infections in phlebotomus perfiliewi transcaucasicus was found to be l. infantum in the current investigation. the six other infe ...200919631209
soluble cd26/cd30 levels in visceral leishmaniasis: markers of disease activity.leishmania infantum is the causative agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (vl). if untreated the disease could be fatal; however, in some cases the infection can run a subclinical course. in subclinical infections a th1-response predominates, while th2-responses and/or probably treg cells are related to unfavourable outcome of the disease in active vl. in the present study we determined the levels of soluble (s) cd26 and cd30 co-stimulatory molecules in sera from patients with active vl, asy ...200616792672
age, acquired immunity and the risk of visceral leishmaniasis: a prospective study in iran.in order to investigate the phenomenon of age-related immunity to visceral leishmaniasis, a 1 year prospective survey was carried out on 5671 people in a leishmania infantum focus in north-west iran. the average incidence rate of infection since 1985 was 2.8%/year with all ages equally at risk. one in 13 infections in children led to visceral leishmaniasis (vl), and this ratio decreased significantly with age. seroprevalence also dropped rapidly with age, suggesting that the same process may aff ...199910503250
rapid detection of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis: assessment of a latex agglutination test based on the a2 antigen from amastigote forms of leishmania infantum.the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) in humans and animal reservoir hosts is difficult, particularly in rural areas where the disease is endemic and laboratory facilities are limited. this study aimed to develop a latex agglutination test (lat) for the rapid detection of anti-leishmania antibodies against the a2 antigen derived from the amastigote form as well as those against crude antigens derived from the promastigote form of an iranian strain of leishmania (leishmania) infantum. the ...201223276878
interleukin-13 in iranian patients with visceral leishmaniasis: relationship to other th2 and th1 cytokines.the role of interleukin (il)-13, a th2 cytokine sharing many of the features of il-4, has not previously been examined in patients with visceral leishmaniasis (vl). we examined sera from iranian patients with vl caused by leishmania infantum. serum il-13 was detected in 50% (22/44) of patients with active primary disease. in comparison, il-10 was detected in 79.5% (35/44), interferon gamma (ifn gamma) in 38.5% (17/44), and il-4 in only 5% (2/44) of these patients. with few exceptions all 3 cytok ...200111280075
two leishmania species circulating in the kaleybar focus of infantile visceral leishmaniasis, northwest iran: implications for deltamethrin dog collar intervention.leishmania infantum is the causative agent of infantile visceral leishmaniasis (ivl) in the mediterranean basin and, based on isoenzyme typing of a few isolates from patients and domestic dogs, this parasite was considered to predominate in the kaleybar focus of ivl in northwest iran. however, in the current investigation only one out of five sandfly infections was found to be l. infantum, based on pcr detection and sequencing of parasite internal transcribed spacer (its) rdna infecting phleboto ...200818554675
identification and phylogenetic relationship of iranian strains of various leishmania species isolated from cutaneous and visceral cases of leishmaniasis based on n-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase gene.the identity of iranian leishmania species has been resolved to some extent by some genetic markers. in this study, based on n-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase (nagt) gene, we further elucidated the identity and phylogeny of the prevalent species in this country. dnas of 121 isolates belonging to cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) patients, canine visceral leishmaniasis (cvl) cases, and rhombomys opimus rodents were amplified by targeting a partial sequence of nagt gene. all the amplicons wer ...201424911282
visceral leishmaniasis without fever in an 11-month-old infant: a rare clinical feature of kala-azar.visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar is an endemic parasitic disease in some parts of the world which is characterized by fever, splenomegaly, and pancytopenia in most of the cases. herein we report an 11 month-old male infant with diagnosis of kala-azar who presented with pallor, hepatosplenomegaly, failure to gain weight, and no history of fever. surprisingly, fever started after beginning of meglumine antimoniate treatment in this patient. as far as we are aware of, this is a rare presentation ...201424850963
detection and molecular identification of leishmania rna virus (lrv) in iranian leishmania species.leishmania rna virus (lrv) was first detected in members of the subgenus leishmania (viannia), and later, the virulence and metastasis of the new world species were attributed to this virus. the data on the presence of lrv in old world species are confined to leishmania major and a few leishmania aethiopica isolates. the aim of this study was to survey the presence of lrv in various iranian leishmania species originating from patients and animal reservoir hosts. genomic nucleic acids were extrac ...201627604119
Isolation and detection of Leishmania species among naturally infected Rhombomis opimus, a reservoir host of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Turkemen Sahara, North East of Iran.In Iran, three species of Leishmania have been incriminated as the causative agents of human leishmaniasis, Leishmania (L.) major, Leishmania tropica, and Leishmania infantum.Rhombomis opimus have been incriminated as a principal reservoirs of the parasitic protozoan Leishmania major, the causative agent of rural zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in Iran. Rodents captured and examined to find Leishmania species using conventional methods including direct impression smear and microscopic obs ...201121945269
three leishmania/l. species--l. infantum, l. major, l. tropica--as causative agents of mucosal leishmaniasis in iran.cases of human oro-mucosal leishmaniasis are mainly reported in areas where leishmania (viannia) braziliensis perpetuates and the damages are mainly located at the cartilaginous nasal septum and frontal portions of the nasal fossa. in iran, an area free of any l.(v) braziliensis, three leishmania species are known to perpetuate through distinct (i) blood-feeding sand flies and (ii) rodents or (iii) canidae. thus while establishing the diagnosis of any human oro-mucosal lesions, three leishmania ...201323916336
performance of latex agglutination test (katex) in diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in iran.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is an endemic disease in some parts of iran. many techniques have been used for diagnosis of vl, among which the urine based latex agglutination test (katex) is a promising one.200920054108
an observational study on the current distribution of visceral leishmaniasis in different geographical zones of iran and implication to health policy.visceral leishmaniasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases that is endemic in some parts of iran. this study aimed to determine current distribution of visceral leishmaniasis in four distinct geographical zones of iran. a cross-sectional study was conducted using direct agglutination test (dat) on 9396 and 2559 serum samples collected from humans and domestic dogs, respectively during the period of 2007 through 2009. altogether, 403 (4.3%) out of 9396 human serum samples collected fr ...201121419708
emergence of co-infection of visceral leishmaniasis in hiv-positive patients in northeast iran: a preliminary study.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) serosurvey was carried out on 49 hiv/aids patients among 500 asymptomatic hiv/infected patients who registered in the khorasan razavi province during the last 14 years. hiv infections were detected by elisa and confirmed using western blot assay at the aids centre of the khorasan razavi province. all collected sera were screened using the direct agglutination test (dat). the sera with anti-leishmania infantum antibodies at a titre of 1:100 were considered positive for ...201424100200
rapid detection of human leishmania infantum infection: a comparative field study using the fast agglutination screening test and the direct agglutination test.this study aimed to evaluate the performance of a fast agglutination screening test (fast) for serodiagnosis of human leishmania infantum infection in iran. fast is based on the direct agglutination test (dat) but combines with a higher parasite concentration and is performed with only one serum dilution. the validity of fast for the detection of l. infantum infection in the field was compared with the direct agglutination test on 110 confirmed or patients suspected of infection with leishmanias ...201020971441
canine visceral leishmaniasis: a comparative study of real-time pcr, conventional pcr, and direct agglutination on sera for the detection of leishmania infantum infection.canine visceral leishmaniasis (cvl) is endemic in northwestern iran. this study aimed to compare real-time pcr, conventional pcr, and the direct agglutination test (dat) for the diagnosis leishmania infantum infection in 167 serum samples of domestic dog. bone marrow was used for parasitological examination (smears and/or culture) in symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis, and serum was used for detection of l. infantum kinetoplast dna (kdna) by both conventional pcr and real-time pcr, while anti-l. ...201323153824
first detection of leishmania infantum in phlebotomus kandelakii using molecular methods in north-eastern islamic republic of iran.shirvan district in north-eastern islamic republic of iran is a new focus of visceral leishmaniasis. this study aimed to identify the vector(s), the parasite and the species composition of sand flies in the district during july-september 2009 using polymerase chain reaction techniques. in all, 2088 sand flies were collected from 3 villages. nine sand fly species were identified: phlebotomus kandelakii (shchurenkova), p. major (annandale), p. halepensis (theodor), p. papatasi (scopoli), p. sergen ...201222768703
first report on natural infection of the phlebotomus tobbi by leishmania infantum in northwestern iran.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is an important health problem in ardebil, where it borders azerbaijan in the northwestern iran. in spite of the presence of both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (cl and vl) in northwestern iran, previous researches have consistently revealed the etiologic agent of vl in the region to be leishmania infantum. this is the first report of natural infection of phlebotomus tobbi with l. infantum in bilesavar district in the northern part of ardebil province bordering ...201222609304
epidemiological aspects of canine visceral leishmaniosis in the islamic republic of iran.an epidemiological study to examine the sero-prevalence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis (zvl) among domestic and wild canines in endemic foci of iran was carried out during 1999-2003 to assess the distribution of the disease and the possible association between infection in dogs, wild canines and people. anti-leishmanial antibodies were detected by the direct agglutination test (dat). parasitological study was performed for all captured wild canines and were detected in some of the seropositi ...200515845279
cutaneous and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis caused by leishmania infantum in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis, northwestern iran 2002-2011: a case series.visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is endemic in northwest and southern iran. reports of cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) in northwest areas are rare, and its etiological agents are unknown. in the current study, we report six cl and two post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (pkdl) cases caused by leishmania infantum from endemic areas of vl in the northwest. smears were made from skin lesions of 30 suspected patients in 2002-2011, and cl was determined by microscopy or culture. leishmania spp. were identifi ...201323816511
protective vaccination against experimental canine visceral leishmaniasis using a combination of dna and protein immunization with cysteine proteinases type i and ii of l. infantum.leishmania infantum is known to be associated with visceral leishmaniasis in iran and canids are natural reservoirs. control of disease in dogs appears to be one of the most effective approaches for interrupting the domestic cycle of the disease. in search for successful vaccine strategies, we evaluated the cysteine proteinases (cps) type i and ii using a heterologous prime-boost regime for vaccination against experimental visceral leishmaniasis in dogs. following vaccination and challenge, dogs ...200515882533
domestic dog ownership in iran is a risk factor for human infection with leishmania infantum.one explanation proposed for the widespread failure to control zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis by culling infected domestic dogs is that wild canids or humans play significant roles in transmission. the aim of this study was to determine the importance of domestic dogs as the reservoir hosts of visceral leishmaniasis in northwest iran. a random sample of 3,872 children and 199 dogs in 38 villages was surveyed by the direct agglutination test. dog ownership details among these households were col ...200212479553
cross-reaction of sera from patients with various infectious diseases with leishmania infantum.to compare and evaluate the application of indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (ciep) for laboratory identification of visceral leishmaniasis.200515785097
dermotropic isolates of leishmania infantum in iran. 19979373647
detection of leishmania infantum kinetoplast dna in the whole blood of asymptomatic individuals by pcr-elisa and comparison with other infection markers in endemic areas, southern iran.visceral leishmaniasis (vl), caused by leishmania infantum, is endemic in southern iran. to detect asymptomatic individuals, we used kinetoplast dna (kdna) polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-elisa methods on 388 blood samples of healthy persons in two endemic loci and compared the results with the leishmanin skin test (lst) and the immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat). kdna pcr, lst, and ifat were positive in 95 (24.5%), 132 (34%), and 212 (54.6%) cases, respectively. fifty-five (21.4%) individua ...200819052289
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