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immunolocalization of scrapie amyloid (prp27-30) in chronic wasting disease of rocky mountain elk and hybrids of captive mule deer and white-tailed deer.scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques are present in brain tissues of captive mule deer with chronic wasting disease (cwd), a progressive neurological disorder characterized neuropathologically by widespread spongiform change of the neuropil, intracytoplasmic vacuolation in neuronal perikarya and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. we report here the immunolocalization of scrapie amyloid (prp27-30) in plaques observed in brain tissues of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and hybri ...19911681473
topographic distribution of scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques in chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus).chronic wasting disease (cwd), a progressive neurological disorder of captive mule deer, black-tailed deer, hybrids of mule deer and white-tailed deer and rocky mountain elk, is characterized neuropathologically by widespread spongiform change of the neuropil, intracytoplasmic vacuolation in neuronal perikarya and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. we report the topographic distribution of amyloid plaques reactive to antibodies prepared against scrapie amyloid in cwd-affected captive mule d ...19911713390
fibrils in brain of rocky mountain elk with chronic wasting disease contain scrapie amyloid.chronic wasting disease (cwd), a progressive, fatal neurological disorder of captive mule deer and rocky mountain elk, is characterized neuropathologically by spongiform change in the neuropil, intraneuronal vacuolation and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. recently, scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques have been demonstrated in brain tissues of cwd-affected captive mule deer, rocky mountain elk and hybrids of captive mule deer and white-tailed deer. we now report on the presence of abno ...19938372644
spongiform encephalopathy in free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in northcentral colorado.between march 1981 and june 1995, a neurological disease characterized histologically by spongiform encephalopathy was diagnosed in 49 free-ranging cervids from northcentral colorado (usa). mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) were the primary species affected and accounted for 41 (84%) of the 49 cases, but six rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and two white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were also affected. clinical signs included emaciation, excessive salivation, behavioral changes, ...19979027685
epizootiology of chronic wasting disease in free-ranging cervids in colorado and wyoming.surveillance and epidemic modeling were used to study chronic wasting disease (cwd), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that occurs naturally among sympatric, free-ranging deer (odocoileus spp.) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations in contiguous portions of northeastern colorado and southeastern wyoming (usa). we used clinical case submissions to identify endemic areas, then used immunohistochemistry to detect cwd-infected individuals among 5,513 deer and elk sample ...200011085429
preclinical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) using tonsillar biopsy.the usefulness of tonsillar biopsy on live deer for preclinical diagnosis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy chronic wasting disease (cwd) was evaluated. disease was tracked in a cwd-endemic herd using serial tonsillar biopsies collected at 6 to 9 month intervals from 34 captive mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and five white-tailed deer (o. virginianus). tonsillar biopsies were examined for accumulation of prp(cwd), the protein marker for infection, using immunohistochemical (ihc) st ...200212237447
prevalence of chronic wasting disease and bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging deer and elk in south dakota.heads of hunter-harvested deer and elk were collected throughout south dakota (usa) and within established chronic wasting disease (cwd) surveillance areas from 1997-2002 to determine infection with cwd and bovine tuberculosis (tb). we used immunohistochemistry to detect cwd-infected individuals among 1,672 deer and elk sampled via geographically targeted surveillance. a total of 537 elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), 813 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and 322 mule deer (o. hemionus) was ...200312685066
chronic wasting disease in free-ranging wisconsin white-tailed deer.three white-tailed deer shot within 5 km during the 2001 hunting season in wisconsin tested positive for chronic wasting disease, a prion disease of cervids. subsequent sampling within 18 km showed a 3% prevalence (n=476). this discovery represents an important range extension for chronic wasting disease into the eastern united states.200312737746
field validation and assessment of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting chronic wasting disease in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).tissue samples (n = 25,050 total) from 23,256 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) collected statewide in colorado were examined for chronic wasting disease (cwd) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed by bio-rad laboratories, inc. (brelisa), in a 2-phase study. in the validation phase of this study, a total of 4,175 retropharyngeal lymph nodes (rln) or obex (ob) tissue samples were examined ind ...200312918810
prion protein gene heterogeneity in free-ranging white-tailed deer within the chronic wasting disease affected region of wisconsin.chronic wasting disease (cwd) was first identified in wisconsin (usa) in whitetailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in february 2002. to determine if prion protein gene (prnp) allelic variability was associated with cwd in white-tailed deer from wisconsin, we sequenced prnp from 26 cwd-positive and 100 cwd-negative deer. sequence analysis of prnp suggests that at least 86-96% of the white-tailed deer in this region have prnp allelic combinations that will support cwd infection. four prnp alleles ...200314567218
prion gene sequence variation within diverse groups of u.s. sheep, beef cattle, and deer.prions are proteins that play a central role in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in a variety of mammals. among the most notable prion disorders in ungulates are scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle, and chronic wasting disease in deer. single nucleotide polymorphisms in the sheep prion gene ( prnp) have been correlated with susceptibility to natural scrapie in some populations. similar correlations have not been reported in cattle or deer; however, characterizat ...200314722726
chronic wasting disease of cervids.chronic wasting disease (cwd) has recently emerged in north america as an important prion disease of captive and free-ranging cervids (species in the deer family). cwd is the only recognized transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) affecting free-ranging species. three cervid species, mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (o. virginianus), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), are the only known natural hosts of cwd. endemic cwd is well established in southern wyomin ...200415148993
the first canadian indigenous case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) has molecular characteristics for prion protein that are similar to those of bse in the united kingdom but differ from those of chronic wasting disease in captive elk and deer.brain tissue from a case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) from alberta was subjected to a western immunoblotting technique to ascertain the molecular profile of any disease-specific, abnormal prion protein, that is, prion protein that is protease-resistant (prp(res)). this technique can discriminate between isolates from bse, ovine scrapie, and sheep experimentally infected with bse. isolates of brain tissue from the bse case in alberta, 3 farmed elk with chronic wasting disease (cwd) f ...200415532881
chronic wasting disease.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a unique transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (o. virginianus), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). the natural history of cwd is incompletely understood, but it differs from scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) by virtue of its occurrence in nondomestic and free-ranging species. cwd has many features in common with scrapie, including early widespread distribution of disease ...200516145200
first results of chronic wasting disease (cwd) surveillance in the south-eastern part of belgium.chronic wasting disease (cwd) has not been reported in europe, whereas it is considered to be enzootic in free-ranging mule deer, rocky mountain elk and white-tailed deer in the area of colorado, wyoming, and nebraska, and new foci of cwd have been detected in other parts of the united states. however, no large-scale active epidemiosurveillance of european wild cervids has been installed in europe. in accordance with the opinion of the european scientific steering committee, a preliminary (activ ...200516238109
inhibition of protease-resistant prion protein formation in a transformed deer cell line infected with chronic wasting disease.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is an emerging transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) of north american cervids, i.e., mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk (wapiti). to facilitate in vitro studies of cwd, we have developed a transformed deer cell line that is persistently infected with cwd. primary cultures derived from uninfected mule deer brain tissue were transformed by transfection with a plasmid containing the simian virus 40 genome. a transformed cell line (mdb) was exposed ...200616378962
abnormal prion protein in ectopic lymphoid tissue in a kidney of an asymptomatic white-tailed deer experimentally inoculated with the agent of chronic wasting disease.chronic wasting disease (cwd), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) of deer and elk, is one of a group of fatal, neurologic diseases that affect several mammalian species, including human beings. infection by the causative agent induces accumulations of an abnormal form of prion protein (prpres) in nervous and lymphoid tissues. this report documents the presence of prpres within ectopic lymphoid follicles in a kidney of a white-tailed deer that had been experimentally inoculated by th ...200616672586
first chronic wasting disease (cwd) surveillance of roe deer (capreolus capreolus) in the northern part of belgium.cases of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in wild cervids have yet not been reported in europe, whereas the disease is considered enzootic in free-ranging mule deer, rocky mountain elk and white-tailed deer in the area of colorado, wyoming, and nebraska. new foci of cwd continue to be detected in other parts of the united states. however, no large-scale active epidemiosurveillance of european wild cervids is yet installed in europe. in accordance with the opinion of the european scientific steering ...200616841567
transmission of elk and deer prions to transgenic mice.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a fatal prion disease in deer and elk. unique among the prion diseases, it is transmitted among captive and free-ranging animals. to facilitate studies of the biology of cwd prions, we generated five lines of transgenic (tg) mice expressing prion protein (prp) from rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), denoted tg(elkprp), and two lines of tg mice expressing prp common to white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), denote ...200616940522
prion protein in cardiac muscle of elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) infected with chronic wasting disease.to investigate the possible presence of disease-associated prion protein (prp(d)) in striated muscle of chronic wasting disease (cwd)-affected cervids, samples of diaphragm, tongue, heart and three appendicular skeletal muscles from mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and moose (alces alces shirasi) were examined by elisa, western immunoblot and immunohistochemistry (ihc). prp(d) was detected in samples of heart muscle from se ...200617030881
spatial epidemiology of chronic wasting disease in wisconsin white-tailed deer.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a fatal, emerging disease of cervids associated with transmissible protease-resistant prion proteins. the potential for cwd to cause dramatic declines in deer and elk populations and perceived human health risks associated with consuming cwd-contaminated venison have led wildlife agencies to embark on extensive cwd control programs, typically involving culling to reduce deer populations. we characterized the spatial distribution of cwd in white-tailed deer (odoco ...200617092889
transmission and adaptation of chronic wasting disease to hamsters and transgenic mice: evidence for strains.in vitro screening using the cell-free prion protein conversion system indicated that certain rodents may be susceptible to chronic wasting disease (cwd). therefore, cwd isolates from mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk were inoculated intracerebrally into various rodent species to assess the rodents' susceptibility and to develop new rodent models of cwd. the species inoculated were syrian golden, djungarian, chinese, siberian, and armenian hamsters, transgenic mice expressing the syrian gold ...200717287284
comparison of retropharyngeal lymph node and obex region of the brainstem in detection of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus).chronic wasting disease (cwd) in wisconsin was first identified in february 2002. by april 2005, medial retropharyngeal lymph node (rln) tissues had been examined from over 75,000 white-tailed deer for the presence of cwd by either immunohistochemical (ihc) staining for the prion protein associated with cwd (prp(res)) or by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with confirmation of positives by ihc staining and had been detected in 469 animals. obex tissue was also available from 438 of the c ...200818182509
preliminary observations on the experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (cwd) from elk and white-tailed deer to fallow deer.to determine the transmissibility of chronic wasting disease (cwd) to fallow deer (dama dama) and to provide information about clinical course, lesions and suitability of currently used diagnostic procedures for detection of cwd in this species, 13 fawns were inoculated intracerebrally with cwd brain suspension from elk (n=6) or white-tailed deer (n=7). three other fawns were kept as uninfected controls. three cwd-inoculated deer were killed 7.6 months post-inoculation (mpi). none had abnormal p ...200818336829
experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (cwd) of elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) to white-tailed deer by intracerebral route.to compare clinical and pathologic findings of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in a natural host, 3 groups (n = 5) of white-tailed deer (wtd) fawns were intracerebrally inoculated with a cwd prion of wtd, mule deer, or elk origin. three other uninoculated fawns served as controls. approximately 10 months postinoculation (mpi), 1 deer from each of the 3 inoculated groups was necropsied and their tissues were examined for lesions of spongiform encephalopathy (se) and for the presence of abnormal pri ...200818487485
bovine viral diarrhea virus multiorgan infection in two white-tailed deer in southeastern south dakota.the susceptibility of wild ruminants, especially cervids, to bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) has remained an enigma. two white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were submitted to the animal disease research and diagnostic laboratory (adrdl) in the fall of 2003 by the south dakota game fish and parks for chronic wasting disease (cwd) testing. both animals were cwd negative. the animals were necropsied and histopathology, viral antigen detection, and virus isolation were performed. a noncyto ...200818689667
persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in wild cervids of colorado.bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) is a significant viral pathogen of domestic cattle. worldwide, there is evidence of bvdv exposure and infection in wild ungulates; however, the frequency and significance of such events are unknown. to determine the prevalence and distribution of colorado deer, elk, and moose persistently infected (pi) with bvdv, a cross-sectional study was conducted using full-thickness ear tissue samples collected from animals presented to the colorado division of wildlife fo ...200818776103
validation of use of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue for immunohistochemical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus).the examination of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (ramalt) biopsy specimens for the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies has been described in sheep, elk, and small numbers of mule and white-tailed deer. previous sample numbers have been too small to validate examination of this type of tissue as a viable antemortem diagnostic test. in this study, we examined ramalt collected postmortem from 76 white-tailed deer removed from a farm in wisconsin known to be affected ...200919261781
surveillance for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in scavengers of white-tailed deer carcasses in the chronic wasting disease area of wisconsin.chronic wasting disease (cwd), a class of neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tse) occurring in cervids, is found in a number of states and provinces across north america. misfolded prions, the infectious agents of cwd, are deposited in the environment via carcass remains and excreta, and pose a threat of cross-species transmission. in this study tissues were tested from 812 representative mammalian scavengers, collected in the cwd-affected area of wisconsin, for tse inf ...200919697235
polymorphisms at the prnp gene influence susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in two species of deer (odocoileus spp.) in western canada.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is increasingly prevalent in multiple wild mule (odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (o. virginianus) herds in north america. cwd was first found in canadian wild mule deer in saskatchewan in 2000 and has since spread into the neighboring province of alberta. the infectious agent for cwd is a misfolded prion protein encoded by the prnp gene. previous studies revealed association between prnp genotype and susceptibility to cwd in both mule and white-tailed dee ...200919697236
chronic wasting disease prions are not transmissible to transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a prion disease that affects free-ranging and captive cervids, including mule deer, white-tailed deer, rocky mountain elk and moose. cwd-infected cervids have been reported in 14 usa states, two canadian provinces and in south korea. the possibility of a zoonotic transmission of cwd prions via diet is of particular concern in north america where hunting of cervids is a popular sport. to investigate the potential public health risks posed by cwd prions, we have in ...201020610667
association analysis of prnp gene region with chronic wasting disease in rocky mountain elk.abstract:201021087518
presence and seeding activity of pathological prion protein (prp(tse)) in skeletal muscles of white-tailed deer infected with chronic wasting disease.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a contagious, rapidly spreading transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse), or prion disease, occurring in cervids such as white tailed-deer (wtd), mule deer or elk in north america. despite efficient horizontal transmission of cwd among cervids natural transmission of the disease to other species has not yet been observed. here, we report for the first time a direct biochemical demonstration of pathological prion protein prp(tse) and of prp(tse)-associated se ...201121483771
modeling routes of chronic wasting disease transmission: environmental prion persistence promotes deer population decline and extinction.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a fatal disease of deer, elk, and moose transmitted through direct, animal-to-animal contact, and indirectly, via environmental contamination. considerable attention has been paid to modeling direct transmission, but despite the fact that cwd prions can remain infectious in the environment for years, relatively little information exists about the potential effects of indirect transmission on cwd dynamics. in the present study, we use simulation models to demonstr ...201121603638
experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (cwd) from elk and white-tailed deer to fallow deer by intracerebral route: final report.final observations on experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (cwd) from elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) to fallow deer (dama dama) are reported herein. during the 5-year study, 13 fawns were inoculated intracerebrally with cwd-infected brain material from white-tailed deer (n = 7; group a) or elk (n = 6; group b), and 3 other fawns were kept as uninoculated controls (group c). as described previously, 3 cwd-inoculated deer were euthanized ...201121731188
prpsc detection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue by elisa.abstract:201122018205
polymorphisms in the prion precursor functional gene but not the pseudogene are associated with susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer.chronic wasting disease (cwd) status and prp genotypes were determined for a group of 133 wild white-tailed deer in a 780 acre enclosure in western nebraska, usa. approximately half of the deer tested showed evidence of prpd in the brainstem or lymphoid tissues. four prnp alleles encoding amino acid substitutions were identified, with substitutions at residues 95 (q-->h), 96 (g-->s) or 116 (a-->g), each with serine (s) at residue 138. in addition, a processed pseudogene with two alleles encoding ...200415105552
diversity and distribution of white-tailed deer mtdna lineages in chronic wasting disease (cwd) outbreak areas in southern wisconsin, usa.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting north american cervids. because it is uniformly fatal, the disease is a major concern in the management of white-tailed deer populations. management programs to control cwd require improved knowledge of deer interaction, movement, and population connectivity that could influence disease transmission and spread. genetic methods were employed to evaluate connectivity among populations in the cwd management zone of ...201122043912
rapid detection of cwd prp: comparison of tests designed for the detection of bse or scrapie.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) mainly affecting cervids in north america. the accumulation of an abnormal form of host-encoded prion protein (prp(cwd) ) in the cns and lymphoid tissues is characteristic of the disease and known to be caused by pathogenic prion proteins (prp(res) ), which are thought to be transmitted mainly by contact with body fluids, such like saliva. species known to be naturally infected by cwd include rocky mountain elk (cer ...201122212828
White-tailed deer are susceptible to the agent of sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation.ABSTRACT: Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to the agent of scrapie after intracerebral inoculation and to compare clinical signs and lesions to those reported for chronic wasting disease (CWD). Deer (n = 5) were inoculated with 1 mL of a 10% (wt/vol) brain homogenate derived from a sheep clinically affected with s ...201121988781
using wild white-tailed deer to detect eastern equine encephalitis virus activity in maine.abstract serum from 226 free-ranging white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) was screened for eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) antibodies using plaque reduction neutralization tests. eeev antibodies were detected in 7.1% of samples. this is the first time eeev antibodies have been detected in o. virginianus populations in the state of maine (me). the highest percentage of eeev positive sera was in somerset county (19%) in central me, and this is the first time that eeev activity has b ...201121736489
when mechanism matters: bayesian forecasting using models of ecological diffusion.ecological diffusion is a theory that can be used to understand and forecast spatio-temporal processes such as dispersal, invasion, and the spread of disease. hierarchical bayesian modelling provides a framework to make statistical inference and probabilistic forecasts, using mechanistic ecological models. to illustrate, we show how hierarchical bayesian models of ecological diffusion can be implemented for large data sets that are distributed densely across space and time. the hierarchical baye ...201728371055
prion disease detection, pmca kinetics, and igg in urine from sheep naturally/experimentally infected with scrapie and deer with preclinical/clinical chronic wasting disease.prion diseases, also known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are fatal neurodegenerative disorders. low levels of infectious agent and limited, infrequent success of disease transmissibility and prp(sc) detection have been reported with urine from experimentally infected clinical cervids and rodents. we report the detection of prion disease-associated seeding activity (pasa) in urine from naturally and orally infected sheep with clinical scrapie agent and orally infected preclinical ...201121715495
prion protein polymorphisms affect chronic wasting disease progression.analysis of the prnp gene in cervids naturally infected with chronic wasting disease (cwd) suggested that prnp polymorphisms affect the susceptibility of deer to infection. to test this effect, we orally inoculated 12 white-tailed deer with cwd agent. three different prnp alleles, wild-type (wt; glutamine at amino acid 95 and glycine at 96), q95h (glutamine to histidine at amino acid position 95) and g96s (glycine to serine at position 96) were represented in the study cohort with 5 wt/wt, 3 wt/ ...201121445256
molecular mechanisms of chronic wasting disease prion propagation.prion disease epidemics, which have been unpredictable recurrences, are of significant concern for animal and human health. examples include kuru, once the leading cause of death among the fore people in papua new guinea and caused by mortuary feasting; bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) and its subsequent transmission to humans in the form of variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease (vcjd), and repeated examples of large-scale prion disease epidemics in animals caused by contaminated vaccines. the ...201728193766
molecular genealogy tools for white-tailed deer with chronic wasting disease.molecular genetic data provide powerful tools for genealogy reconstruction to reveal mechanisms underlying disease ecology. white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) congregate in matriarchal groups; kin-related close social spacing may be a factor in the spread of infectious diseases. spread of chronic wasting disease (cwd), a prion disorder of deer and their cervid relatives, is presumed to be associated with direct contact between individuals and by exposure to shared food and water sources ...201020592847
horizontal transmission of chronic wasting disease in reindeer.we challenged reindeer by the intracranial route with the agent of chronic wasting disease sourced from white-tailed deer, mule deer, or elk and tested for horizontal transmission to naive reindeer. reindeer were susceptible to chronic wasting disease regardless of source species. horizontal transmission occurred through direct contact or indirectly through the environment.201627869594
a novel method for preclinical detection of prpsc in blood.in this study, we demonstrate that a moderate amount of protein misfolding cyclic amplification (pmca) coupled to a novel surround optical fibre immunoassay (sofia) detection scheme can be used to detect the disease-associated form of the prion protein (prp(sc)) in protease-untreated plasma from preclinical and clinical scrapie sheep, and white-tailed deer with chronic wasting disease, following natural and experimental infection. prp(sc), resulting from a conformational change of the normal (ce ...201020357038
assessment of the prpc amino-terminal domain in prion species barriers.chronic wasting disease (cwd) in cervids and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) in cattle are prion diseases that are caused by the same protein-misfolding mechanism, but they appear to pose different risks to humans. we are interested in understanding the differences between the species barriers of cwd and bse. we used real-time, quaking-induced conversion (rt-quic) to model the central molecular event in prion disease, the templated misfolding of the normal prion protein, prp(c), to a path ...201627654299
chronic wasting disease drives population decline of white-tailed deer.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is an invariably fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk, and moose. despite a 100% fatality rate, areas of high prevalence, and increasingly expanding geographic endemic areas, little is known about the population-level effects of cwd in deer. to investigate these effects, we tested the null hypothesis that high prevalence cwd did not negatively impact white-tailed deer population sustainability. the specific objectives of ...201627575545
b cells and platelets harbor prion infectivity in the blood of deer infected with chronic wasting disease.substantial evidence for prion transmission via blood transfusion exists for many transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) diseases. determining which cell phenotype(s) is responsible for trafficking infectivity has important implications for our understanding of the dissemination of prions, as well as their detection and elimination from blood products. we used bioassay studies of native white-tailed deer and transgenic cervidized mice to determine (i) if chronic wasting disease (cwd) bloo ...201020219916
spatial and temporal patterns of chronic wasting disease: fine-scale mapping of a wildlife epidemic in wisconsin.emerging infectious diseases threaten wildlife populations and human health. understanding the spatial distributions of these new diseases is important for disease management and policy makers; however, the data are complicated by heterogeneities across host classes, sampling variance, sampling biases, and the space-time epidemic process. ignoring these issues can lead to false conclusions or obscure important patterns in the data, such as spatial variation in disease prevalence. here, we applie ...200919688937
host culling as an adaptive management tool for chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer: a modelling study.emerging wildlife diseases pose a significant threat to natural and human systems. because of real or perceived risks of delayed actions, disease management strategies such as culling are often implemented before thorough scientific knowledge of disease dynamics is available. adaptive management is a valuable approach in addressing the uncertainty and complexity associated with wildlife disease problems and can be facilitated by using a formal model.we developed a multi-state computer simulation ...200919536340
antemortem detection of chronic wasting disease prions in nasal brush collections and rectal biopsy specimens from white-tailed deer by real-time quaking-induced conversion.chronic wasting disease (cwd), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in colorado and wyoming and has since spread to cervids in 23 states, two canadian provinces, and the republic of korea. the expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction of farmed or free-ranging deer ...201626865693
prion sequence polymorphisms and chronic wasting disease resistance in illinois white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus).nucleic acid sequences of the prion gene (prnp) were examined and genotypes compiled for 76 white-tailed deer from northern illinois, which previously tested positive for chronic wasting disease (cwd), and 120 negative animals selected to control for geographic location and age. nine nucleotide polymorphisms, seven silent and two coding, were found in the sampled population. all observed polymorphisms except two of very low frequency were observed in both negative and positive animals, although ...200819164895
wasting and neurologic signs in a white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) not associated with abnormal prion protein.a captive adult male white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) with wasting and neurologic signs similar to chronic wasting disease (cwd) was evaluated by histopathology, histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry (ihc) for disease-associated prion protein (prp(d)). on histologic examination, the brainstem had areas of vacuolation in neuropil and extensive multifocal mineralization of blood vessels with occasional occlusion of the lumen. some of the clinical and pathologic features of this case w ...200818957666
insights into chronic wasting disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy species barriers by use of real-time conversion.the propensity for transspecies prion transmission is related to the structural characteristics of the enciphering and new host prp, although the exact mechanism remains incompletely understood. the effects of variability in prion protein on cross-species prion transmission have been studied with animal bioassays, but the influence of prion protein structure versus that of host cofactors (e.g., cellular constituents, trafficking, and innate immune interactions) remains difficult to dissect. to i ...201526157118
landscape genetics and the spatial distribution of chronic wasting disease.predicting the spread of wildlife disease is critical for identifying populations at risk, targeting surveillance and designing proactive management programmes. we used a landscape genetics approach to identify landscape features that influenced gene flow and the distribution of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in wisconsin white-tailed deer. cwd prevalence was negatively correlated with genetic differentiation of study area deer from deer in the area of disease origin (core-area). genetic differen ...200818077240
susceptibility of cattle to first-passage intracerebral inoculation with chronic wasting disease agent from white-tailed deer.fourteen, 3-month-old calves were intracerebrally inoculated with the agent of chronic wasting disease (cwd) from white-tailed deer (cwdwtd) to compare the clinical signs and neuropathologic findings with those of certain other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tse, prion diseases) that have been shown to be experimentally transmissible to cattle (sheep scrapie, cwd of mule deer [cwdmd], bovine spongiform encephalopathy [bse], and transmissible mink encephalopathy). two uninoculated cal ...200717606510
prpcwd in rectal lymphoid tissue of deer (odocoileus spp.).the utility of rectal lymphoid tissue sampling for the diagnosis of chronic wasting disease (cwd) infections in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) was evaluated. cwd-associated prion protein (prp(cwd)) deposits were observed in the rectal mucosa from 19 orally inoculated mule deer by 381 days post-inoculation (p.i.); similarly, 45 out of 50 naturally infected mule deer had prp(cwd) in their rectal mucosa. in orally inoculated white-tailed deer, the pre ...200717554043
prion protein genes in caribou from alaska.prion protein genes were sequenced in free-ranging alaska caribou (rangifer tarandus grantii). caribou prion alleles are identical or nearly so to those of wapiti, white-tailed deer, and mule deer. five single-nucleotide polymorphisms were detected with substitutions at residues 2 (v-->m), 129 (g-->s), 138 (s-->n), 146 (n-->n), and 169 (v-->m). the 138n codon had been previously reported only in prion pseudogenes of other cervids. in caribou, the 138s and 138n alleles are present at frequencies ...200717495306
prion protein polymorphisms in white-tailed deer influence susceptibility to chronic wasting disease.the primary sequence of the prion protein affects susceptibility to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, in mice, sheep and humans. the prnp gene sequence of free-ranging, wisconsin white-tailed deer was determined and the prnp genotypes of chronic wasting disease (cwd)-positive and cwd-negative deer were compared. six amino acid changes were identified, two of which were located in pseudogenes. two alleles, a q-->k polymorphism at codon 226 and a single octapeptide repe ...200616760415
detection of chronic wasting disease in the lymph nodes of free-ranging cervids by real-time quaking-induced conversion.chronic wasting disease (cwd), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of deer, elk, and moose, is the only prion disease affecting free-ranging animals. since the disease was first identified in northern colorado and southern wyoming in 1967, new epidemic foci of the disease have been identified in 20 additional states, as well as two canadian provinces and the republic of south korea. identification of cwd-affected animals currently requires postmortem analysis of brain or lymphoid tissues u ...201424958799
transmission of chronic wasting disease in wisconsin white-tailed deer: implications for disease spread and management.few studies have evaluated the rate of infection or mode of transmission for wildlife diseases, and the implications of alternative management strategies. we used hunter harvest data from 2002 to 2013 to investigate chronic wasting disease (cwd) infection rate and transmission modes, and address how alternative management approaches affect disease dynamics in a wisconsin white-tailed deer population. uncertainty regarding demographic impacts of cwd on cervid populations, human and domestic anima ...201424658535
comparison of two automated immunohistochemical procedures for the diagnosis of scrapie in domestic sheep and chronic wasting disease in north american white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus).two commercially available automated immunohistochemistry platforms, ventana nexes and dakocytomation autostainer universal staining system, were compared for diagnosing sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease. both automated platforms used the same antiprion protein monoclonal primary antibodies, but different platform-specific linker and amplification reagents and procedures. duplicate sections of brainstem (at the level of the obex) and lymphoid tissue (retropharyngeal lymph node or ...200616617694
influence of landscape factors and management decisions on spatial and temporal patterns of the transmission of chronic wasting disease transmission in white-tailed deer.chronic wasting disease (cwd) has been reported in white-tailed deer at the border of the us states of illinois and wisconsin since 2002. transmission of infectious prions between animals and from the environment has resulted in spatial and temporal structure observable in the spatio-temporal patterns of reported cases. case locations of 382 positive cases from 28,954 deer tested between 2002 and 2009 provided insight into the potential risk factors and landscape features associated with transmi ...201324258897
in vitro detection of prionemia in tse-infected cervids and hamsters.blood-borne transmission of infectious prions during the symptomatic and asymptomatic stages of disease occurs for both human and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses). the geographical distribution of the cervid tse, chronic wasting disease (cwd), continues to spread across north america and the prospective number of individuals harboring an asymptomatic infection of human variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease (vcjd) in the united kingdom has been projected to be ~1 in 3000 reside ...201324224043
tonsillar biopsy test for chronic wasting disease: two sampling approaches in mule deer and white-tailed deer.preclinical antemortem testing of deer (odocoileus spp.) for chronic wasting disease (cwd) can be important for determining prevalence rates and removing infected individuals from wild populations. because samples with high numbers of tonsillar follicles are likely to provide earlier detection of cwd than samples with fewer follicles, the method of obtaining follicular samples may be critical when investigating disease prevalence. between january 2003 and january 2005, white-tailed deer (o. virg ...200516456177
epidemiology of chronic wasting disease in captive white-tailed and mule deer.the natural occurrence of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in a 1993 cohort of captive white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) afforded the opportunity to describe epidemic dynamics in this species and to compare dynamics with those seen in contemporary cohorts of captive mule deer (o. hemionus) also infected with cwd. the overall incidence of clinical cwd in white-tailed deer was 82% (nine of 11) among individuals that survived >15 mo. affected white-tailed deer died or were killed because of t ...200415362835
transmission of chronic wasting disease identifies a prion strain causing cachexia and heart infection in hamsters.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is an emerging prion disease of free-ranging and captive cervids in north america. in this study we established a rodent model for cwd in syrian golden hamsters that resemble key features of the disease in cervids including cachexia and infection of cardiac muscle. following one to three serial passages of cwd from white-tailed deer into transgenic mice expressing the hamster prion protein gene, cwd was subsequently passaged into syrian golden hamsters. in one passa ...201122174765
in vitro prion protein conversion suggests risk of bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses) affect both domestic sheep (scrapie) and captive and free-ranging cervids (chronic wasting disease; cwd). the geographical range of bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis; bhs) overlaps with states or provinces that have contained scrapie-positive sheep or goats and areas with present epizootics of cwd in cervids. no tses have been documented in bhs, but the susceptibility of this species to tses remains unknown.201323938169
intranasal inoculation of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) with lyophilized chronic wasting disease prion particulate complexed to montmorillonite clay.chronic wasting disease (cwd), the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive north american cervid populations. this disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natu ...201323671598
targeting the detection of chronic wasting disease using the hunter harvest during early phases of an outbreak in saskatchewan, canada.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a fatal disease of north american cervids that was first detected in a wild, hunter-shot deer in saskatchewan along the border with alberta in canada in 2000. spatially explicit models for assessing factors affecting disease detection are needed to guide surveillance and control programs. spatio-temporal patterns in cwd prevalence can be complicated by variation in individual infection probability and sampling biases. we assessed hunter harvest data of mule deer ...201122137503
gene expression alterations in rocky mountain elk infected with chronic wasting disease.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is an invariably fatal neurologic disease that naturally infects mule deer, white tailed deer and elk. the understanding of cwd neurodegeneration at a molecular level is very limited. in this study, microarray analysis was performed to determine changes in the gene expression profiles in six different tissues including brain, midbrain, thalamus, spleen, rpln and tonsil of cwd-infected elk in comparison to non-infected healthy elk, using 24,000 bovine specific oligo ...201222561165
pathways of prion spread during early chronic wasting disease in deer.among prion infections, two scenarios of prion spread are generally observed: (a) early lymphoid tissue replication or (b) direct neuroinvasion without substantial antecedent lymphoid amplification. in nature, cervids are infected with chronic wasting disease (cwd) prions by oral and nasal mucosal exposure, and studies of early cwd pathogenesis have implicated pharyngeal lymphoid tissue as the earliest sites of prion accumulation. however, knowledge of chronological events in prion spread during ...201728250130
aerosol transmission of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer.while the facile transmission of chronic wasting disease (cwd) remains incompletely elucidated, studies in rodents suggest that exposure of the respiratory mucosa may be an efficient pathway. the present study was designed to address this question in the native cervid host. here, we demonstrate aerosol transmission of cwd to deer with a prion dose >20-fold lower than that used in previous oral inoculations. inhalation of prions may facilitate transmission of cwd and, perhaps, other prion infecti ...201323175370
endogenous brain lipids inhibit prion amyloid formation in vitro.the normal cellular prion protein (prp(c)) resides in detergent-resistant outer membrane lipid rafts in which conversion to the pathogenic misfolded form is believed to occur. once misfolding occurs, the pathogenic isoform polymerizes into highly stable amyloid fibrils. in vitro assays have demonstrated an intimate association between prion conversion and lipids, specifically phosphatidylethanolamine, which is a critical cofactor in the formation of synthetic infectious prions. in the current wo ...201728202758
chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer: infection, mortality, and implications for heterogeneous transmission.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting free-ranging and captive cervids that now occurs in 24 u.s. states and two canadian provinces. despite the potential threat of cwd to deer populations, little is known about the rates of infection and mortality caused by this disease. we used epidemiological models to estimate the force of infection and disease-associated mortality for white-tailed deer in the wisconsin and illinois cwd outbreaks. models were based on a ...201627870037
modeled impacts of chronic wasting disease on white-tailed deer in a semi-arid environment.white-tailed deer are a culturally and economically important game species in north america, especially in south texas. the recent discovery of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in captive deer facilities in texas has increased concern about the potential emergence of cwd in free-ranging deer. the concern is exacerbated because much of the south texas region is a semi-arid environment with variable rainfall, where precipitation is strongly correlated with fawn recruitment. further, the marginally pr ...201627711208
primary transmission of chronic wasting disease versus scrapie prions from small ruminants to transgenic mice expressing ovine or cervid prion protein.development of mice expressing either ovine (tg338) or cervid (tgelk) prion protein (prp) have aided in characterization of scrapie and chronic wasting disease (cwd), respectively. experimental inoculation of sheep with cwd prions has demonstrated the potential for interspecies transmission but, infection with cwd versus classical scrapie prions may be difficult to differentiate using validated diagnostic platforms. in this study, mouse bioassay in tg338 and tgelk was utilized to evaluate transm ...201627393736
aspects of the husbandry and management of captive cervids.in a continuing effort to better understand the transmission and persistence of chronic wasting disease in wild populations of cervids, colorado state university, fort collins houses two species of deer indoors to study the pathogenesis of chronic wasting disease. here we report key aspects regarding the husbandry and medication of reeves' muntjac and white-tailed deer in captivity for research purposes.201627003353
highly efficient amplification of chronic wasting disease agent by protein misfolding cyclic amplification with beads (pmcab).protein misfolding cyclic amplification (pmca) has emerged as an important technique for detecting low levels of pathogenic prion protein in biological samples. the method exploits the ability of the pathogenic prion protein to convert the normal prion protein to a proteinase k-resistant conformation. inclusion of teflon® beads in the pmca reaction (pmcab) has been previously shown to increase the sensitivity and robustness of detection for the 263 k and sslow strains of hamster-adapted prions. ...201222514738
effects of chronic wasting disease on reproduction and fawn harvest vulnerability in wisconsin white-tailed deer.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a fatal, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that affects free-ranging and captive north american cervids. although the impacts of cwd on cervid survival have been documented, little is known about the disease impacts on reproduction and recruitment. we used genetic methods and harvest data (2002-04) to reconstruct parentage for a cohort of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) fawns born in spring 2002 and evaluate the effects of cwd infection on reprod ...201222493111
the role of genetics in chronic wasting disease of north american cervids.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a major concern for the management of north american cervid populations. this fatal prion disease has led to declines in populations which have high cwd prevalence and areas with both high and low infection rates have experienced economic losses in wildlife recreation and fears of potential spill-over into livestock or humans. research from human and veterinary medicine has established that the prion protein gene (prnp) encodes the protein responsible for transmi ...201222460693
surveillance to detect chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer in wisconsin.chronic wasting disease (cwd), a prion disease affecting north american cervids, has been discovered in at least 12 states and provinces throughout the continent. since 2002, a number of states and provinces have initiated surveillance programs to detect cwd in native cervid populations. however, many questions remain about the appropriate methods, geographic scope, and number of samples required for an effective cwd surveillance program. we provide an improved statistical method to calculate th ...200919901375
genetic susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in free-ranging white-tailed deer: complement component c1q and prnp polymorphisms.the genetic basis of susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (cwd) in free-ranging cervids is of great interest. association studies of disease susceptibility in free-ranging populations, however, face considerable challenges including: the need for large sample sizes when disease is rare, animals of unknown pedigree create a risk of spurious results due to population admixture, and the inability to control disease exposure or dose. we used an innovative matched case-control design and conditi ...200919723593
social affiliation and contact patterns among white-tailed deer in disparate landscapes: implications for disease transmission.in social species, individuals contact members of the same group much more often than those of other groups, particularly for contacts that could directly transmit disease agents. this disparity in contact rates violates the assumptions of simple disease models, hinders disease spread between groups, and could decouple disease transmission from population density. social behavior of white-tailed deer has important implications for the long-term dynamics and impact of diseases such as bovine tube ...201526937044
prion protein gene sequence and chronic wasting disease susceptibility in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus).the sequence of the prion protein gene (prnp) affects susceptibility to spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases in many species. in white-tailed deer, both coding and non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in this gene that correlate to chronic wasting disease (cwd) susceptibility. previous studies examined individual nucleotide or amino acid mutations; here we examine all nucleotide polymorphisms and their combined effects on cwd. a 626 bp region of prnp was exam ...201526634768
deer prion proteins modulate the emergence and adaptation of chronic wasting disease strains.transmission of chronic wasting disease (cwd) between cervids is influenced by the primary structure of the host cellular prion protein (prp(c)). in white-tailed deer, prnp alleles encode the polymorphisms q95 g96 (wild type [wt]), q95 s96 (referred to as the s96 allele), and h95 g96 (referred to as the h95 allele), which differentially impact cwd progression. we hypothesize that the transmission of cwd prions between deer expressing different allotypes of prp(c) modifies the contagious agent af ...201526423950
longitudinal detection of prion shedding in saliva and urine by chronic wasting disease-infected deer by real-time quaking-induced conversion.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is an emergent, rapidly spreading prion disease of cervids. shedding of infectious prions in saliva and urine is thought to be an important factor in cwd transmission. to help to elucidate this issue, we applied an in vitro amplification assay to determine the onset, duration, and magnitude of prion shedding in longitudinally collected saliva and urine samples from cwd-exposed white-tailed deer. we detected prion shedding as early as 3 months after cwd exposure and ...201526136567
chronic wasting disease in a wisconsin white-tailed deer farm.in september 2002, chronic wasting disease (cwd), a prion disorder of captive and wild cervids, was diagnosed in a white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from a captive farm in wisconsin. the facility was subsequently quarantined, and in january 2006 the remaining 76 deer were depopulated. sixty animals (79%) were found to be positive by immunohistochemical staining for the abnormal prion protein (prp(cwd)) in at least one tissue; the prevalence of positive staining was high even in young de ...200818776116
assessing transmissible spongiform encephalopathy species barriers with an in vitro prion protein conversion assay.studies to understanding interspecies transmission of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses, prion diseases) are challenging in that they typically rely upon lengthy and costly in vivo animal challenge studies. a number of in vitro assays have been developed to aid in measuring prion species barriers, thereby reducing animal use and providing quicker results than animal bioassays. here, we present the protocol for a rapid in vitro prion conversion assay called the conversion efficiency ...201525867521
metals in obex and retropharyngeal lymph nodes of illinois white-tailed deer and their variations associated with cwd status.prion proteins (prp(c)) are cell membrane glycoproteins that can be found in many cell types, but specially in neurons. many studies have suggested prp(c)'s participation in metal transport and cellular protection against stress in the central nervous system (cns). on the other hand prp(sc), the misfolded isoform of prp(c) and the pathogenic agent in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tse), has been associated with brain metal dyshomeostasis in prion diseases. thus, changes in metal conc ...201525695915
mucosal immunization with an attenuated salmonella vaccine partially protects white-tailed deer from chronic wasting disease.prion disease is a unique category of illness, affecting both animals and humans, in which the underlying pathogenesis is related to a conformational change of a normal, self-protein called prp(c) (c for cellular) to a pathological and infectious conformer known as prp(sc) (sc for scrapie). bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse), a prion disease believed to have arisen from feeding cattle with prion contaminated meat and bone meal products, crossed the species barrier to infect humans. chronic w ...201525539804
in vitro amplification of scrapie and chronic wasting disease prp(res) using baculovirus-expressed recombinant prp as substrate.protein misfolding cyclic amplification (pmca) is an in vitro simulation of prion replication, which relies on the use of normal brain homogenate derived from host species as substrate for the specific amplification of abnormal prion protein, prp(sc). studies showed that recombinant cellular prp, prp(c), expressed in escherichia coli lacks n-glycosylation and an glycophosphatidyl inositol anchor (gpi) and therefore may not be the most suitable substrate in seeded pmca reactions to recapitulate p ...201425495764
impacts of wildlife baiting and supplemental feeding on infectious disease transmission risk: a synthesis of knowledge.baiting and supplemental feeding of wildlife are widespread, yet highly controversial management practices, with important implications for ecosystems, livestock production, and potentially human health. an often underappreciated threat of such feeding practices is the potential to facilitate intra- and inter-specific disease transmission. we provide a comprehensive review of the scientific evidence of baiting and supplemental feeding on disease transmission risk in wildlife, with an emphasis on ...201424365654
the importance of localized culling in stabilizing chronic wasting disease prevalence in white-tailed deer populations.strategies to contain the spread of disease often are developed with incomplete knowledge of the possible outcomes but are intended to minimize the risks associated with delaying control. culling of game species by government agencies is one approach to control disease in wild populations but is unpopular with hunters and wildlife enthusiasts, politically unpalatable, and erodes public support for agencies responsible for wildlife management. we addressed the functional differences between hunti ...201424128754
rapid antemortem detection of cwd prions in deer saliva.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is an efficiently transmitted prion disease of cervids, now identified in 22 united states, 2 canadian provinces and korea. one hallmark of cwd is the shedding of infectious prions in saliva, as demonstrated by bioassay in deer. it is also clear that the concentration of prions in saliva, blood, urine and feces is much lower than in the nervous system or lymphoid tissues. rapid in vitro detection of cwd (and other) prions in body fluids and excreta has been problema ...201324040235
mother to offspring transmission of chronic wasting disease in reeves' muntjac deer.the horizontal transmission of prion diseases has been well characterized in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse), chronic wasting disease (cwd) of deer and elk and scrapie of sheep, and has been regarded as the primary mode of transmission. few studies have monitored the possibility of vertical transmission occurring within an infected mother during pregnancy. to study the potential for and pathway of vertical transmission of cwd in the native cervid species, we used a small cervid model-the ...201323977159
association mapping of genetic risk factors for chronic wasting disease in wild deer.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting north american cervids. we assessed the feasibility of association mapping cwd genetic risk factors in wild white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) using a panel of bovine microsatellite markers from three homologous deer linkage groups predicted to contain candidate genes. these markers had a low cross-species amplification rate (27.9%) and showed weak linkage disequ ...201223467626
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