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prevalence of chronic wasting disease and bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging deer and elk in south dakota.heads of hunter-harvested deer and elk were collected throughout south dakota (usa) and within established chronic wasting disease (cwd) surveillance areas from 1997-2002 to determine infection with cwd and bovine tuberculosis (tb). we used immunohistochemistry to detect cwd-infected individuals among 1,672 deer and elk sampled via geographically targeted surveillance. a total of 537 elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), 813 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and 322 mule deer (o. hemionus) was ...200312685066
transmission of sheep scrapie to elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) by intracerebral inoculation: final outcome of the experiment.this is a final report of an experimental transmission of sheep scrapie agent by intracerebral inoculation to rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). it documents results obtained in experimental (n = 6) and control (n = 2) elk. during the first 2 years postinoculation (pi), 3 animals died or were euthanized because of infection or injuries other than spongiform encephalopathy (se). in years 3 and 4 pi, 3 other inoculated elk died after brief terminal neurological episodes. necropsy of thes ...200415305743
locoweed (oxytropis sericea)-induced lesions in mule deer (odocoileius hemionus).locoweed poisoning has been reported in wildlife, but it is unknown whether mule deer (odocoileius hemionus) are susceptible. in areas that are heavily infested with locoweed, deer and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) have developed a spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease (cwd). although these are distinct diseases, no good comparisons are available. the purpose of this study was to induce and describe chronic locoweed poisoning in deer and compare it with the lesions of cwd. two groups ...200516145203
chronic wasting disease.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a unique transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (o. virginianus), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). the natural history of cwd is incompletely understood, but it differs from scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) by virtue of its occurrence in nondomestic and free-ranging species. cwd has many features in common with scrapie, including early widespread distribution of disease ...200516145200
chronic wasting disease in canada: part 1.the purpose of part 1 is to provide an overview of published literature (1980-2002) on chronic wasting disease (cwd) to inform canadian readers about the disease and to explain canadian regulatory approaches to the surveillance and control of cwd. much of the scientific information is drawn from american publications obtained from internet searches in pubmed and medline databases. the following keywords were used: chronic wasting disease, prion, diagnosis, transmissible spongiform encephalopathi ...200415206588
a processed pseudogene contributes to apparent mule deer prion gene heterogeneity.pathogenesis and transmission of the prion disorders (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, tses) are mediated by a modified isoform of the prion protein (prp). prion protein gene (prnp) alleles associated with relative susceptibility to tse have been identified in sheep, humans and possibly elk. comparable data have not been derived for mule deer, a species susceptible to the tse chronic wasting disease (cwd). initial analysis of the open reading frame (orf) in exon 3 of the mule deer prnp ...200414729275
the first canadian indigenous case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) has molecular characteristics for prion protein that are similar to those of bse in the united kingdom but differ from those of chronic wasting disease in captive elk and deer.brain tissue from a case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) from alberta was subjected to a western immunoblotting technique to ascertain the molecular profile of any disease-specific, abnormal prion protein, that is, prion protein that is protease-resistant (prp(res)). this technique can discriminate between isolates from bse, ovine scrapie, and sheep experimentally infected with bse. isolates of brain tissue from the bse case in alberta, 3 farmed elk with chronic wasting disease (cwd) f ...200415532881
preliminary observations on the experimental transmission of scrapie to elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) by intracerebral inoculation.to determine the transmissibility of scrapie to rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), six elk calves were inoculated intracerebrally with brain suspension from sheep naturally affected with scrapie. one elk developed a brain abscess and was euthanatized at 7 weeks postinoculation (pi), and two others died at 6 and 15 months pi because of physical injuries. at 25 and 35 months pi, two other elk died after brief terminal neurologic episodes. necropsy of these revealed moderate weight loss b ...200312627716
brief review on the epidemiology of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tse).transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tse) form a group of human and animal diseases that share common features such as (a) distinct pathological lesions in the central nervous system, (b) transmissibility at least in experimental settings, and (c) a long incubation period. considerable differences exist in the host range of individual tses, their routes of transmission, and factors influencing the host susceptibility (such as genotype). the objective of this review was to briefly describe ...200717126962
field validation and assessment of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting chronic wasting disease in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).tissue samples (n = 25,050 total) from 23,256 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) collected statewide in colorado were examined for chronic wasting disease (cwd) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed by bio-rad laboratories, inc. (brelisa), in a 2-phase study. in the validation phase of this study, a total of 4,175 retropharyngeal lymph nodes (rln) or obex (ob) tissue samples were examined ind ...200312918810
variable patterns of distribution of prp(cwd) in the obex and cranial lymphoid tissues of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with subclinical chronic wasting disease.sections of medulla oblongata, taken at the level of the obex, palatine tonsil and medial retropharyngeal lymph node from 10,269 captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), were examined by immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibody for the prion protein associated with the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, chronic wasting disease (prp(cwd)). the protein was detected in 226 of them. on the basis of the anatomical location of the deposits in the brainstem of ...200415478500
elk restoration in ontario, canada: infectious disease management strategy, 1998-2001.ontario has embarked upon a program to restore elk (cervus elaphus) that were once native to that province. a comprehensive disease-management strategy has ensured that elk are free of infectious diseases such as brucellosis and tuberculosis prior to shipment to ontario. postmortem analysis occurs on elk mortalities in ontario to ensure that elk are not infected with diseases such as chronic wasting disease and tuberculosis. between 1998 and 2001, a total of 443 elk were transported from elk isl ...200212381618
a case of chronic wasting disease in an elk imported to korea from canada.a seven-year-old male elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) was euthanized and necropsied after having a 3-week history of body weight loss, emaciation, excessive salivation, teeth grinding, fever, anorexia, and respiratory distress. the elk was imported into korea from canada on march 9, 1997. gross pathologic findings were restricted to a diffuse fibrinous pneumonia. microscopic lesions included mild neuronal vacuolation and spongiform change in the neuropil of selected brain stem nuclei and generalize ...200212399615
first results of chronic wasting disease (cwd) surveillance in the south-eastern part of belgium.chronic wasting disease (cwd) has not been reported in europe, whereas it is considered to be enzootic in free-ranging mule deer, rocky mountain elk and white-tailed deer in the area of colorado, wyoming, and nebraska, and new foci of cwd have been detected in other parts of the united states. however, no large-scale active epidemiosurveillance of european wild cervids has been installed in europe. in accordance with the opinion of the european scientific steering committee, a preliminary (activ ...200516238109
health protocol for translocation of free-ranging elk.when considering an elk (cervus elaphus) restoration program, wildlife managers must evaluate the positive and negative elements of translocation. we prepared this protocol to give an overview of health considerations associated with translocation of elk, with an emphasis on movement of free-ranging elk from western north america to the southeastern usa. we evaluated infectious agents and ectoparasites reported in elk from two perspectives. first, we made a qualitative estimate of the ability of ...200111504216
epizootiology of chronic wasting disease in free-ranging cervids in colorado and wyoming.surveillance and epidemic modeling were used to study chronic wasting disease (cwd), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that occurs naturally among sympatric, free-ranging deer (odocoileus spp.) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations in contiguous portions of northeastern colorado and southeastern wyoming (usa). we used clinical case submissions to identify endemic areas, then used immunohistochemistry to detect cwd-infected individuals among 5,513 deer and elk sample ...200011085429
epidemiology of chronic wasting disease in captive rocky mountain elk.between june 1986 and may 1997, chronic wasting disease (cwd) was the only natural cause of adult mortality among captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) held at a wildlife research facility near fort collins, colorado (usa). of 23 elk that remained in this herd > 15 mo, four (17%) developed cwd. all affected elk were unrelated females from the founding cohort, captured as neonates and raised in 1986. the index case was diagnosed in 1989; time intervals between subsequent cases range ...19989706562
measuring prions causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy or chronic wasting disease by immunoassays and transgenic mice.there is increasing concern over the extent to which bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) prions have been transmitted to humans, as a result of the rising number of variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease (vcjd) cases. toward preventing new transmissions, diagnostic tests for prions in livestock have been developed using the conformation-dependent immunoassay (cdi), which simultaneously measures specific antibody binding to denatured and native forms of the prion protein (prp). we employed high-aff ...200212389035
spongiform encephalopathy in free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in northcentral colorado.between march 1981 and june 1995, a neurological disease characterized histologically by spongiform encephalopathy was diagnosed in 49 free-ranging cervids from northcentral colorado (usa). mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) were the primary species affected and accounted for 41 (84%) of the 49 cases, but six rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and two white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were also affected. clinical signs included emaciation, excessive salivation, behavioral changes, ...19979027685
evidence of a molecular barrier limiting susceptibility of humans, cattle and sheep to chronic wasting disease.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) of deer and elk, and little is known about its transmissibility to other species. an important factor controlling interspecies tse susceptibility is prion protein (prp) homology between the source and recipient species/genotypes. furthermore, the efficiency with which the protease-resistant prp (prp-res) of one species induces the in vitro conversion of the normal prp (prp-sen) of another species to the protease-res ...200010970836
fatal degenerative neurologic illnesses in men who participated in wild game feasts--wisconsin, 2002.creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd) is a fatal neurologic disorder in humans. cjd is one of a group of conditions known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses), or prion diseases, that are believed to be caused by abnormally configured, host-encoded prion proteins that accumulate in the central nervous tissue. cjd has an annual incidence of approximately 1 case per million population in the united states and occurs in three forms: sporadic, genetically determined, and acquired by infecti ...200312617536
interspecies transmission of chronic wasting disease prions to squirrel monkeys (saimiri sciureus).chronic wasting disease (cwd) is an emerging prion disease of deer and elk. the risk of cwd transmission to humans following exposure to cwd-infected tissues is unknown. to assess the susceptibility of nonhuman primates to cwd, two squirrel monkeys were inoculated with brain tissue from a cwd-infected mule deer. the cwd-inoculated squirrel monkeys developed a progressive neurodegenerative disease and were euthanized at 31 and 34 months postinfection. brain tissue from the cwd-infected squirrel m ...200516227298
spongiform encephalopathies in cervidae.the known host range of naturally-occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathies has expanded in recent years to include wild ruminants. chronic wasting disease (cwd) occurs in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in colorado and wyoming, united states of america. these species belong to the family cervidae. cases have occurred primarily in captive animals but a few affected free-ranging animals have been identified. clinical disease in bo ...19921617203
neuropathology of chronic wasting disease of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).the pathology of the central nervous system of nine mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and six elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease, a spongiform encephalopathy of mule deer and elk, was studied by light microscopy. lesions were similar in both species and were characterized by spongiform transformation of gray matter, intracytoplasmic vacuolation of neurons, neuronal degeneration and loss, astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia, occurrence of amyloid plaques, and absence of si ...19938442326
surveys for disease agents in introduced elk in arkansas and kentucky.surveys for disease agents were conducted in introduced free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in arkansas and kentucky. elk had been captured in colorado and nebraska and released in arkansas during 1981-1985. from 1997 through 2002 elk were captured in arizona, kansas, north dakota, new mexico, oregon, and utah and released in southeastern kentucky. specimens were collected from 170 hunter-killed elk in arkansas during 1998-2006, and 44 elk in kentucky during 2001-2004. significant findings ...201020090032
prp genotypes of captive and free-ranging rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease.the prp gene encodes the putative causative agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses), a heterogeneous group of fatal, neurodegenerative disorders including human creutzfeldt-jakob disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, ovine scrapie and chronic wasting disease (cwd) of north american deer and elk. polymorphisms in the prp gene are associated with variations in relative susceptibility, pathological lesion patterns, incubation times and clinical course of tses of humans, m ...199910573173
chronic wasting disease in deer and elk in north america.chronic wasting disease (cwd) has emerged as an important disease of wildlife in north america. the disease is a unique member of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses) or prion diseases, which naturally affect only a few species. of the tses, cwd is the only one found in free-ranging species. however, interest in cwd has recently grown, by association with the better-known tses such as variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease of humans and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. knowledge of t ...200211974617
[spongiform encephalopathies with special reference to bovine spongiform encephalopathy].in switzerland bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) was detected for the first time in november 1990. it is a transmissible disease of the central nervous system similar to creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd), gerstmann-sträussler-scheinker syndrome (gss) and kuru in man, and, in animals, scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (cwd) in captive mule deer and elk of north america and transmissible mink encephalopathy (tme) of farm reared mink. the infectious agent of the spongiform ence ...19921615298
a retrospective study of the causes of morbidity and mortality in farmed elk (cervus elaphus).a survey of north american farmed elk (cervus elaphus) producers was performed to determine the causes of sickness and mortality in farmed elk and to estimate mortality rates. records over a 10-year period from 8 north american veterinary diagnostic pathology laboratories were also examined and summarized. the primary diagnosis for each record was used to classify diseases into categories such as parasitic, infectious, toxicological, and neoplastic. nonspecific trauma was the most frequently rep ...200516422063
prion protein in cardiac muscle of elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) infected with chronic wasting disease.to investigate the possible presence of disease-associated prion protein (prp(d)) in striated muscle of chronic wasting disease (cwd)-affected cervids, samples of diaphragm, tongue, heart and three appendicular skeletal muscles from mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and moose (alces alces shirasi) were examined by elisa, western immunoblot and immunohistochemistry (ihc). prp(d) was detected in samples of heart muscle from se ...200617030881
the expanding universe of prion diseases.prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. these etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called prp(c). several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (bse) the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. at least four novel prion diseases--including human dise ...200616609731
passage of chronic wasting disease prion into transgenic mice expressing rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) prpc.chronic wasting disease (cwd) of elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) is one of three naturally occurring forms of prion disease, the others being creutzfeldt-jakob disease in humans and scrapie in sheep. in the last few decades, cwd has spread among captive and free-ranging cervids in 13 us states, two canadian provinces and recently in korea. the origin of the cwd agent(s) in cervids is not known. this study describes the development of a transgenic mouse line (tgel ...200617098997
gene expression alterations in brains of mice infected with three strains of scrapie.transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses) or prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders which occur in humans and various animal species. examples include creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd) in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) in cattle, chronic wasting disease (cwd) in deer and elk, and scrapie in sheep, and experimental mice. to gain insights into tse pathogenesis, we made and used cdna microarrays to identify disease-associated alterations in gene expression. brain ...200616700923
transmission of elk and deer prions to transgenic mice.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a fatal prion disease in deer and elk. unique among the prion diseases, it is transmitted among captive and free-ranging animals. to facilitate studies of the biology of cwd prions, we generated five lines of transgenic (tg) mice expressing prion protein (prp) from rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), denoted tg(elkprp), and two lines of tg mice expressing prp common to white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), denote ...200616940522
chronic wasting disease of cervids.chronic wasting disease (cwd) has recently emerged in north america as an important prion disease of captive and free-ranging cervids (species in the deer family). cwd is the only recognized transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) affecting free-ranging species. three cervid species, mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (o. virginianus), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), are the only known natural hosts of cwd. endemic cwd is well established in southern wyomin ...200415148993
resistance to chronic wasting disease in transgenic mice expressing a naturally occurring allelic variant of deer prion protein.prion protein (prp) is a required factor for susceptibility to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or prion diseases. in transgenic mice, expression of prion protein (prp) from another species often confers susceptibility to prion disease from that donor species. for example, expression of deer or elk prp in transgenic mice has induced susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (cwd), the prion disease of cervids. in the current experiments, transgenic mice expressing two naturally occurring ...200717314157
preliminary observations of genetic susceptibility of elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) to chronic wasting disease by experimental oral inoculation.to compare the genetic susceptibility of elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with various alleles of the prnp gene, which encodes the normal cellular prion protein, to chronic wasting disease (cwd), eight 8-month-old elk calves of 3 genotypes (2 132mm, 2 132lm, and 4 132ll) were orally dosed with cwd-infected brain material from elk. during postinoculation (pi) month 23, both 132mm elk had lost appetite, developed clinical signs of weight loss and central nervous system (cns) dysfunction, and were euth ...200616566268
elk use of wallows and potential chronic wasting disease transmission.deposition of prions into the environment by infected animals may contribute to transmission and spread of chronic wasting disease (cwd) among free-ranging cervids, and identification of such environmental sources may provide an avenue for managing cwd. we evaluated the role that wallow use by elk (cervus elaphus) may play in cwd transmission by monitoring wallows with animal-activated cameras throughout their period of use. we monitored 39 wallows from 5 august 2005 to 14 october 2005. elk visi ...200717984281
experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (cwd) of elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) to white-tailed deer by intracerebral route.to compare clinical and pathologic findings of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in a natural host, 3 groups (n = 5) of white-tailed deer (wtd) fawns were intracerebrally inoculated with a cwd prion of wtd, mule deer, or elk origin. three other uninoculated fawns served as controls. approximately 10 months postinoculation (mpi), 1 deer from each of the 3 inoculated groups was necropsied and their tissues were examined for lesions of spongiform encephalopathy (se) and for the presence of abnormal pri ...200818487485
susceptibilities of nonhuman primates to chronic wasting disease.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, or prion disease, that affects deer, elk, and moose. human susceptibility to cwd remains unproven despite likely exposure to cwd-infected cervids. we used 2 nonhuman primate species, cynomolgus macaques and squirrel monkeys, as human models for cwd susceptibility. cwd was inoculated into these 2 species by intracerebral and oral routes. after intracerebral inoculation of squirrel monkeys, 7 of 8 cwd isolates induced a cl ...200919788803
antemortem detection of prpcwd in preclinical, ranch-raised rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) by biopsy of the rectal mucosa.antemortem biopsy of the rectal mucosa was evaluated as a method for the preclinical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in a herd of ranch-raised rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) quarantined because of exposure to cwd. biopsy samples were obtained from 41 elk during the winter of 2005-2006 and from 26 elk from that herd still alive and available for testing during the winter of 2006-2007. samples were examined for prp(cwd), the protein marker for cwd infection, by immunohistoc ...200919139496
immunolocalization of scrapie amyloid (prp27-30) in chronic wasting disease of rocky mountain elk and hybrids of captive mule deer and white-tailed deer.scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques are present in brain tissues of captive mule deer with chronic wasting disease (cwd), a progressive neurological disorder characterized neuropathologically by widespread spongiform change of the neuropil, intracytoplasmic vacuolation in neuronal perikarya and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. we report here the immunolocalization of scrapie amyloid (prp27-30) in plaques observed in brain tissues of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and hybri ...19911681473
immunohistochemical and biochemical characteristics of bse and cwd in experimentally infected european red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus).the cause of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) epidemic in the united kingdom (uk) was the inclusion of contaminated meat and bone meal in the protein rations fed to cattle. those rations were not restricted to cattle but were also fed to other livestock including farmed and free living deer. although there are no reported cases to date of natural bse in european deer, bse has been shown to be naturally or experimentally transmissible to a wide range of different ungulate species. moreo ...200919635142
detection of prp(cwd) in postmortem rectal lymphoid tissues in rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) infected with chronic wasting disease.preclinical diagnostic tests for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies have been described for mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), using biopsy tissues of palatine tonsil, and for sheep, using lymphoid tissues from palatine tonsil, third eyelid, and rectal mucosa. the utility of examining the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissues to detect chronic wasting disease (cwd) was investigated in rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), a species for which there is not a live-animal diagnostic test. post ...200617121082
impact of age and sex of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) on follicle counts from rectal mucosal biopsies for preclinical detection of chronic wasting disease.to determine if the number of rectal lymphoid follicles decreases with respect to age and sex relative to diagnosis of chronic wasting disease (cwd), rectal biopsies (n = 1,361) were taken from captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) at 4 ranches in the western united states between 2005 and 2008. rectal tissues were stained with a monoclonal antibody (f99/97.6.1), which selectively stains the abnormal isoform of the prion protein associated with cwd of elk. the number of lymphoid fo ...200919901292
molecular characterization of the rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) prnp putative promoter.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) affecting deer (odocoileus spp.), moose (alces alces), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). leucine homozygosity at elk prnp codon 132 has been associated with reduced cwd susceptibility. however, naturally acquired cwd has been detected in elk possessing the 132 leu/leu genotype. recent human and bovine studies indicate that prnp regulatory polymorphisms may also influence tse occurrence. therefore, we ...200718032463
experimental transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to european red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus).bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse), a member of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tse), primarily affects cattle. transmission is via concentrate feed rations contaminated with infected meat and bone meal (mbm). in addition to cattle, other food animal species are susceptible to bse and also pose a potential threat to human health as consumption of infected meat products is the cause of variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease in humans, which is invariably fatal. in the uk, farmed and ...200818507844
prp genotypes of free-ranging wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease.variation in prp prion gene sequence appears to modulate susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (cwd), a naturally occurring prion disease affecting four north american species of the family cervidae. wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) prp is polymorphic at codon 132 [methionine (m) or leucine (l)]. we genotyped 171 samples, collected between 2002 and 2005 from cwd-infected and uninfected wapiti from three free-ranging populations in colorado, usa, to study influences of prp polymorphisms on cwd ...200818420812
experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (cwd) from elk and white-tailed deer to fallow deer by intracerebral route: final report.final observations on experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (cwd) from elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) to fallow deer (dama dama) are reported herein. during the 5-year study, 13 fawns were inoculated intracerebrally with cwd-infected brain material from white-tailed deer (n = 7; group a) or elk (n = 6; group b), and 3 other fawns were kept as uninoculated controls (group c). as described previously, 3 cwd-inoculated deer were euthanized ...201121731188
an nmr metabolomics study of elk inoculated with chronic wasting disease.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting both farmed and wild cervids, specifically deer and elk, and is a member of the larger family of prion diseases. prion disease transmission is believed to occur through exposure to infectious prion material-a misfolded and infectious form of the prion protein that is normally present in the host. chronic wasting disease is endemic to regions of central north america and infectious material can persist for long periods i ...201122043909
prionet canada: a network of centres of excellence for research into prions and prion diseases.prionet canada's strength in basic, applied, and social research is helping to solve the food, health safety, and socioeconomic problems associated with prion diseases. prion diseases are transmissible, fatal neurodegenerative diseases of humans and animals. examples of prion diseases include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse, commonly known as "mad cow" disease), creutzfeldt-jakob disease in humans, and chronic wasting disease (cwd) in deer and elk. as of march 31, 2008, prionet's interdisc ...200919697232
evidence for distinct chronic wasting disease (cwd) strains in experimental cwd in ferrets.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is an evolving prion disease of cervids (deer, elk and moose) that has been recognized in north america and korea. infection of non-cervid reservoir or transport species in nature is not reported. however, the ferret (mustela putorius furo) is susceptible to cwd after experimental inoculation. here, we report that infection of ferrets with either of two ferret cwd isolates by various routes of exposure has revealed biologically distinct strain-like properties distin ...201221918005
rapid detection of cwd prp: comparison of tests designed for the detection of bse or scrapie.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) mainly affecting cervids in north america. the accumulation of an abnormal form of host-encoded prion protein (prp(cwd) ) in the cns and lymphoid tissues is characteristic of the disease and known to be caused by pathogenic prion proteins (prp(res) ), which are thought to be transmitted mainly by contact with body fluids, such like saliva. species known to be naturally infected by cwd include rocky mountain elk (cer ...201122212828
seeded amplification of chronic wasting disease prions in nasal brushings and recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues from elk by real-time quaking-induced conversion.chronic wasting disease (cwd), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in colorado and wyoming and has since been detected across north america and the republic of korea. the expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction or prevalence studies of large or protected herds, w ...201626888899
progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein and spongiform encephalopathy in the obex of nonsymptomatic and symptomatic rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease.the purpose of our study was to describe the progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein (prp(cwd)) and spongiform degeneration in a single section of brain stem in rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease (cwd). a section of obex from 85 cwd-positive elk was scored using the presence and abundance of prp(cwd) immunoreactivity and spongiform degeneration in 10 nuclear regions and the presence and abundance of prp(cwd) in 10 axonal tract ...201526185123
genotyping of velvet antlers for identification of country of origin using mitochondrial dna and fluorescence melting curve analysis with locked nucleic acid probes.velvet antlers are used medicinally in asia and possess various therapeutic effects. prices are set according to the country of origin, which is unidentifiable to the naked eye, and therefore counterfeiting is prevalent. additionally, antlers of the canadian elk, which can generate chronic wasting disease, are prevalently smuggled and distributed in the market. thus, a method for identifying the country of origin of velvet antlers was developed, using polymorphisms in mitochondrial dna, fluoresc ...201626094991
prion amplification and hierarchical bayesian modeling refine detection of prion infection.prions are unique infectious agents that replicate without a genome and cause neurodegenerative diseases that include chronic wasting disease (cwd) of cervids. immunohistochemistry (ihc) is currently considered the gold standard for diagnosis of a prion infection but may be insensitive to early or sub-clinical cwd that are important to understanding cwd transmission and ecology. we assessed the potential of serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (spmca) to improve detection of cwd prior ...201525665713
mineral licks: motivational factors for visitation and accompanying disease risk at communal use sites of elk and deer.free-ranging cervids acquire most of their essential minerals through forage consumption, though occasionally seek other sources to account for seasonal mineral deficiencies. mineral sources occur as natural geological deposits (i.e., licks) or as anthropogenic mineral supplements. in both scenarios, these sources commonly serve as focal sites for visitation. we monitored 11 licks in rocky mountain national park, north-central colorado, using trail cameras to quantify daily visitation indices (d ...201424711146
assessing the susceptibility of transgenic mice overexpressing deer prion protein to bovine spongiform encephalopathy.several transgenic mouse models have been developed which facilitate the transmission of chronic wasting disease (cwd) of cervids and allow prion strain discrimination. the present study was designed to assess the susceptibility of the prototypic mouse line, tg(cerprp)1536(+/-), to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) prions, which have the ability to overcome species barriers. tg(cerprp)1536(+/-) mice challenged with red deer-adapted bse resulted in 90% to 100% attack rates, and bse from catt ...201424257620
a case of chronic wasting disease in a captive red deer (cervus elaphus).a 22-month-old, female red deer (cervus elaphus) was submitted to the university of minnesota veterinary diagnostic laboratory for necropsy and chronic wasting disease (cwd) testing. the deer was found positive for the abnormal prion protein in the obex and the retropharyngeal lymph node by immunohistochemical staining. microscopic lesions of spongiform encephalopathy and immunohistochemical staining patterns and intensity were similar to those in cwd-positive elk and experimentally infected red ...201323950558
early detection of chronic wasting disease prions in urine of pre-symptomatic deer by real-time quaking-induced conversion assay.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a prion disease of captive and free-ranging deer (odocoileus spp), elk (cervus elaphus nelsonii) and moose (alces alces shirasi). unlike in most other prion diseases, in cwd prions are shed in urine and feces, which most likely contributes to the horizontal transmission within and between cervid species. to date, cwd ante-mortem diagnosis is only possible by immunohistochemical detection of protease resistant prion protein (prp (sc) ) in tonsil or recto-anal muco ...201523764839
experimental chronic wasting disease in wild type vm mice.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a naturally occurring prion disease in north american deer (odocoileus species), rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and moose (alces alces). the disease was first confirmed in the republic of korea in 2001, and subsequent cases were diagnosed in 2004, 2005 and 2010. the experimental host range of cwd includes ferrets, several species of voles, white-footed mice, deer mice and syrian golden hamsters. in addition, cwd was transmitted to the transgenic mous ...201323708962
efficacy of antemortem rectal biopsies to diagnose and estimate prevalence of chronic wasting disease in free-ranging cow elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).a reliable antemortem test is needed to understand the ecology of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). we measured the ability of antemortem biopsy samples from the rectal mucosa to detect the abnormal prion protein associated with cwd (prp(cwd)), the relationship between test results from the obex and rectal biopsies at varying stages of cwd progression, and the prevalence of cwd in free-ranging elk from rocky mountain national park, colorado, usa. we sampled and place ...201323568902
strain characterization of the korean cwd cases in 2001 and 2004.chronic wasting disease (cwd) has been recognized as a naturally occurring prion disease in north american deer (odocoileus species), rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and moose (alces alces). the disease was confirmed only in elk in the republic of korea in 2001, 2004 and 2005. epidemiological investigations showed that cwd was introduced via importation of infected elk from canada between 1994 and 1997. in spite of the increasing geographic distribution and host range of cwd, little ...201322972463
detection of prpcwd in feces from naturally exposed rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) using protein misfolding cyclic amplification.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting captive and free-ranging cervids. currently, tests for cwd in live animals involve relatively invasive procedures to collect lymphoid tissue biopsies and examine them for cwd-associated, protease-resistant cervid prion protein (prp(cwd)) detected by immunohistochemistry (ihc). we adapted an ultrasensitive prion detection system, protein misfolding cyclic amplification (pmca), to detect prp(cwd) in rocky mountain ...201222493117
disease-specific motifs can be identified in circulating nucleic acids from live elk and cattle infected with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.to gain insight into the disease progression of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tse), we searched for disease-specific patterns in circulating nucleic acids (cna) in elk and cattle. in a 25-month time-course experiment, cnas were isolated from blood samples of 24 elk (cervus elaphus) orally challenged with chronic wasting disease (cwd) infectious material. in a separate experiment, blood-sample cnas from 29 experimental cattle (bos taurus) 40 months post-inoculation with clinical bovi ...200919059996
modeling routes of chronic wasting disease transmission: environmental prion persistence promotes deer population decline and extinction.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a fatal disease of deer, elk, and moose transmitted through direct, animal-to-animal contact, and indirectly, via environmental contamination. considerable attention has been paid to modeling direct transmission, but despite the fact that cwd prions can remain infectious in the environment for years, relatively little information exists about the potential effects of indirect transmission on cwd dynamics. in the present study, we use simulation models to demonstr ...201121603638
genetic variability of the prion protein gene (prnp) in wild ruminants from italy and scotland.the genetics of the prion protein gene (prnp) play a crucial role in determining the relative susceptibility to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses) in several mammalian species. to determine the prnp gene variability in european red deer (cervus elaphus), roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and chamois (rupicapra rupicapra), the prnp open reading frame from 715 samples was analysed to reveal a total of ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps). in red deer, snps were found in codons 15, ...200919461206
experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus): early detection and late stage distribution of protease-resistant prion protein.chronic wasting disease (cwd), an important emerging prion disease of cervids, is readily transmitted by intracerebral or oral inoculation from deer-to-deer and elk-to-elk, suggesting the latter is a natural route of exposure. studies of host range susceptibility to oral infection, particularly of those species found in habitats where cwd currently exists are imperative. this report describes the experimental transmission of cwd to red deer following oral inoculation with infectious cwd material ...201020436863
prion strain mutation determined by prion protein conformational compatibility and primary structure.prions are infectious proteins composed of the abnormal disease-causing isoform prpsc, which induces conformational conversion of the host-encoded normal cellular prion protein prpc to additional prpsc. the mechanism underlying prion strain mutation in the absence of nucleic acids remains unresolved. additionally, the frequency of strains causing chronic wasting disease (cwd), a burgeoning prion epidemic of cervids, is unknown. using susceptible transgenic mice, we identified two prevalent cwd s ...201020466881
experimental interspecies transmission studies of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies to cattle: comparison to bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle.prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses) of animals include scrapie of sheep and goats; transmissible mink encephalopathy (tme); chronic wasting disease (cwd) of deer, elk and moose; and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) of cattle. the emergence of bse and its spread to human beings in the form of variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease (vcjd) resulted in interest in susceptibility of cattle to cwd, tme and scrapie. experimental cross-species transmission of tse agents p ...201121908269
chronic wasting disease prions are not transmissible to transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a prion disease that affects free-ranging and captive cervids, including mule deer, white-tailed deer, rocky mountain elk and moose. cwd-infected cervids have been reported in 14 usa states, two canadian provinces and in south korea. the possibility of a zoonotic transmission of cwd prions via diet is of particular concern in north america where hunting of cervids is a popular sport. to investigate the potential public health risks posed by cwd prions, we have in ...201020610667
detection of the abnormal isoform of the prion protein associated with chronic wasting disease in the optic pathways of the brain and retina of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).eyes and nuclei of the visual pathways in the brain were examined in 30 rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) representing 3 genotypes of the prion protein gene prnp (codon 132: mm, ml, or ll). tissues were examined for the presence of the abnormal isoform of the prion protein associated with chronic wasting disease (prp(cwd)). nuclei and axonal tracts from a single section of brain stem at the level of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve were scored for intensity and distribution ...201020382822
association analysis of prnp gene region with chronic wasting disease in rocky mountain elk.abstract:201021087518
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