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[spongiform encephalopathies with special reference to bovine spongiform encephalopathy].in switzerland bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) was detected for the first time in november 1990. it is a transmissible disease of the central nervous system similar to creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd), gerstmann-sträussler-scheinker syndrome (gss) and kuru in man, and, in animals, scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (cwd) in captive mule deer and elk of north america and transmissible mink encephalopathy (tme) of farm reared mink. the infectious agent of the spongiform ence ...19921615298
spongiform encephalopathies in cervidae.the known host range of naturally-occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathies has expanded in recent years to include wild ruminants. chronic wasting disease (cwd) occurs in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in colorado and wyoming, united states of america. these species belong to the family cervidae. cases have occurred primarily in captive animals but a few affected free-ranging animals have been identified. clinical disease in bo ...19921617203
immunolocalization of scrapie amyloid (prp27-30) in chronic wasting disease of rocky mountain elk and hybrids of captive mule deer and white-tailed deer.scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques are present in brain tissues of captive mule deer with chronic wasting disease (cwd), a progressive neurological disorder characterized neuropathologically by widespread spongiform change of the neuropil, intracytoplasmic vacuolation in neuronal perikarya and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. we report here the immunolocalization of scrapie amyloid (prp27-30) in plaques observed in brain tissues of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and hybri ...19911681473
topographic distribution of scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques in chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus).chronic wasting disease (cwd), a progressive neurological disorder of captive mule deer, black-tailed deer, hybrids of mule deer and white-tailed deer and rocky mountain elk, is characterized neuropathologically by widespread spongiform change of the neuropil, intracytoplasmic vacuolation in neuronal perikarya and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. we report the topographic distribution of amyloid plaques reactive to antibodies prepared against scrapie amyloid in cwd-affected captive mule d ...19911713390
chronic wasting disease of captive mule deer: a spongiform encephalopathy.in the past 12 years (1967-79) a syndrome we identify as chronic wasting disease has been observed in 53 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and one black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus) held in captivity in several wildlife facilities in colorado and more recently in wyoming. clinical signs were seen in adult deer and included behavioral alterations, progressive weight loss and death in 2 weeks to 8 months. gross necropsy findings included emaciation and excess rumen fluid ad ...19807373730
neuropathology of chronic wasting disease of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).the pathology of the central nervous system of nine mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and six elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease, a spongiform encephalopathy of mule deer and elk, was studied by light microscopy. lesions were similar in both species and were characterized by spongiform transformation of gray matter, intracytoplasmic vacuolation of neurons, neuronal degeneration and loss, astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia, occurrence of amyloid plaques, and absence of si ...19938442326
spongiform encephalopathy in free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in northcentral colorado.between march 1981 and june 1995, a neurological disease characterized histologically by spongiform encephalopathy was diagnosed in 49 free-ranging cervids from northcentral colorado (usa). mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) were the primary species affected and accounted for 41 (84%) of the 49 cases, but six rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and two white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were also affected. clinical signs included emaciation, excessive salivation, behavioral changes, ...19979027685
epizootiology of chronic wasting disease in free-ranging cervids in colorado and wyoming.surveillance and epidemic modeling were used to study chronic wasting disease (cwd), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that occurs naturally among sympatric, free-ranging deer (odocoileus spp.) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations in contiguous portions of northeastern colorado and southeastern wyoming (usa). we used clinical case submissions to identify endemic areas, then used immunohistochemistry to detect cwd-infected individuals among 5,513 deer and elk sample ...200011085429
prevalence of chronic wasting disease and bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging deer and elk in south dakota.heads of hunter-harvested deer and elk were collected throughout south dakota (usa) and within established chronic wasting disease (cwd) surveillance areas from 1997-2002 to determine infection with cwd and bovine tuberculosis (tb). we used immunohistochemistry to detect cwd-infected individuals among 1,672 deer and elk sampled via geographically targeted surveillance. a total of 537 elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), 813 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and 322 mule deer (o. hemionus) was ...200312685066
field validation and assessment of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting chronic wasting disease in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).tissue samples (n = 25,050 total) from 23,256 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) collected statewide in colorado were examined for chronic wasting disease (cwd) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed by bio-rad laboratories, inc. (brelisa), in a 2-phase study. in the validation phase of this study, a total of 4,175 retropharyngeal lymph nodes (rln) or obex (ob) tissue samples were examined ind ...200312918810
abundant prp(cwd) in tonsil from mule deer with preclinical chronic wasting disease.a monoclonal antibody dot-blot assay was used to evaluate detergent lysates of tonsil tissue from mule deer to detect prp(cwd), the marker for the cervid transmissible spongiform encephalopathy chronic wasting disease (cwd). samples of formalin-fixed brain and tonsil tissues from mule deer were examined for prp(cwd) using immunohistochemistry (ihc) with mab f99/97.6.1, the gold standard for diagnosis of preclinical cwd. the contralateral tonsil from each of the 143 deer was prepared for confirma ...200312918811
a processed pseudogene contributes to apparent mule deer prion gene heterogeneity.pathogenesis and transmission of the prion disorders (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, tses) are mediated by a modified isoform of the prion protein (prp). prion protein gene (prnp) alleles associated with relative susceptibility to tse have been identified in sheep, humans and possibly elk. comparable data have not been derived for mule deer, a species susceptible to the tse chronic wasting disease (cwd). initial analysis of the open reading frame (orf) in exon 3 of the mule deer prnp ...200414729275
chronic wasting disease of cervids.chronic wasting disease (cwd) has recently emerged in north america as an important prion disease of captive and free-ranging cervids (species in the deer family). cwd is the only recognized transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) affecting free-ranging species. three cervid species, mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (o. virginianus), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), are the only known natural hosts of cwd. endemic cwd is well established in southern wyomin ...200415148993
variable patterns of distribution of prp(cwd) in the obex and cranial lymphoid tissues of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with subclinical chronic wasting disease.sections of medulla oblongata, taken at the level of the obex, palatine tonsil and medial retropharyngeal lymph node from 10,269 captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), were examined by immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibody for the prion protein associated with the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, chronic wasting disease (prp(cwd)). the protein was detected in 226 of them. on the basis of the anatomical location of the deposits in the brainstem of ...200415478500
transmission of prions from mule deer and elk with chronic wasting disease to transgenic mice expressing cervid prp.we generated mice expressing cervid prion protein to produce a transgenic system simulating chronic wasting disease (cwd) in deer and elk. while normal mice were resistant to cwd, these transgenic mice uniformly developed signs of neurological dysfunction approximately 230 days following intracerebral inoculation with four cwd isolates. inoculated transgenic mice homozygous for the transgene array developed disease after approximately 160 days. the brains of sick transgenic mice exhibited widesp ...200415542685
epidemiology of chronic wasting disease in captive white-tailed and mule deer.the natural occurrence of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in a 1993 cohort of captive white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) afforded the opportunity to describe epidemic dynamics in this species and to compare dynamics with those seen in contemporary cohorts of captive mule deer (o. hemionus) also infected with cwd. the overall incidence of clinical cwd in white-tailed deer was 82% (nine of 11) among individuals that survived >15 mo. affected white-tailed deer died or were killed because of t ...200415362835
molecular aspects of disease pathogenesis in the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) diseases are a group of rare, fatal, and transmissible neurodegenerative diseases that include kuru and creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd) in humans, scrapie in sheep, transmissible mink encephalopathy (tme), and chronic wasting disease (cwd) in mule deer and elk. over the last 20 yr, they have gone from a fascinating but relatively obscure group of diseases to one that is a major agricultural and economic problem as well as a threat to human health ...200415156065
prion disease: horizontal prion transmission in mule deer.epidemics of contagious prion diseases can be perpetuated by horizontal (animal to animal) and maternal (dam to offspring, before or after birth) transmission, but the relative importance of each mechanism is unclear. here we compare the incidence of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in captive mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) that is attributable to horizontal or maternal transmission. we find that horizontal transmission is remarkably efficient, producing a high incidence of disease (89%) in a coho ...200312955129
chronic wasting disease.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a unique transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (o. virginianus), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). the natural history of cwd is incompletely understood, but it differs from scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) by virtue of its occurrence in nondomestic and free-ranging species. cwd has many features in common with scrapie, including early widespread distribution of disease ...200516145200
locoweed (oxytropis sericea)-induced lesions in mule deer (odocoileius hemionus).locoweed poisoning has been reported in wildlife, but it is unknown whether mule deer (odocoileius hemionus) are susceptible. in areas that are heavily infested with locoweed, deer and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) have developed a spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease (cwd). although these are distinct diseases, no good comparisons are available. the purpose of this study was to induce and describe chronic locoweed poisoning in deer and compare it with the lesions of cwd. two groups ...200516145203
interspecies transmission of chronic wasting disease prions to squirrel monkeys (saimiri sciureus).chronic wasting disease (cwd) is an emerging prion disease of deer and elk. the risk of cwd transmission to humans following exposure to cwd-infected tissues is unknown. to assess the susceptibility of nonhuman primates to cwd, two squirrel monkeys were inoculated with brain tissue from a cwd-infected mule deer. the cwd-inoculated squirrel monkeys developed a progressive neurodegenerative disease and were euthanized at 31 and 34 months postinfection. brain tissue from the cwd-infected squirrel m ...200516227298
first results of chronic wasting disease (cwd) surveillance in the south-eastern part of belgium.chronic wasting disease (cwd) has not been reported in europe, whereas it is considered to be enzootic in free-ranging mule deer, rocky mountain elk and white-tailed deer in the area of colorado, wyoming, and nebraska, and new foci of cwd have been detected in other parts of the united states. however, no large-scale active epidemiosurveillance of european wild cervids has been installed in europe. in accordance with the opinion of the european scientific steering committee, a preliminary (activ ...200516238109
preclinical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) using tonsillar biopsy.the usefulness of tonsillar biopsy on live deer for preclinical diagnosis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy chronic wasting disease (cwd) was evaluated. disease was tracked in a cwd-endemic herd using serial tonsillar biopsies collected at 6 to 9 month intervals from 34 captive mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and five white-tailed deer (o. virginianus). tonsillar biopsies were examined for accumulation of prp(cwd), the protein marker for infection, using immunohistochemical (ihc) st ...200212237447
inhibition of protease-resistant prion protein formation in a transformed deer cell line infected with chronic wasting disease.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is an emerging transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) of north american cervids, i.e., mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk (wapiti). to facilitate in vitro studies of cwd, we have developed a transformed deer cell line that is persistently infected with cwd. primary cultures derived from uninfected mule deer brain tissue were transformed by transfection with a plasmid containing the simian virus 40 genome. a transformed cell line (mdb) was exposed ...200616378962
prp(cwd) lymphoid cell targets in early and advanced chronic wasting disease of mule deer.up to 15% of free-ranging mule deer in northeastern colorado and southeastern wyoming, usa, are afflicted with a prion disease, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse), known as chronic wasting disease (cwd). cwd is similar to a subset of tses including scrapie and variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease in which the abnormal prion protein isoform, prp(cwd), accumulates in lymphoid tissue. experimental scrapie studies have indicated that this early lymphoid phase is an important constituent o ...200212237446
comparison of histological lesions and immunohistochemical staining of proteinase-resistant prion protein in a naturally occurring spongiform encephalopathy of free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) with those of chronic wasting disease of captive mule deer.in this investigation, the nature and distribution of histologic lesions and immunohistochemical staining (ihc) of a proteinase-resistant prion protein were compared in free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) dying of a naturally occurring spongiform encephalopathy (se) and captive mule deer dying of chronic wasting disease (cwd). sixteen free-ranging deer with se, 12 free-ranging deer without se, and 10 captive deer with cwd were examined at necropsy. tissue sections were stained with hema ...200212102202
deposition patterns of disease-associated prion protein in captive mule deer brains with chronic wasting disease.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) in captive and free-ranging cervids in the usa; its origin is obscure. archival formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded specimens of 16 captive mule deer brains with cwd were analyzed using immunocytochemistry for the disease-associated prion protein (prp). the most prominent pattern of prp deposition were plaque-like structures, a substantial proportion of which were florid plaques surrounded by a rim of spongiform va ...200111699564
transmission of elk and deer prions to transgenic mice.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a fatal prion disease in deer and elk. unique among the prion diseases, it is transmitted among captive and free-ranging animals. to facilitate studies of the biology of cwd prions, we generated five lines of transgenic (tg) mice expressing prion protein (prp) from rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), denoted tg(elkprp), and two lines of tg mice expressing prp common to white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), denote ...200616940522
prion protein in cardiac muscle of elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) infected with chronic wasting disease.to investigate the possible presence of disease-associated prion protein (prp(d)) in striated muscle of chronic wasting disease (cwd)-affected cervids, samples of diaphragm, tongue, heart and three appendicular skeletal muscles from mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and moose (alces alces shirasi) were examined by elisa, western immunoblot and immunohistochemistry (ihc). prp(d) was detected in samples of heart muscle from se ...200617030881
patterns of prpcwd accumulation during the course of chronic wasting disease infection in orally inoculated mule deer (odocoileus hemionus).patterns of abnormal prion protein (prp) accumulation during the course of chronic wasting disease (cwd) infection were studied and the distribution and timing of disease-associated prp (prp(cwd)) deposition and lesions in 19 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) 90-785 days after oral inoculation were described. prp(cwd) deposition occurred relatively rapidly and widely in lymphoid tissues, later in central and peripheral nervous tissues and sporadically in a variety of tissues and organs in terminal ...200617030882
bovine spongiform encephalopathy and new variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease.bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) and creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd) belong to a group of degenerative neurological disorders collectively known as the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses). the group also includes scrapie of sheep and goats, kuru of humans, chronic wasting disease of mule deer and elk and transmissible encephalopathy of mink. these fatal diseases cause behavioural changes, alterations of sensation, changes in mental state and ataxia. the typical pathology is no ...199810326298
passage of chronic wasting disease prion into transgenic mice expressing rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) prpc.chronic wasting disease (cwd) of elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) is one of three naturally occurring forms of prion disease, the others being creutzfeldt-jakob disease in humans and scrapie in sheep. in the last few decades, cwd has spread among captive and free-ranging cervids in 13 us states, two canadian provinces and recently in korea. the origin of the cwd agent(s) in cervids is not known. this study describes the development of a transgenic mouse line (tgel ...200617098997
detection of prp(cwd) in postmortem rectal lymphoid tissues in rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) infected with chronic wasting disease.preclinical diagnostic tests for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies have been described for mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), using biopsy tissues of palatine tonsil, and for sheep, using lymphoid tissues from palatine tonsil, third eyelid, and rectal mucosa. the utility of examining the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissues to detect chronic wasting disease (cwd) was investigated in rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), a species for which there is not a live-animal diagnostic test. post ...200617121082
transmission of chronic wasting disease of mule deer to suffolk sheep following intracerebral inoculation.to determine the transmissibility of chronic wasting disease (cwd) to sheep, 8 suffolk lambs of various prion protein genotypes (4 arq/arr, 3 arq/arq, 1 arq/vrq at codons 136, 154, and 171, respectively) were inoculated intracerebrally with brain suspension from mule deer with cwd (cwdmd). two other lambs were kept as noninoculated controls. within 36 months postinoculation (mpi), 2 inoculated animals became sick and were euthanized. only 1 sheep (euthanized at 35 mpi) showed clinical signs that ...200617121083
ultrastructural neuropathology of chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer.chronic wasting disease (cwd), a progressive and uniformly fatal neurological disorder, is characterized neuropathologically by intraneuronal vacuolation, spongiform change of the neuropil and astrocytic hyperplasia and hypertrophy. ultrastructural neuropathological findings consist of (1) extensive vacuolation in neuronal processes, within myelin sheaths, formed by splitting at the major dense lines or within axons; (2) dystrophic neurites (dendrites, axonal preterminals and myelinated axons co ...19938480515
retrospective investigation of chronic wasting disease of cervids at the toronto zoo, 1973-2003.the occurrence of chronic wasting disease (cwd) at the toronto zoo was investigated retrospectively, based on an examination of management, animal health, and postmortem records, and immunohistochemical studies. records of animal movements, clinical signs, and postmortem findings were examined for all cervids 1973-2003. all available samples of fixed, wax-embedded lymphoid or central nervous system tissue from cervids that died at the toronto zoo from 1973 to 2003, > 12 months of age, were teste ...200617217088
transmission and adaptation of chronic wasting disease to hamsters and transgenic mice: evidence for strains.in vitro screening using the cell-free prion protein conversion system indicated that certain rodents may be susceptible to chronic wasting disease (cwd). therefore, cwd isolates from mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk were inoculated intracerebrally into various rodent species to assess the rodents' susceptibility and to develop new rodent models of cwd. the species inoculated were syrian golden, djungarian, chinese, siberian, and armenian hamsters, transgenic mice expressing the syrian gold ...200717287284
the biology and molecular biology of scrapie-like diseases.the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tse's) are degenerative diseases of the central nervous system which naturally affect man (creutzfeldt-jakob disease [cjd], gerstmann-sträussler syndrome [gss], kuru), sheep and goats (scrapie), cattle (bovine spongiform encephalopathy [bse]), mink (transmissible mink encephalopathy), mule deer, elk and antelope (chronic wasting disease). spongiform encephalopathies have also been diagnosed in captive species of zoo antelope and in domestic cats. mu ...19938219804
the host range of chronic wasting disease is altered on passage in ferrets.chronic wasting disease (cwd), a member of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses), was first identified in captive mule and black-tail deer in 1967. due to the failure to transmit cwd to rodents, we investigated the use of ferrets (mustela putorius furo) as a small animal model of cwd. the inoculation of cwd into ferrets resulted in an incubation period of 17-21 months on primary passage that shortened to 5 months by the third ferret passage. the brain tissue of animals inoculated ...19989837794
prion protein genes in caribou from alaska.prion protein genes were sequenced in free-ranging alaska caribou (rangifer tarandus grantii). caribou prion alleles are identical or nearly so to those of wapiti, white-tailed deer, and mule deer. five single-nucleotide polymorphisms were detected with substitutions at residues 2 (v-->m), 129 (g-->s), 138 (s-->n), 146 (n-->n), and 169 (v-->m). the 138n codon had been previously reported only in prion pseudogenes of other cervids. in caribou, the 138s and 138n alleles are present at frequencies ...200717495306
preliminary findings on the experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease agent of mule deer to cattle.to determine the transmissibility of chronic wasting disease (cwd) to cattle and to provide information about clinical course, lesions, and suitability of currently used diagnostic procedures for detection of cwd in cattle, 13 calves were inoculated intracerebrally with brain suspension from mule deer naturally affected with cwd. between 24 and 27 months postinoculation, 3 animals became recumbent and were euthanized. gross necropsies revealed emaciation in 2 animals and a large pulmonary absces ...200111243374
prp(cwd) in the myenteric plexus, vagosympathetic trunk and endocrine glands of deer with chronic wasting disease.accumulated evidence in experimental and natural prion disease systems supports a neural route of infectious prion spread from peripheral sites of entry to the central nervous system. however, little is known about prion trafficking routes in cervids with a naturally occurring prion disease known as chronic wasting disease (cwd). in the brain, the pathogenic isoform of the prion protein (prp(cwd)) accumulates initially in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve. to assess whether alimentary- ...200111562526
electron microscopic findings in brain of rocky mountain elk with chronic wasting disease.we report here the electron microscopic findings in brain of rocky mountain elk with chronic wasting disease (cdw), a progressive and fatal neurological disorder of wild ruminants characterized neuropathologically by intraneuronal vacuolation, spongiform change of the neuropil and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. ultrastructural findings included membrane-bound vacuoles in neuronal elements, increased number of glial filaments, dystrophic neurites, numerous neuritic plaques, hirano bodies ...19947982031
amyloid plaques in spongiform encephalopathy of mule deer.amyloid plaques were demonstrable in central nervous system tissues of adult captive mule deer affected with chronic wasting disease, a transmissible primary spongiform encephalopathy. plaques were detected in tissues of 13 of 21 (62 per cent) spontaneously affected animals from 2 to 4 years of age or older, but were not found in 16 unaffected deer of from a few months to 12 years of age.19853973104
validation of monoclonal antibody f99/97.6.1 for immunohistochemical staining of brain and tonsil in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) with chronic wasting disease.a new monoclonal antibody (mab), f99/97.6.1, that has been used to demonstrate scrapie-associated prion protein prp(sc) in brain and lymphoid tissues of domestic sheep with scrapie was used in an immunohistochemistry assay for diagnosis of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus). the mab f99/97.6.1 immunohistochemistry assay was evaluated in brain and tonsil tissue from 100 mule deer that had spongiform encephalopathy compatible with cwd and from 1,050 mule deer outside ...200212680636
experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (cwd) of elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) to white-tailed deer by intracerebral route.to compare clinical and pathologic findings of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in a natural host, 3 groups (n = 5) of white-tailed deer (wtd) fawns were intracerebrally inoculated with a cwd prion of wtd, mule deer, or elk origin. three other uninoculated fawns served as controls. approximately 10 months postinoculation (mpi), 1 deer from each of the 3 inoculated groups was necropsied and their tissues were examined for lesions of spongiform encephalopathy (se) and for the presence of abnormal pri ...200818487485
distribution of protease-resistant prion protein and spongiform encephalopathy in free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) with chronic wasting disease.serial sections of brain and palatine tonsil were examined by immunohistochemical staining (ihc) using monoclonal antibody f89/160.1.5 for detecting protease-resistant prion protein (prp(res)) in 35 hunter-killed mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) with chronic wasting disease. serial sections of brain were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined for spongiform encephalopathy (se). clinical signs of disease were not observed in any of these deer. on the basis of the location and abundance of ...200212243464
oral transmission and early lymphoid tropism of chronic wasting disease prpres in mule deer fawns (odocoileus hemionus).mule deer fawns (odocoileus hemionus) were inoculated orally with a brain homogenate prepared from mule deer with naturally occurring chronic wasting disease (cwd), a prion-induced transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. fawns were necropsied and examined for prpres, the abnormal prion protein isoform, at 10, 42, 53, 77, 78 and 80 days post-inoculation (p.i.) using an immunohistochemistry assay modified to enhance sensitivity. prpres was detected in alimentary-tract-associated lymphoid tissues ...199910573172
low frequency of prp genotype 225sf among free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) with chronic wasting disease.the prion protein (prp) gene was characterized in 1482 free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) from wyoming and colorado. using dna sequences from 363 deer, dimorphisms at codons 20 (aspartate/glycine) and 225 [serine (s)/phenylalanine (f)] were found; silent changes occurred at codons 131 (tyrosine) and 247 (isoleucine). the remaining samples were surveyed for codon 225 genotype and all were characterized for chronic wasting disease (cwd) infection status. a total of 112 deer with the geno ...200516033959
the nature of the unconventional slow infection agents remains a puzzle.unconventional slow infections are progressive transmissible degenerative disorders of the central nervous system. the human diseases belonging to this group are creutzfeld-jakob disease, kuru, and gerstmann-straussler syndrome. scrapie, transmissible mink encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease of mule deer and elk, and the recently discovered bovine spongiform encephalopathy are similar diseases found in animals. unusual characteristics of the unconventional slow infections clearly distinguish ...19892568119
human and experimental spongiform encephalopathies: recent progress in pathogenesis.the spongiform encephalopathies belong to the group of "slow virus infections" of the nervous system, characterized by a long incubation period, a protracted course and involvement of the nervous system with a lethal outcome. in contrast to the conventional virus infections, such as visna in sheep and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pml) in humans, the etiological agent for the spongiform encephalopathies has not been clearly defined. the known forms in animals are scrapie in sheep a ...19911676992
experimental second passage of chronic wasting disease (cwd(mule deer)) agent to cattle.to compare clinicopathological findings in first and second passage chronic wasting disease (cwd(mule deer)) in cattle, six calves were inoculated intracerebrally with brain tissue derived from a first-passage cwd-affected calf in an earlier experiment. two uninoculated calves served as controls. the inoculated animals began to lose both appetite and weight 10-12 months later, and five subsequently developed clinical signs of central nervous system (cns) abnormality. by 16.5 months, all cattle h ...200616423572
age-related lesions in laboratory-confined raccoons (procyon lotor) inoculated with the agent of chronic wasting disease of mule deer.this communication documents age-associated pathologic changes and final observations on experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (cwd) by the intracerebral route to raccoons (procyon lotor). four kits were inoculated intracerebrally with a brain suspension from mule deer with cwd. two uninoculated kits served as controls. one cwd-inoculated raccoon was humanely killed at 38 months after inoculation, and 1 control animal died at 68 months after inoculation. both animals had lesions t ...200717998557
fibrils in brain of rocky mountain elk with chronic wasting disease contain scrapie amyloid.chronic wasting disease (cwd), a progressive, fatal neurological disorder of captive mule deer and rocky mountain elk, is characterized neuropathologically by spongiform change in the neuropil, intraneuronal vacuolation and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. recently, scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques have been demonstrated in brain tissues of cwd-affected captive mule deer, rocky mountain elk and hybrids of captive mule deer and white-tailed deer. we now report on the presence of abno ...19938372644
environmental sources of prion transmission in mule deer.whether transmission of the chronic wasting disease (cwd) prion among cervids requires direct interaction with infected animals has been unclear. we report that cwd can be transmitted to susceptible animals indirectly, from environments contaminated by excreta or decomposed carcasses. under experimental conditions, mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) became infected in two of three paddocks containing naturally infected deer, in two of three paddocks where infected deer carcasses had decomposed in s ...200415207049
chronic wasting disease prions are not transmissible to transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a prion disease that affects free-ranging and captive cervids, including mule deer, white-tailed deer, rocky mountain elk and moose. cwd-infected cervids have been reported in 14 usa states, two canadian provinces and in south korea. the possibility of a zoonotic transmission of cwd prions via diet is of particular concern in north america where hunting of cervids is a popular sport. to investigate the potential public health risks posed by cwd prions, we have in ...201020610667
epidemiology of chronic wasting disease in free-ranging mule deer: spatial, temporal, and demographic influences on observed prevalence patterns.we analyzed chronic wasting disease (cwd) prevalence data from mule deer populations in northcentral colorado, usa, to discern the likely influences of temporal, spatial, and demographic factors on patterns observed in naturally infected populations. in addition to reaffirming spatial heterogeneity among wintering mule deer subpopulations, we report marked differences in cwd prevalence by sex and age groups as well as clear local trends of increasing prevalence over a 7-yr period. prevalence of ...200516107661
a prion disease of cervids: chronic wasting disease.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a prion disease of deer, elk, and moose, initially recognized in colorado mule deer. the discovery of cwd beyond the borders of colorado and wyoming, in canada and as far east as new york, has led to its emergence as a prion disease of international importance. epidemiological studies indicate that cwd is horizontally transmitted among free-ranging animals, potentially indirectly by prion-containing secreta or excreta contaminating the environment. experimental c ...200818381058
association analysis of prnp gene region with chronic wasting disease in rocky mountain elk.abstract:201021087518
lions and prions and deer demise.contagious prion diseases--scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease of several species in the deer family--give rise to epidemics that seem capable of compromising host population viability. despite this prospect, the ecological consequences of prion disease epidemics in natural populations have received little consideration.200819107193
tonsillar biopsy test for chronic wasting disease: two sampling approaches in mule deer and white-tailed deer.preclinical antemortem testing of deer (odocoileus spp.) for chronic wasting disease (cwd) can be important for determining prevalence rates and removing infected individuals from wild populations. because samples with high numbers of tonsillar follicles are likely to provide earlier detection of cwd than samples with fewer follicles, the method of obtaining follicular samples may be critical when investigating disease prevalence. between january 2003 and january 2005, white-tailed deer (o. virg ...200516456177
modeling routes of chronic wasting disease transmission: environmental prion persistence promotes deer population decline and extinction.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a fatal disease of deer, elk, and moose transmitted through direct, animal-to-animal contact, and indirectly, via environmental contamination. considerable attention has been paid to modeling direct transmission, but despite the fact that cwd prions can remain infectious in the environment for years, relatively little information exists about the potential effects of indirect transmission on cwd dynamics. in the present study, we use simulation models to demonstr ...201121603638
comparison of two automated immunohistochemical procedures for the diagnosis of scrapie in domestic sheep and chronic wasting disease in north american white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus).two commercially available automated immunohistochemistry platforms, ventana nexes and dakocytomation autostainer universal staining system, were compared for diagnosing sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease. both automated platforms used the same antiprion protein monoclonal primary antibodies, but different platform-specific linker and amplification reagents and procedures. duplicate sections of brainstem (at the level of the obex) and lymphoid tissue (retropharyngeal lymph node or ...200616617694
experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease agent from mule deer to cattle by the intracerebral route.this communication reports final observations on experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (cwd) from mule deer to cattle by the intracerebral route. thirteen calves were inoculated intracerebrally with brain suspension from mule deer naturally affected with cwd. three other calves were kept as uninoculated controls. the experiment was terminated 6 years after inoculation. during that time, abnormal prion protein (prp(res)) was demonstrated in the central nervous system (cns) of 5 cat ...200515945388
effect of time and temperature on prpcwd immunoreactivity as evidenced by western blot.the protease-resistant infectious prion protein, prpres, that causes transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, is remarkably resistant to conventional physical and chemical sterilization methods, including heat. it was hypothesized that thermal-dependent prpres degradation has been underestimated, and the effect of prolonged incubation at 37 degrees c, 55 degrees c, and 80 degrees c on prpres detection was examined using brain homogenates from chronic wasting disease-affected elk and mule deer ...200717609348
rapid detection of cwd prp: comparison of tests designed for the detection of bse or scrapie.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) mainly affecting cervids in north america. the accumulation of an abnormal form of host-encoded prion protein (prp(cwd) ) in the cns and lymphoid tissues is characteristic of the disease and known to be caused by pathogenic prion proteins (prp(res) ), which are thought to be transmitted mainly by contact with body fluids, such like saliva. species known to be naturally infected by cwd include rocky mountain elk (cer ...201122212828
linking chronic wasting disease to mule deer movement scales: a hierarchical bayesian approach.observed spatial patterns in natural systems may result from processes acting across multiple spatial and temporal scales. although spatially explicit data on processes that generate ecological patterns, such as the distribution of disease over a landscape, are frequently unavailable, information about the scales over which processes operate can be used to understand the link between pattern and process. our goal was to identify scales of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) movement and mixing that ...200616827000
detection of bias in harvest-based estimates of chronic wasting disease prevalence in mule deer.diseased animals may exhibit behavioral shifts that increase or decrease their probability of being randomly sampled. in harvest-based sampling approaches, animal movements, changes in habitat utilization, changes in breeding behaviors during harvest periods, or differential susceptibility to harvest via behaviors like hiding or decreased sensitivity to stimuli may result in a non-random sample that biases prevalence estimates. we present a method that can be used to determine whether bias exist ...200011085430
polymorphisms at the prnp gene influence susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in two species of deer (odocoileus spp.) in western canada.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is increasingly prevalent in multiple wild mule (odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (o. virginianus) herds in north america. cwd was first found in canadian wild mule deer in saskatchewan in 2000 and has since spread into the neighboring province of alberta. the infectious agent for cwd is a misfolded prion protein encoded by the prnp gene. previous studies revealed association between prnp genotype and susceptibility to cwd in both mule and white-tailed dee ...200919697236
oral transmission of chronic wasting disease in captive shira's moose.three captive shira's moose (alces alces shirasi) were orally inoculated with a single dose (5 g) of whole-brain homogenate prepared from chronic wasting disease (cwd)-affected mule deer (odocoileus hemionus). all moose died of causes thought to be other than cwd. histologic examination of one female moose dying 465 days postinoculation revealed spongiform change in the neuropil, typical of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. immunohistochemistry staining for the proteinase-resistant isofor ...200617092895
relative vulnerability of chronic wasting disease infected mule deer to vehicle collisions.we estimated chronic wasting disease (cwd) prevalence among vehicle-killed mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) in select data analysis units (daus) in northern colorado, usa, and compared these with estimated cwd prevalence among mule deer of the same sex sampled in the vicinity of collision sites to assess relative vulnerability of cwd-infected individuals to vehicle collisions. twenty-five of 171 vehicle-killed mule deer tested positive for cwd (overall prevalence=0.146, 95% confidence interval [c ...200516244060
test for detection of disease-associated prion aggregate in the blood of infected but asymptomatic animals.we have developed a sensitive in vitro assay for detecting disease-associated prion aggregates by combining an aggregation-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (as-elisa) with the fluorescent amplification catalyzed by t7 rna polymerase technique (factt). the new assay, named aggregation-specific factt (as-factt), is much more sensitive than as-elisa and could detect prion aggregates in the brain of mice as early as 7 days after an intraperitoneal inoculation of prp(sc). however, as-factt ...200717079434
first chronic wasting disease (cwd) surveillance of roe deer (capreolus capreolus) in the northern part of belgium.cases of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in wild cervids have yet not been reported in europe, whereas the disease is considered enzootic in free-ranging mule deer, rocky mountain elk and white-tailed deer in the area of colorado, wyoming, and nebraska. new foci of cwd continue to be detected in other parts of the united states. however, no large-scale active epidemiosurveillance of european wild cervids is yet installed in europe. in accordance with the opinion of the european scientific steering ...200616841567
infectious disease and grouping patterns in mule deer.infectious disease dynamics are determined, to a great extent, by the social structure of the host. we evaluated sociality, or the tendency to form groups, in rocky mountain mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) from a chronic wasting disease (cwd) endemic area in saskatchewan, canada, to better understand factors that may affect disease transmission. using group size data collected on 365 radio-collared mule deer (2008-2013), we built a generalized linear mixed model (glmm) to evaluate wheth ...201627007808
asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in faeces.infectious prion diseases-scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (cwd) of several species in the deer family-are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals, the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. here we show that asymptomatic cwd-infected mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) excrete cwd prions in their faeces long be ...200919741608
a meta-baci approach for evaluating management intervention on chronic wasting disease in mule deer.advances in acquiring and analyzing the spatial attributes of data have greatly enhanced the potential utility of wildlife disease surveillance data for addressing problems of ecological or economic importance. we present an approach for using wildlife disease surveillance data to identify areas for (or of) intervention, to spatially delineate paired treatment and control areas, and then to analyze these nonrandomly selected sites in a meta-analysis framework via before-after-control impact (bac ...200717479841
chronic wasting disease of deer and elk in transgenic mice: oral transmission and pathobiology.to study the pathogenesis of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in deer and elk, transgenic (tg) mice were generated that expressed the prion protein (prp) of deer containing a glycine at amino acid (aa) 96 and a serine at aa 225 under transcriptional control of the murine prp promoter. this construct was introduced into murine prp-deficient mice. as anticipated, neither non-tg mice nor prp ko mice were susceptible when inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) or orally with cwd brain material (scrapie pool ...200717451773
dynamics of prion disease transmission in mule deer.chronic wasting disease (cwd), a contagious prion disease of the deer family, has the potential to severely harm deer populations and disrupt ecosystems where deer occur in abundance. consequently, understanding the dynamics of this emerging infectious disease, and particularly the dynamics of its transmission, has emerged as an important challenge for contemporary ecologists and wildlife managers. although cwd is contagious among deer, the relative importance of pathways for its transmission re ...200617205898
visual pathology in animal prion diseases.prion diseases, also known as the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses), are a group of slowly developing neurodegenerations occurring in human and animals. prion diseases can be transferred between animals, humans, from humans to animals, and from animals to humans. as a result, the central nervous system is attacked, resulting in microglia activation, astrocytosis, prion plaque deposition, and neuronal degeneration. prion also targets on the eye and brain visual system. in scrapie-i ...200919795355
mineral licks: motivational factors for visitation and accompanying disease risk at communal use sites of elk and deer.free-ranging cervids acquire most of their essential minerals through forage consumption, though occasionally seek other sources to account for seasonal mineral deficiencies. mineral sources occur as natural geological deposits (i.e., licks) or as anthropogenic mineral supplements. in both scenarios, these sources commonly serve as focal sites for visitation. we monitored 11 licks in rocky mountain national park, north-central colorado, using trail cameras to quantify daily visitation indices (d ...201424711146
[transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in animals].transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in animals are known for centuries. in particular scrapie in sheep and goats occurs worldwide; it spreads as a natural disease and is genetically controlled. chronic wasting disease (cwd) in the united states (wyoming and colorado) also spreads as natural disease among free ranging and captive elk and mule deer. in contrast, transmissible mink encephalopathy (tme) of mink in fur producing farms is caused by contaminated feed; the source of this food cont ...19989611347
immunization with a synthetic peptide vaccine fails to protect mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) from chronic wasting disease.chronic wasting disease (cwd) adversely affects both wild and captive cervid populations. a vaccine to prevent cwd would be a highly desirable tool to aid in disease management. to this end, we tested in mule deer a combination of cwd vaccines consisting of cervid prion peptide sequences 168-vdqynnqntfvhdc-182 and 145-ndyedryyrenmyrypnq-164 that had previously been shown to delay onset of clinical disease and increase survival in a mouse-adapted scrapie model. thirteen captive mule deer (odocoil ...201323778624
susceptibility of cattle to first-passage intracerebral inoculation with chronic wasting disease agent from white-tailed deer.fourteen, 3-month-old calves were intracerebrally inoculated with the agent of chronic wasting disease (cwd) from white-tailed deer (cwdwtd) to compare the clinical signs and neuropathologic findings with those of certain other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tse, prion diseases) that have been shown to be experimentally transmissible to cattle (sheep scrapie, cwd of mule deer [cwdmd], bovine spongiform encephalopathy [bse], and transmissible mink encephalopathy). two uninoculated cal ...200717606510
select tissue mineral concentrations and chronic wasting disease status in mule deer from north-central colorado.trace mineral imbalances have been suggested as having a causative or contributory role in chronic wasting disease (cwd), a prion disease of several north american cervid species. to begin exploring relationships between tissue mineral concentrations and cwd in natural systems, we measured liver tissue concentrations of copper, manganese, and molybdenum in samples from 447 apparently healthy, adult (> or = 2 yr old) mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) culled or vehicle killed from free-ranging popul ...201020688718
estimating chronic wasting disease effects on mule deer recruitment and population growth.chronic wasting disease (cwd), a prion disease of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), accelerates mortality and in so doing has the potential to influence population dynamics. although effects on mule deer survival are clear, how cwd affects recruitment is less certain. we studied how prion infection influenced the number of offspring raised to weaning per adult (≥2 yr old) female mule deer and subsequently the estimated growth rate (λ) of an infected deer herd. infected and presumably uninfected r ...201020966260
the role of geographic information systems in wildlife landscape epidemiology: models of chronic wasting disease in colorado mule deer.the authors present findings from two landscape epidemiology studies of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in northern colorado mule deer (odocoileus hemionus). first, the effects of human land use on disease prevalence were explored by formulating a set of models estimating cwd prevalence in relation to differences in human land use, sex and geographic location. prevalence was higher in developed areas and among male deer suggesting that anthropogenic influences (changes in land use), differences in ...200720422537
assessment of prospective preventive therapies for chronic wasting disease in mule deer.we compared prion infection rates among mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) receiving pentosan polysulfate, tannic acid, tetracycline hcl, or no treatment 14 days before to 14 days after (dpi) oral inoculation with tonsil tissue homogenate. all deer were infected, but the rapid disease course (230-603 dpi) suggested our challenge was overwhelming.201222493139
a weighted surveillance approach for detecting chronic wasting disease foci.a key component of wildlife disease surveillance is determining the spread and geographic extent of pathogens by monitoring for infected individuals in regions where cases have not been previously detected. a practical challenge of such surveillance is developing reliable, yet cost-effective, approaches that remain sustainable when monitoring needs are prolonged or continuous, or when resources to support these efforts are limited. in order to improve the efficiency of chronic wasting disease (c ...201020090025
prpcwd in rectal lymphoid tissue of deer (odocoileus spp.).the utility of rectal lymphoid tissue sampling for the diagnosis of chronic wasting disease (cwd) infections in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) was evaluated. cwd-associated prion protein (prp(cwd)) deposits were observed in the rectal mucosa from 19 orally inoculated mule deer by 381 days post-inoculation (p.i.); similarly, 45 out of 50 naturally infected mule deer had prp(cwd) in their rectal mucosa. in orally inoculated white-tailed deer, the pre ...200717554043
mountain lions prey selectively on prion-infected mule deer.the possibility that predators choose prey selectively based on age or condition has been suggested but rarely tested. we examined whether mountain lions (puma concolor) selectively prey upon mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) infected with chronic wasting disease, a prion disease. we located kill sites of mountain lions in the northern front range of colorado, usa, and compared disease prevalence among lion-killed adult (> or =2 years old) deer with prevalence among sympatric deer taken by hunters ...201019864271
persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in wild cervids of colorado.bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) is a significant viral pathogen of domestic cattle. worldwide, there is evidence of bvdv exposure and infection in wild ungulates; however, the frequency and significance of such events are unknown. to determine the prevalence and distribution of colorado deer, elk, and moose persistently infected (pi) with bvdv, a cross-sectional study was conducted using full-thickness ear tissue samples collected from animals presented to the colorado division of wildlife fo ...200818776103
gene expression alterations in rocky mountain elk infected with chronic wasting disease.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is an invariably fatal neurologic disease that naturally infects mule deer, white tailed deer and elk. the understanding of cwd neurodegeneration at a molecular level is very limited. in this study, microarray analysis was performed to determine changes in the gene expression profiles in six different tissues including brain, midbrain, thalamus, spleen, rpln and tonsil of cwd-infected elk in comparison to non-infected healthy elk, using 24,000 bovine specific oligo ...201222561165
targeting the detection of chronic wasting disease using the hunter harvest during early phases of an outbreak in saskatchewan, canada.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a fatal disease of north american cervids that was first detected in a wild, hunter-shot deer in saskatchewan along the border with alberta in canada in 2000. spatially explicit models for assessing factors affecting disease detection are needed to guide surveillance and control programs. spatio-temporal patterns in cwd prevalence can be complicated by variation in individual infection probability and sampling biases. we assessed hunter harvest data of mule deer ...201122137503
faecal cwd prion excretion and inflammation.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse)--or prion disease (pd)--that has become of increasing concern throughout years among different captive and free-living deer species and populations in north america. starting from the recent pre-clinical evidence of prion infectivity in faecal material from cwd-infected mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), this contribution takes into special consideration the potential role of certain gut inflammatory conditions as a f ...201020518283
chronic wasting disease in bank voles: characterisation of the shortest incubation time model for prion diseases.in order to assess the susceptibility of bank voles to chronic wasting disease (cwd), we inoculated voles carrying isoleucine or methionine at codon 109 (bv109i and bv109m, respectively) with cwd isolates from elk, mule deer and white-tailed deer. efficient transmission rate (100%) was observed with mean survival times ranging from 156 to 281 days post inoculation. subsequent passages in bv109i allowed us to isolate from all cwd sources the same vole-adapted cwd strain (bv(109i)cwd), typified by ...201323505374
alteration of the chronic wasting disease species barrier by in vitro prion amplification.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) of cervids now detected in 19 states of the united states, three canadian provinces, and south korea. whether noncervid species can be infected by cwd and thereby serve as reservoirs for the infection is not known. to investigate this issue, we previously used serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (spmca) to demonstrate that cwd prions can amplify in brain homogenates from several species sympatric with cer ...201121697475
failure of fallow deer (dama dama) to develop chronic wasting disease when exposed to a contaminated environment and infected mule deer (odocoileus hemionus).we monitored a herd of fallow deer (dama dama) for evidence of prion infection for 7 yr by periodic postmortem examination of animals from the herd. the fallow deer were exposed to the chronic wasting disease (cwd) agent from mule deer by living in a paddock considered contaminated with infectivity from its history of housing cwd infected deer and, after the first year of the study, by comingling with infected mule deer (odocoileus hemionus). at least 8 of 12 mule deer serving as sentinels for p ...201121719844
bayesian modeling of prion disease dynamics in mule deer using population monitoring and capture-recapture data.epidemics of chronic wasting disease (cwd) of north american cervidae have potential to harm ecosystems and economies. we studied a migratory population of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) affected by cwd for at least three decades using a bayesian framework to integrate matrix population and disease models with long-term monitoring data and detailed process-level studies. we hypothesized cwd prevalence would be stable or increase between two observation periods during the late 1990s and after 20 ...201526509806
age and repeated biopsy influence antemortem prp(cwd) testing in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) in colorado, usa.biopsy of rectal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue provides a useful, but imperfect, live-animal test for chronic wasting disease (cwd) in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus). it is difficult and expensive to complete these tests on free-ranging animals, and wildlife health managers will benefit from methods that can accommodate test results of varying quality. to this end, we developed a hierarchical bayesian model to estimate the probability that an individual is infected based on test results. ou ...201526251986
chronic wasting disease of cervids: current knowledge and future perspectives.a naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) of mule deer was first reported in colorado and wyoming in 1967 and has since spread to other members of the cervid family in 22 states, 2 canadian provinces, and the republic of korea. chronic wasting disease (cwd), caused by exposure to an abnormally folded isoform of the cellular prion protein, is characterized by progressive neurological disease in susceptible natural and experimental hosts and is ultimately fatal. cwd is th ...201525387112
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