foodborne hazards of microbial origin.foods can serve as vehicles of many pathogenic and toxigenic agents of disease. bacterial agents comprise three groups: 1) those that grow in the food and produce an active toxin before consumption (e.g., clostridium botulinium); 2) those that merely exist as contaminants in the food but are able to initiate infection when swallowed (e.g., salmonella spp.); and 3) those that multiply and produce large numbers of vegetative cells in the food, then release an active enterotoxin when they sporulate ...1978212326
trichinosis in bears of western and northcentral united bears (ursus americanus) from 10 states were examined for trichinella spiralis during the 1970-1975 period. trichinae were found in 14 (3.1%) of 454 bears examined. infected bears were found from california, seven (13.2%) of 54; idaho, one (2.3%) of 44; and wisconsin, six (3.8%) of 163. trichina counts per gram of tissue obtained by the artificial digestion-baermann method ranged from 1390 to 0.02. six california bears and one from wisconsin contained more than one trichina per gram, a lev ...1977560797
sylvatic trichinosis in british columbia: potential threat to human health from an independent cycle.the results of a 3-year study of trichinosis in british columbia wild-life, based on the testing of more than 9,000 tissue specimens from a large variety of animal species, indicated that trichinosis is widespread among wild mammals in the southern and central parts of british columbia. this continuing survey has established that the disease is carried by at least 15 species of terrestrial mammals including 3 species of rodents. the finding of trichinella spiralis in ground squirrels and nonsyna ...1978635095
[clinical, epidemiological and parasitological characteristics of human trichinosis caused by synanthropic and wild animals strains of trichinella spiralis]. 19751189432
prevalence of trichinella spiralis in the mongoose, human, and swine populations of the virgin islands. 19761263030
activity of specific igg, igm and ige antibodies in human trichinellosis.the activity of igg, igm and ige antibodies to somatic antigen of trichinella spiralis in the sera of patients with trichinellosis at various intervals after infection was examined by means of elisa. mathematical analysis of the dose-response curves was used. elevated level of igg and igm antibodies of relatively high avidity and of rather low ige avidity was documented. amount or avidity of igg antibodies was found to be most useful for the diagnosis of trichinellosis (85% positive results in p ...19921299058
recognition of trichinella spiralis muscle larvae antigens by sera from human infected with this parasite and its potential use in diagnosis.human antibody response to total soluble extract of trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (tse) was analyzed by western blot. the most frequently recognized antigens had molecular weights of 96, 67, 63, 60, 55 and 47 kda. an antigenic fraction containing two peptides with m.w. of 43, 47 kda from the parasite (p43, 47 ts l1) was isolated by elution from polyacrylamide gel slabs. it was used as antigen in an elisa test and compared to that of tse. serum samples from 51 symptomatic trichinellosis pati ...19921345318
genetic control of the immune response to trichinella spiralis: recognition of muscle larval antibody recognition of muscle larval (ml) antigens of trichinella spiralis was examined. monoclonal antibodies (moabs) to known host protective ml antigens have been produced in order to aid this examination. eleven strains of mice with independent mhc haplotypes and seventeen t. spiralis infected human patients were all found to recognize the same three major antigens as the monoclonal antibodies; i.e., of mw 41, 46 and 55 kd. however all serum samples tested also recognized further ml an ...19911923564
immunodiagnosis of nematode infections and prospects for vaccination, with special reference to trichinella spiralis.within the phylum nematoda are species not only responsible for several chronic, debilitating diseases of man, but also for significant economic losses resulting from parasitaemias of livestock. parasitic zoonoses caused by nematodes, such as trichinosis, present a public health concern as well. in an effort to combat these diseases, much research has been directed towards the development of vaccines that will protect man and animals from selected parasitic infections. concomitantly, sensitive, ...19902132694
phosphocholine epitopes on helminth and protozoal parasites and their presence in the circulation of infected human patients.antigens containing phosphocholine (pc) circulate in the blood during chronic filarial infection. because of the wide occurrence of such pc epitopes, we examined their specificity by evaluating 10 common parasites of humans for the presence of pc epitopes, and sera from patients infected with these parasites for circulating antigens containing pc. immunoblot analysis of extracts from various parasites using an anti-pc monoclonal antibody (ca101) demonstrated the presence of pc epitopes on the pr ...19892482559
experimental trichinellosis in horses: biological and parasitological evaluation.three groups of three horses each were, respectively, infected with 5000, 20,000 and 50,000 larvae of trichinella spiralis. the strain used was isolated from a human biopsy during horsemeat-related outbreaks of trichinellosis in france. transient muscular disorders were only observed in two of the horses infected with 50,000 larvae but none of the horses had fever. a significant increase in blood eosinophils was noticed in 5 horses. serum ldh, aldolase and cpk peaked at the fifth week post-infec ...19892658299
effects of rat and human intestinal lamina propria cells on viability and muscle establishment of trichinella spiralis newborn larvae.although eosinophils and other inflammatory cells from the circulation and peritoneal cavity can damage trichinella spiralis newborn larvae (nbl) in vitro, the cytotoxic potential of cells from the intestinal lamina propria, a site that may be the first line of defense against nbl migration, is unknown. accordingly, we examined the interaction between nbl and isolated intestinal lamina propria cells (ilpc), including an enriched eosinophil population, from rats and humans. rat ilpc killed nbl in ...19892918432
schistosoma mansoni cationic egg antigens (cef6): immunoserology with oxamniquine-treated patients and involvement of cef6 in the circumoval precipitin reaction.the serologic activity of a cationic fraction (denoted cef6) of schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigen was compared in an elisa with that of the unpurified soluble egg antigen for the ability to detect human infections and for the prediction of chemotherapeutic success in patients followed up to 5 years post-treatment with oxamniquine. the cationic fraction correctly identified 100% of 20 patients as infected with s. mansoni; moreover, 50% (10 of 20) seroconverted to negative by 2 years post-tr ...19883152779
the response of humans to surface and secreted antigens of trichinella spiralis.biochemically characterised surface and secreted stage specific antigens were used to analyse the response of humans to infection with trichinella spiralis. immuno-coprecipitation and sds-page of labelled proteins were used to dissect the humoral response of mexican and european infected sera to each component antigen. the results demonstrate that in man, like laboratory rodents, the response to each protein varies independently. in addition, they permit a more rational approach to the developme ...19863563318
host defense mechanisms against nematode parasites: destruction of newborn trichinella spiralis larvae by human antibodies and granulocytes.the capacity of human leukocytes from normal donors to kill the nematode trichinella spiralis in vitro in the presence of serum from infected individuals and complement was studied. eosinophils and neutrophils attached to the newborn larval stage of the parasite and exerted a cytotoxic effect manifested as complete morphologic destruction of the organism; monocytes also attached to newborn larvae but did not mediate parasite destruction. the cytotoxic effect of granulocytes was dependent on the ...19817017021
[epidemiology of trichinosis in chile. prevalence study by immunodiagnostic reactions].in the period 1983-1994 a series of seroepidemiological surveys, by using immunodiagnostic tests for trichinosis, was carried out in 138 localities and health institutions from the 13 regions of the country. thus, a total of 12,882 randomly selected persons, with different sex and age distribution, were submitted to precipitin test and indirect hemagglutination test for trichinosis. one hundred and ninety one (1.5%) persons resulted positive for trichinosis. higher rates of infection were observ ...19947654290
comparison of human trichinellosis caused by trichinella spiralis and by trichinella britovi.the first documented report of an outbreak of human trichinellosis caused by trichinella spiralis in italy is described. two family groups were involved. the source was wild boar meat products. the principal clinical features were fever (60%), myalgia (50%), and diarrhea (40%). the most useful laboratory indicators were eosinophilia (100%), elevated levels of creatine phosphokinase (cpk) (90%) and other muscle enzymes, parasite-specific igg titers (100%), and anti-newborn larvae antibodies (30%) ...19938480866
[the efficiency of the serological reactions with trichinella spiralis somatic antigen in the diagnosis of human trichinelliasis caused by infection with natural and synanthropic trichinella isolates].the efficiency of serological tests (enzyme immuno-assay (eia) and indirect hemagglutination test (ihat)) using the antigen t.spiralis was examined on 318 sera from trichinosis patients infected via pork meat and on 112 sera from those infected via wild animal meat. this was estimated at 85.6 and 84.8% with eia and 93.0 and 85.7% with ihat in the two groups, respectively. to enhance the efficiency of serological diagnosis of trichinosis, it is recommended that eia and ihat should be used concurr ...19958596508
detection of circulating trichinella spiralis larvae by polymerase chain reaction.several investigators have successfully applied the polymerase chain reaction to the amplification of dna from trichinella spiralis muscle-stage larvae. we show herein that specific dna can be amplified from t. spiralis migratory larvae in the blood of experimentally infected mice. the polymerase chain reaction detected the presence of migratory larvae in mouse blood from day 5 to day 14 of infection. the technique may be applied to human trichinosis, but its diagnostic value will depend on the ...19979000234
parasites associated with pork and pork products.three parasites pose a public health risk from the ingestion of raw or undercooked pork, namely: trichinella spiralis, taenia solium and toxoplasma gondii. inspection procedures, when practised according to prescribed methods, are effective in eliminating the majority of risks from t. spiralis and t. solium. no suitable methods for the post-slaughter detection of t. gondii are available. all three parasites are inactivated by various methods of cooking, freezing and curing; some information is a ...19979501363
production of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators in human intestinal epithelial cells after invasion by trichinella spiralis.epithelial cells are the first point of host contact for invasive intestinal pathogens and may initiate mucosal inflammatory responses via production of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators. the aim of the present study was to investigate in vitro the initial invasion of a parasitic nematode (trichinella spiralis), to measure the early production of specific epithelial cytokines and inflammatory mediators after invasion, and to compare these responses with those to invasive bacteria. monolaye ...19989573108
human trichinellosis in sourthern spain: serologic and epidemiologic outbreak of trichinellosis caused by wild boar meat occurred in the iruela (jaen) in southern spain in february 1996. thirty-five people were diagnosed on the basis of epidemiologic data, but only 24 patients agreed to participate in this study. twenty-three (96%) had symptoms suggestive of trichinellosis. immunofluorescent and western blot test results for trichinellosis were positive in 18 persons, and 15 had circulating trichinella spiralis antigens. these findings suggest that results of ...199910586921
epidemiology of trichinellosis in mexico, central and south america.trichinella species are widely distributed throughout the world and are found in a large number of carnivorous animals, humans and incidental hosts. the data presented in this review show that trichinella infection has been reported in both humans and animals in mexico, argentina and chile since the end of the 19th century, and more recently in bolivia. this parasitic infection is still a public health problem in countries such as argentina and chile. although efforts have focused on the control ...200011099838
the epidemiology of human trichinellosis in china during 1964-1999.the large foci of trichinellosis are mainly located in the southeastern, the central and northeastern china. by the end of 1999, human cases with trichinellosis have been recorded in 17 out of 34 provinces/autonomous regions/municipals (p/a/m) of china. the seroepidemiological surveys of t. spiralis infection in humans were carried out in nine out of 34 p/a/m. the overall seroprevalence was 5.3%. the prevalence detected by muscle biopsy in henan province was 2.5%. from 1964 to 1999, 548 outbreak ...200111484385
epidemiological survey of trichinella infection in some areas of henan province.during 1996-1998 epidemiological survey of domestic trichinella spiralis infection and serological survey on human beings were carried out in yanling, xuchang counties and luohe city. by the artificial digestion method, the positive rates of pork in market and mutton were 1.6% and 0.6% respectively. meat samples of pigs from pig-farms, cats and dogs were all negative for trichinella larvae. trichinellosis infection levels in rats captured in peasant households and places around abattoirs were 0. ...200111484388
[post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. a review based on current evidence].pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (ibs) is multifactorial. recent investigations have associated episodes of infectious gastroenteritis with development of ibs. this condition is named post-infectious ibs (pi-ibs). the role of inflammation-infection in ibs pathogenesis is not well understood.200312940101
cyclooctadepsipeptides--an anthelmintically active class of compounds exhibiting a novel mode of action.there are three major classes of anthelmintics for veterinary use: the benzimidazoles/prebenzimidazoles, the tetrahydropyrimidines/imidazothiazoles, and the macrocyclic lactones. in nematodes, there are five targets for the existing anthelmintics: the nicotinergic acetylcholine receptor which is the target of tetrahydropyrimidines/imidazothiazoles and indirectly that of the acetylcholineesterase inhibitors; the gaba receptor which is the target of piperazine, the glutamate-gated chloride channel ...200313678839
immunofluorescence as an aid in the early diagnosis of trichinosis.the established serological tests for trichinosis are often negative during the period when laboratory investigation is most likely to be useful.another serological test, the immunofluorescence test, appears to be more promising in this respect. the results were based on studies involving experimental animals and human patients. in two rabbits orally infected with trichinella spiralis larvae, antibodies were demonstrable by immunofluorescence on the fourth day after infection, by complement fixa ...196414139989
pulmonary manifestations of parasitic infestations.parasitic infestations in man may cause transient or permanent pulmonary lesions. the lesions occur during migration and evolution of the parasites, during parasitemia, or during the final habitat. these manifestations, though infrequent in canadian medical practice, present difficulties in diagnosis. life cycles, mode of entry, and migration of parasites in the human body are described and illustrative case histories presented. in this series, transient pulmonary changes were associated with as ...196414179063
[application of dot-immunogold filtration assay in detection of igg in sera of trichinellosis patients].to study a new quick method for detecting serum igg against trichinella spiralis (t.s).200315108544
historical perspectives and current global challenges of trichinella and trichinellosis.trichinella spiralis and related species of trichinella have had a long history of causing human disease, and as a foodborne pathogen have had a major impact on international commerce of pork and other meat animal species which are known to transmit the parasite. our knowledge of trichinella has increased substantially over the past few years particularly in the areas of phylogeny, host diversity, epidemiology and control. in this paper, we provide a brief overview of our understanding of trichi ...200011099836
[detection of anti-trichinella spiralis antibody by indirect elisa using recombinant protein as antigen].to study the specificity, sensitivity of diagnostic antigen for trichinella spiralis (t.s).200516300001
[effect of the culture fluid of trichinella spiralis on the apoptosis and necrosis of human leukaemia k562 cells]. 200516300018
the epidemiology of human trichinellosis in china during 2000-2003.the endemic foci of trichinellosis continue to be mainly located in the southwestern, the central and northeastern china. the seroepidemiological surveys of t. spiralis infection in humans were carried out in six provinces or municipals (p/m) of china during 2000-2003, the overall seroprevalence was 3.57%. from 2000 to 2003, 17 outbreaks of human trichinellosis, with 828 cases and 11 deaths, were recorded in 8 p/a of china. all of 11 deaths occurred in the southwestern china (1 case in sichuan, ...200616414006
detection of trichinella spiralis antigens in urine of men and animals.the practical inability to diagnose trichinella spiralis antibodies in man before day 20 post infection (dpi) has stimulated interest in the development of immunodiagnostic test to detect circulating antigens. our previous experience showed that soon after infection immune complexes as well as uncomplexed parasite antigens in sera of infected rats could be detected. to diagnose the presence of antigen in urine, double sandwich-capture elisa was applied using a peroxidase-conjugated rabbit immuno ...200116888981
trichinella spiralis-outbreak in the slovak republic.trichinellosis is a zoonosis caused by nematode worms of the genus trichinella and acquired through the consumption of raw or undercooked meat or meat products that harbour parasite larvae. the present report was designed to evaluate the course and circumstances surrounding the trichinellosis outbreak that occurred due to consumption of pork from a backyard pig in the southwest area of slovakia in 2001.200717401712
evolution of hedgehog and hedgehog-related genes, their origin from hog proteins in ancestral eukaryotes and discovery of a novel hint motif.the hedgehog (hh) signaling pathway plays important roles in human and animal development as well as in carcinogenesis. hh molecules have been found in both protostomes and deuterostomes, but curiously the nematode caenorhabditis elegans lacks a bona-fide hh. instead a series of hh-related proteins are found, which share the hint/hog domain with hh, but have distinct n-termini.200818334026
the complete mitochondrial genomes for three toxocara species of human and animal health significance.studying mitochondrial (mt) genomics has important implications for various fundamental areas, including mt biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology. in addition, mt genome sequences have provided useful markers for investigating population genetic structures, systematics and phylogenetics of organisms. toxocara canis, toxocara cati and toxocara malaysiensis cause significant health problems in animals and humans. although they are of importance in human and animal health, no information o ...200818482460
report of trichinella spiralis in a red fox (vulpes vulpes) in northern systematic studies of the occurrence of trichinella in wildlife have been carried out in northern ireland (ni) in recent years, and the last reports of trichinellosis in livestock and human outbreaks in ni date back to 1979 and 1945, respectively. in this study, covering the period 2003/2004 and 2007/2008, a total of 443 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) were collected throughout the country and screened for trichinellosis using a modified muscle digest method. one examined animal was found to be inf ...200919070433
development of a real-time pcr assay for the detection of trichinella spiralis in situ.trichinellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by nematodes of the genus trichinella. most human infections are caused by trichinella spiralis, with pig meat being the main source of infection. as a consequence, all countries in the eu inspect slaughtered animals to prevent the distribution of infected meat to consumers. however, trichinella spp. infect nearly all orders of mammals and so wildlife monitoring is often required in regions that want to provide evidence of negligible risk of ...200919153012
immune killing of newborn trichinella larvae by human leucocytes.the capacity of human leucocytes from normal donors to kill the newborn larvae of the nematode trichinella spiralis in vitro, in the presence of serum from infected individuals, was studied using newborn larvae (nbl) less than 2 h of age or nbl that had been maintained in culture at 37 degrees c for 20 h. neutrophils and monocytes attached to newborn trichinella larvae and killed them, regardless of their age. when eosinophils were used, 20 h old nbl were killed whereas 2 h old nbl were not. com ...19937877832
biochemical investigations of the dynamics of proteinase activity at different stages of trichinellosis in the literature available hitherto there are many reports on enzymatic changes in tissues and a correlated rise in enzymatic activity in blood serum during experimental and human trichinellosis. in this study we were characterised proteinase activity in crude extracts from muscles of mice infected with trichinella spiralis and t. pseudospiralis and the dynamics of their changes in different stages of disease. the activity of proteinase in muscle of mice infected with t. spiralis showed an incr ...19947831926
antigens of gastrointestinal nematodes.nematodes occupying the gastrointestinal (gi) tract of man shed an as yet undefined array of chemicals into their environment. to combat effectively the potentially debilitating disease caused by infection with these organisms we must (a) define the parasite products chemically, (b) determine their ability to induce protective immunity (or to counter a protective immune response), and (c) establish their potential for the diagnosis of infection. whilst it has become clear that "antigens" can be ...19863299889
[development of efficient dna isolation procedures for cryptosporidium and trichinella pcr detection in fecal samples].pcr detection of genetic material of the parasites present in faeces may be an alternative for microscopic and serological tests routinely used for diagnosing parasitic enteral infections. however, small amount of target dna combined with low efficiency of total dna extraction, and presence of pcr inhibitors in the samples to be amplified, may cause false negative detection results. the aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of dna isolation procedure used on the amplification of dna fragme ...200920120929
the use of three immunologic tests in detection of antibodies against trichinella spiralis.human sera (330 from patients with manifestations suggestive trichinosis) were examined for antibodies. the immunologic tests used were counter current immunoelectrophoresis (cep), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and immunoflourescence (if). seropositive reactions were demonstrated in 2.7%, 5.4% and 2.4% of the sera by the 3 tests respectively. however, 2.4% of the sera were seropositive by the three tests. it seems that the use of two of these tests is valuable in diagnosis when muscl ...19892651538
production of monoclonal antibody against toxocara cati second-stage larvae and its application for the detection of circulating antigens.toxocariasis is an important zoonotic disease caused by the second-stage larvae of toxocara species. human toxocariasis is usually diagnosed by serological methods. we prepared monoclonal antibody specific for toxocara cati (t. cati) and performed the following experiments using this antibody to increase the sensitivity of our capture elisa for antigen detection. the isotype of monoclonal antibody was igg3. using this monoclonal antibody, a capture elisa was developed. the produced monoclonal an ...201020568996
monoclonal antibodies against excretory/secretory antigens of angiostrongylus the present study, four murine monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were generated against the excretory/secretory (es) products of angiostrongylus cantonensis adult worms; two represented igg1 and two represented igm mabs, and they were designated 12d5, 15f8, 21b7 and 14g10, respectively. immunoblotting revealed that all of the mabs predominantly recognized a 98‚ÄČkda antigen in the es products of a. cantonensis adult worms, and no cross reactions were found with the whole worm antigens of some other ...201021050048
[cardiac trichinosis--echocardiographic study].trichinosis is an intestinal and tissue infection of man caused by trichinella spiralis. the most frequent and serious complication is myocarditis. m-mode and two-dimensional echocardiographic studies were carried out on 16 patients with clinical manifestation of trichinosis. the parameters of the left ventricular function, measured by echocardiography were examined, and the results were compared with the same parameters in 50 normal individuals. in 11 patients a variety of morphologic findings, ...19911916420
[a family outbreak of trichinosis acquired in israel].trichinosis is a parasitic disease transmitted to man by ingestion of contaminated raw meat, usually pork, containing cysts of trichinella spiralis. formerly appearing as serious epidemics, it has now become uncommon due to public health control measures. since the jewish and moslem religions forbid consumption of pork, the disease is even rarer in israel. the literature indicates that all the cases of trichinosis hospitalized in israel were contaminated abroad. we describe an israeli family in ...19921526560
muc5ac: a critical component mediating the rejection of enteric novo expression of muc5ac, a mucin not normally expressed in the intestinal tract, is induced in the cecum of mice resistant to trichuris muris infection. in this study, we investigated the role of muc5ac, which is detected shortly before worm expulsion and is associated with the production of interleukin-13 (il-13), in resistance to this nematode. muc5ac-deficient mice were incapable of expelling t. muris from the intestine and harbored long-term chronic infections, despite developing strong ...201121502330
mouse mast cells express the tryptic protease neuropsin/prss19.the only tryptic enzymes identified so far in mouse mast cells (mcs) are three members of the chromosome 17a3.3 family of neutral proteases. sequence analysis of a cdna library revealed that balb/c mouse bone marrow-derived mcs express neuropsin, a member of the chromosome 7b2 family of tryptic kallikreins. kinetic studies revealed that neuropsin is expressed relatively early in mc development. as assessed immunohistochemically, the mcs residing in numerous connective tissues store neuropsin in ...200312646205
trichinosis of psoas muscle.there are isolated case reports of trichinella spiralis infestation in animals from india. we report the first case in man from india. the nematode was discovered incidentally during drainage of psoas abscess.200212186138
macrophage migration inhibitory factor of the parasitic nematode trichinella spiralis.cdnas were obtained for macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (mif)/l-dopachrome methyl ester tautomerase homologues from the parasitic nematodes trichinella spiralis (tsmif) and trichuris trichiura (ttmif). the translated sequences, which were partly confirmed by sequencing of proteolytic fragments, show 42 and 44% identity respectively with human or mouse mif, and are shorter by one c-terminal residue. unlike vertebrate mif and mif homologues of filarial nematodes, neither tsmif nor ttmif con ...200111439086
[antibodies against trichinella spiralis in the rural population of the province of cordillera, bolivia].a seroepidemiological study was conducted to determine the prevalence of antibodies to trichinella spiralis among rural residents of cordillera province, santa cruz department, bolivia. using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), 234 serum samples were examined, and antibodies were detected in seven of the samples (3%). the results document for the first time the presence of human infestation with trichinella in bolivia and suggest the need to strengthen trichinelosis surveillance in th ...199910079742
trichinosis: infrequent diagnosis or frequent misdiagnosis?trichinosis, a disease of wild and domestic animals caused by the nematode trichinella spiralis, is an infrequently diagnosed infection in human beings. we present the case of a 33-year-old man with trichinosis whose diagnosis was complicated by the presence of maxillary sinusitis.19947978576
[trichinosis].in spite of a decreased occurrence of trichinella spiralis with pigs and wild boars in the federal republic of germany raw or underdone pork is the primary source of infection for man. but as the epidemic of ebermannstadt has shown, trichinelliasis occasionally occurs nowadays. besides, there is a danger of infection when travelling to countries with insufficient meat hygiene. after initial enteritis the characteristic symptomatology appears: facial edemas, myalgia, fever, and hypereosinophilia. ...19807191393
epidemiology of swine trichinellosis in the republic of order to study the epidemiology of trichinellosis with special emphasis on swine a detailed study was performed. the goals of the study were to define the prevalence of trichinellosis in swine and rats and to determine the etiological agents of the disease with special emphasis on sylvatic species, trichinella britovi. considering the obtained data it can be concluded that the risk of trichinella infection for swine in endemic areas in croatia is rather high today. on the contrary, a sharp de ...200111484396
a follow-up study of the human class and subclass antibody response developed against the adult stage of trichinella spiralis.we report the analysis by elisa of class and subclass antibody response against a total soluble extract from t. spiralis adult stage (tse-a) during a year after the infection in 17 symptomatic trichinellosis patients (si) and five asymptomatic individual (ai) involved in an outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in the state of mexico. serum samples from 20 healthy individuals (hi) and 24 patients with other parasitosis were included as control. all si showed a polyisotypic antibody response agains ...200111484345
localization of trichinella spiralis in muscles of commercial and parasitologic interest in pork.trichinellosis is widespread around the world with different representatives of the genus trichinella found in almost every continent. in argentina the main source of transmission for the disease to humans is pig meat infected with trichinella spiralis. the object of this work was to determine the distribution of trichinella larvae in fresh meat cuts which are sold for human consumption and in the muscles traditionally used for the disease diagnosis at meat-packing plants. cranial muscles to the ...200111484370
aspects of clinical features, diagnosis, notification and tracing back referring to trichinella outbreaks in north rhine-westphalia, germany, 1998.52 cases of human trichinellosis were notified from 11 towns in north rhine-westphalia from november 1998 to march 1999. after non-typical symptoms in the enteral phase, fever, muscular ache, headache, oedema, disorder of vision and rash occurred in the parenteral phase. trichinellosis was serologically confirmed by elisa, ifat or western blot. raw sausage and minced meat produced from raw pork could be determined as probable source of infection with 44 and eight notified cases, respectively. wh ...200111484350
class specific antibody responses to newborn larva antigens during trichinella spiralis human infection.a follow-up study of the class antibody responses to newborn larva (nbl) antigens in individuals involved in an outbreak of human trichinellosis was carried out by elisa assays. the data showed that similar kinetics of antibody responses of different magnitude developed in trichinellosis patients; it was low by week 3, a peak raised by week 5 and decreased from week 7 up to the end of the study. the iga-elisa assay was the most sensitive and specific while the igm was the least sensitive and spe ...200111484342
will corticosteroids and other anti-inflammatory agents be effective for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome?irritable bowel syndrome (ibs) is one of several functional gastrointestinal disorders commonly encountered in both the clinical setting and the general population. the biopsychosocial model is currently believed to be a more complete explanatory mechanism of ibs symptom genesis and propagation. gut inflammation and immune activation is one of the biological mechanisms for which evidence is emerging. experimental parasitic infection of mice bowel resulted in elevated substance p levels and incre ...200515893125
molecular expression and characterization of a homologue of host cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor from trichinella spp.a homologue of cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (mif) from complementary dna (cdna) of trichinella spiralis and trichinella pseudospiralis was expressed in escherichia coli and characterized. the sequence analysis indicated that the predicted amino acid sequence has an identity of 57 and 44% with the mif of nematodes trichuris trichiura and brugia malayi respectively, and 41 and 40% with that of a human and a mouse, respectively. the identity in sequences of cdna and amino acids b ...200312880250
immunodiagnosis of trichinellosis: efficacy of somatic antigen in early detection of human trichinellosis.crude antigens prepared from the infective stage larvae of trichinella spiralis were used for antibody detection by indirect elisa and western blotting in serum samples taken from trichinellosis patients and from normal, parasite-free controls. the serum specimens were collected from acute ill, symptomatic patients on the first day of treatment (day 0), and then two months (m2) and 4 months (m4) later. the sensitivities of the indirect elisa and western blotting on day 0 were 81% and 92%, respec ...19947872991
phosphorylation of thymidylate synthase from various sources by human protein kinase ck2 and its catalytic subunits.thymidylate synthase (ts) was found to be a substrate for both catalytic subunits of human ck2, with phosphorylation by ck2alpha and ck2alpha' characterized by similar k(m) values, 4.6microm and 4.2microm, respectively, but different efficiencies, the apparent turnover number with ck2alpha being 10-fold higher. with both catalytic subunits, phosphorylation of human ts, like calmodulin and bid, was strongly inhibited in the presence of the regulatory subunit ck2beta, the holoenzyme being activate ...201020199796
incidental trichinellosis of strap muscle identified after thyroglossal duct cyst excision.(1) present a unique case of a thyroglossal duct cyst (tgdc) excised for recurrent infections with trichinella spiralis in adjacent strap muscle; (2) review the literature regarding the diagnosis and treatment of subclinical trichinellosis of the head and neck.201021225756
binding and repression of translation of the cognate mrna by trichinella spiralis thymidylate synthase differ from the corresponding interactions of the human enzyme. 200717326266
evaluation of a western blot and elisa for the detection of anti-trichinella-igg in pig sera.human trichinellosis is a foodborne disease caused by ingestion of infective trichinella muscle larvae via pork or meat of other food animals which are susceptible to this zoonotic parasite. there are new approaches for a risk-oriented meat inspection for trichinella in pigs which are accompanied by monitoring programmes on herd level to control freedom from this parasite. for this purpose, testing schemes utilizing serological tests with a high sensitivity and specificity are required. this stu ...200919473770
application and assessment of a dipstick assay in the diagnosis of hydatidosis and trichinosis.the aim of the present work was to apply and evaluate a dipstick assay for the serodiagnosis of human hydatidosis as well as human and experimental trichinosis using camel hydatid cyst fluid (hcf) and trichinella spiralis muscle larval (tsml) antigens, respectively, and compare this to enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (eitb) and falcon assay screening test-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (fast-elisa). sera samples were collected from patients with confirmed hydatidosis and trichinosis ...200415103552
molecular taxonomy, phylogeny and biogeography of nematodes belonging to the trichinella genus.studying parasites of the genus trichinella provides scientists of today many advantages. this is a group of zoonotic nematodes that circulates freely among wildlife hosts with one in particular, trichinella spiralis that is exceptionally well adapted to domestic swine. recent reports suggest that human infections from hunted animals are on the rise worldwide and numerous countries still experience problems with t. spiralis in their domestic food supplies. trichinella is a genus whose members ar ...200919460327
immune cytotoxic activity of human eosinophils against trichinella spiralis newborn larvae.the ability of human eosinophils to kill the newborn larvae (nbl) of trichinella spiralis of different maturation status, in the presence of antibody, was studied. a cytotoxic in vitro test was performed using nbl less than 2 h of age (nbl2) or nbl maintained in culture at 37 degrees c for 20 h (nbl20), peripheral blood eosinophils, anti-trichinella serum and human fresh serum as source of complement. under these experimental conditions eosinophils from normal individuals attached to nbl2 as wel ...19958817601
high prevalence of anti-trichinella igg in domestic pigs of the son la province, vietnam.although several outbreaks of trichinella infection among humans have occurred in northwestern vietnam, no information is available on the circulation of trichinella among domestic pigs. the objective of the present study was to estimate the seroprevalence of anti-trichinella igg in free-roaming pigs (sus scrofa) in the son la province of northwestern vietnam, where a human outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in june 2008. serum samples were collected from free-roaming pigs of four communes of t ...201019962244
conserved eukaryotic fusogens can fuse viral envelopes to cells.caenorhabditis elegans proteins aff-1 and eff-1 [c. elegans fusion family (ceff) proteins] are essential for developmental cell-to-cell fusion and can merge insect cells. to study the structure and function of aff-1, we constructed vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) displaying aff-1 on the viral envelope, substituting the native fusogen vsv glycoprotein. electron microscopy and tomography revealed that aff-1 formed distinct supercomplexes resembling pentameric and hexameric "flowers" on pseudoviru ...201121436398
identification of immunoreactive proteins of trichinella spiralis adult and adult excretory/secretory (e/s) antigens in sera of human and animals.trichinella spiralis adult and adult excretory/secretory antigens were evaluated by elisa and western blot techniques for the serological diagnosis of trichinellosis in naturally infected human, swine and experimentally infected rats. blood samples were collected from 16 symptomatic patients at hospital and 12 asymptomatic individuals working at the swine slaughter-house. blood samples were also obtained from 75 pigs at two abattoirs and experimentally infected rats (day 25 pi). there was no gre ...200415125533
cytotoxicity-blocking antibodies in human chronic trichinellosis.antisurface newborn larva (nbl) antibodies (abs) were found in sera from individuals chronically infected with trichinella spiralis. these abs were incapable of inducing nbl death by activation of normal human leukocytes of peripheral blood as determined by in vitro assays of antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (adcc). besides, such sera blocked the cytotoxic reaction mediated by abs produced a few weeks after infection. the blocking activity could not be attributed to any particular isotype by ...200011002986
[preparation of a dry red blood cell trichinella antigenic diagnosticum for indirect hemagglutination test and evaluation of its efficiency].the present paper presents the stages of a process for manufacturing a dry red blood cell trichinella antigenic diagnosticum for indirect hemagglutination test (ihat) and the evaluation of its diagnostic efficiency. the diagnosticum is shown to be a 3% suspension lyophilized from formalinized and tanned sheep red blood cells on which an excretory-secretory antigen of invasion trichinella larvae was absorbed in a dose of 100 mg/ml. the rather high sensitivity (98.7%) and specificity (97.3%) of ih ...200515984615
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