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detection and sequence confirmation of sin nombre virus rna in paraffin-embedded human tissues using one-step rt-pcr.sin nombre virus (snv) is the causative agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). snv rna can be detected in fresh or frozen autopsy tissue samples by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), and virus antigens can be identified by immunohistochemistry. a method was developed for demonstration of snv rna in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues by rt-pcr. virus genomes were detected in 8 of 12 (66.7%) fixed human tissue samples that were positive by immunohistochemistry, ...19957738155
serological evidence for zoonotic hantaviruses in north carolina rodents.in a survey of seven species of wild rodents (n = 423) collected between october 1993 and march 1994 from the three principal ecological biomes of north carolina (usa), we found hantavirus antibodies in seven (2%) of 301 peromyscus spp. hantavirus antibodies were detected in p. leucopus and p. maniculatus captured from mountain and coastal island biomes. three mice were positive for sin nombre virus, while four others had antibodies to seoul virus or a related agent. two mice serologically posit ...19968722278
seroepidemiologic studies of hantavirus infection among wild rodents in california.a total of 4,626 mammals were serologically tested for antibodies to sin nombre virus. all nonrodent species were antibody negative. among wild rodents, antibody prevalence was 8.5% in murids, 1.4% in heteromyids, and < 0.1% in sciurids. of 1,921 peromyscus maniculatus (deer mice), 226 (11.8%) were antibody positive, including one collected in 1975. the highest antibody prevalence (71.4% of 35) was found among p. maniculatus on santa cruz island, off the southern california coast. prevalence of ...19979204301
a survey of hantavirus antibody in small-mammal populations in selected united states national parks.hantavirus activity in 39 national parks in the eastern and central united states was surveyed by testing 1,815 small mammals of 38 species for antibody reactive to sin nombre virus. antibody-positive rodents were found throughout the area sampled, and in most biotic communities. antibody was detected in 7% of 647 deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus), 2% of 590 white-footed mice (p. leucopus), 17% of 12 rice rats (oryzomys palustris), 3% of 31 cotton rats (sigmodon hispidus), and 33% of 18 western ...19989574803
remote sensing and geographic information systems: charting sin nombre virus infections in deer mice.we tested environmental data from remote sensing and geographic information system maps as indicators of sin nombre virus (snv) infections in deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) populations in the walker river basin, nevada and california. we determined by serologic testing the presence of snv infections in deer mice from 144 field sites. we used remote sensing and geographic information systems data to characterize the vegetation type and density, elevation, slope, and hydrologic features of ea ...200010827114
removing deer mice from buildings and the risk for human exposure to sin nombre virus.trapping and removing deer mice from ranch buildings resulted in an increased number of mice, including sin nombre virus antibody-positive mice, entering ranch buildings. mouse removal without mouse proofing will not reduce and may even increase human exposure to sin nombre hantavirus.200312643840
complete sequence of the genome of the human isolate of andes virus chi-7913: comparative sequence and protein structure analysis.we report here the complete genomic sequence of the chilean human isolate of andes virus chi-7913. the s, m, and l genome segment sequences of this isolate are 1,802, 3,641 and 6,466 bases in length, with an overall gc content of 38.7%. these genome segments code for a nucleocapsid protein of 428 amino acids, a glycoprotein precursor protein of 1,138 amino acids and a rna-dependent rna polymerase of 2,152 amino acids. in addition, the genome also has other orfs coding for putative proteins of 34 ...200314513715
hantavirus infection in children.this article focuses on recent developments in knowledge about hantavirus infections and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in children. we highlight clinical characterization, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic techniques, and current alternatives for treatment and prevention.200414758117
microarray technology for identification and distinction of hantaviruses.dna microarrays combine high-precision technology with advanced molecular biology to achieve high-throughput screening of dna fragments. in this study, we investigated the potential of the cdna microarray technique to identify and discriminate pcr derived amplicons from genetically highly similar viruses. the wide range of sequence variation among hantaviruses makes them suitable as a model for this purpose. the hantaviruses, carried by rodents, cause several hundred thousand cases of severe hum ...200414981768
identification and analysis for cross-reactivity among hantaviruses of h-2b-restricted cytotoxic t-lymphocyte epitopes in sin nombre virus nucleocapsid protein.sin nombre virus (snv) causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps), with a high rate of mortality in humans who are infected by the transmission of virus from the natural rodent host. in humans, cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl) specific for snv appear to play an important role in the pathogenicity of hps. there is a correlation between the frequencies of snv-specific ctls and the severity of hps disease. in order to create a mouse model to study the role of snv-specific t cells in vivo, t cell respo ...200415218176
[hantavirus infections].hantaviruses are cosmopolite anthropozoonosis considered as an emerging disease. four pathogenic types for humans and part of the bunyaviridae species are hosted by rodents and have been isolated: the sin nombre virus responsible for the severe american respiratory form; the hantaan and seoul viruses responsible for hemorrhagic fevers with renal syndrome (hfrs) of severe to moderate expression in asia and also in the balkans; the puumala virus responsible for hfrs of moderate expression or the s ...200515859577
peptide antagonists that inhibit sin nombre virus and hantaan virus entry through the beta3-integrin receptor.specific therapy is not available for the treatment of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome caused by sin nombre virus (snv). the entry of pathogenic hantaviruses into susceptible human cells is dependent upon expression of the alpha(v)beta(3) integrin, and transfection of human beta(3) integrin is sufficient to confer infectibility onto cho (chinese hamster ovary) cells. furthermore, pretreatment of susceptible cells with anti-beta(3) antibodies such as c7e3 or its fab fragment reopro prevents h ...200515919886
andes and prospect hill hantaviruses differ in early induction of interferon although both can downregulate interferon signaling.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) is a severe respiratory disease which is thought to result from a dysregulated immune response to infection with pathogenic hantaviruses, such as sin nombre virus or andes virus (andv). other new world hantaviruses, such as prospect hill virus (phv), have not been associated with human disease. activation of an antiviral state and cell signaling in response to hantavirus infection were examined using human primary lung endothelial cells, the main target cell i ...200717202220
ribavirin, human convalescent plasma and anti-beta3 integrin antibody inhibit infection by sin nombre virus in the deer mouse model.the new world hantavirus sin nombre virus (snv) is an aetiological agent for the often-fatal hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps). there is no disease model for snv and specific treatments for hcps do not exist. by using the deer mouse infectious model, the in vivo inhibitory potential of ribavirin, human anti-snv immune plasma (hip), an anti-beta3 antibody (reopro) and a polyclonal rabbit anti-recombinant nucleocapsid (n) antibody against snv was investigated. concurrent intraperitoneal a ...200717251568
early innate immune responses to sin nombre hantavirus occur independently of ifn regulatory factor 3, characterized pattern recognition receptors, and viral entry.sin nombre virus (snv) is a highly pathogenic new world virus and etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. we have previously shown that replication-defective virus particles are able to induce a strong ifn-stimulated gene (isg) response in human primary cells. rna viruses often stimulate the innate immune response by interactions between viral nucleic acids, acting as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern, and cellular pattern-recognition receptors (prrs). ligand binding to prr ...200717641046
seroprevalence against sin nombre virus in resident and dispersing deer mice.through dispersal, deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) enter peridomestic settings (e.g., outbuildings, barns, cabins) and expose humans and other deer mouse populations to sin nombre virus (snv). in june 2004, research on deer mouse dispersal was initiated at 2 locations in montana. during the course of the study, over 6000 deer mouse movements were recorded, and more than 1000 of these movements were classified as dispersal movements. more than 1700 individual deer mice were captured and tested ...200818447620
hantaviruses: an emerging public health threat in india? a review.the emerging viral diseases haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps) are a cause of global concern as they are increasingly reported from newer regions of the world. the hantavirus species causing hfrs include hantaan virus,seoul virus, puumala virus, and dobrava-belgrade virus while sin nombre virus was responsible for the 1993 outbreak of hcps in the four corners region of the us. humans are accidental hosts and get infected by aerosols gener ...200819208975
the effect of seasonality, density and climate on the population dynamics of montana deer mice, important reservoir hosts for sin nombre hantavirus.1. since sin nombre virus was discovered in the u.s. in 1993, longitudinal studies of the rodent reservoir host, the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) have demonstrated a qualitative correlation among mouse population dynamics and risk of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in humans, indicating the importance of understanding deer mouse population dynamics for evaluating risk of hps. 2. using capture-mark-recapture statistical methods on a 15-year data set from montana, we estimated deer mous ...201020015212
roles of human disturbance, precipitation, and a pathogen on the survival and reproductive probabilities of deer mice.climate change, human disturbance, and disease can have large impacts on the dynamics of a species by affecting the likelihood of survival and reproduction of individuals. we investigated the roles of precipitation, off-road vehicle (orv) alteration of habitat, and infection with sin nombre virus on the survival and reproductive probabilities of deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus). we used generalized linear mixed models to estimate the effects of these factors and their interactions by fitting c ...201020392022
characterization of monoclonal antibodies against hantavirus nucleocapsid protein and their use for immunohistochemistry on rodent and human samples.monoclonal antibodies are important tools for various applications in hantavirus diagnostics. recently, we generated puumala virus (puuv)-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mabs) by immunisation of mice with chimeric polyomavirus-derived virus-like particles (vlps) harbouring the 120-amino-acid-long amino-terminal region of the puuv nucleocapsid (n) protein. here, we describe the generation of two mabs by co-immunisation of mice with hexahistidine-tagged full-length n proteins of sin nombre virus ( ...201021161552
biogeographic and ecological regulation of disease: prevalence of sin nombre virus in island mice is related to island area, precipitation, and predator richness.the relative roles of top-down and bottom-up forces in affecting disease prevalence in wild hosts is important for understanding disease dynamics and human disease risk. we found that the prevalence of sin nombre virus (snv), the agent of a severe disease in humans (hantavirus pulmonary syndrome), in island deer mice from the eight california channel islands was greater with increased precipitation (a measure of productivity), greater island area, and fewer species of rodent predators. in findin ...201121508614
sin nombre hantavirus decreases survival of male deer mice.how pathogens affect their hosts is a key question in infectious disease ecology, and it can have important influences on the spread and persistence of the pathogen. sin nombre virus (snv) is the etiological agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in humans. a better understanding of snv in its reservoir host, the deer mouse, could lead to improved predictions of the circulation and persistence of the virus in the mouse reservoir, and could help identify the factors that lead to increased h ...201222218940
sampling frequency differentially influences interpretation of zoonotic pathogen and host dynamics: sin nombre virus and deer mice.reports of novel emerging and resurging wildlife and zoonotic diseases have increased. consequently, integration of pathogen sampling into wildlife monitoring programs has grown. sampling frequency influences interpretations of coupled host-pathogen dynamics, with direct implication to human exposure risk, but has received little empirical attention. to address this, a 15-year study, based on monthly sampling, of deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) populations and sin nombre virus (snv; a virule ...201020528169
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