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the nature and classification of viruses of man. 1979111266
[viral contamination in laboratories and hospital units].viral contamination is at least as important in hospital laboratories and wards as contamination by bacteria or microscopic fungi, but it is much more insidious and sometimes unrecognized. there are two main types: the first has a purely technical effect and only interest the virologist. this is contamination of reagents, reference strains, cell cultures, etc.., by foreign viral agents. it may be the cause of errors on diagnosis or regrettable errors of interpretation of certain experimental dat ...1975165448
filovirus activity among selected ethnic groups inhabiting the tropical forest of equatorial africa.seroepidemiological surveys were conducted to determine the frequency and distribution of filovirus activity among selected ethnic groups inhabiting the tropical forests of the central african republic. 427 serum specimens were collected from hunter-gatherers and subsistence farmers living in forest environs in the lobaye district south of the river lobaye and west of the river oubangui. striking serological evidence for filovirus activity was found in both populations. ebola virus appears to be ...19938266403
single-injection vaccine protects nonhuman primates against infection with marburg virus and three species of ebola virus.the filoviruses marburg virus and ebola virus cause severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality in humans and nonhuman primates. among the most promising filovirus vaccines under development is a system based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) that expresses a single filovirus glycoprotein (gp) in place of the vsv glycoprotein (g). here, we performed a proof-of-concept study in order to determine the potential of having one single-injection vaccine capable of protecting nonhuman pr ...200919386702
progress in filovirus vaccine development: evaluating the potential for clinical use.marburg and ebola viruses cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. currently, there are no effective treatments and no licensed vaccines; although a number of vaccine platforms have proven successful in animal models. the ideal filovirus vaccine candidate should be able to provide rapid protection following a single immunization, have the potential to work postexposure and be cross-reactive or multivalent against all marburg virus strains and all relevant ebola virus speci ...201121162622
Advances in virus-like particle vaccines for filoviruses.Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) are among the deadliest human pathogens, with no vaccines or therapeutics available. Multiple vaccine platforms have been tested for efficacy as prophylactic pretreatments or therapeutics for prevention of filovirus hemorrhagic fever. Most successful vaccines are based on a virus-vectored approach expressing the protective glycoprotein (GP); protein-based subunit and DNA vaccines have been tested with moderate success. Virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine ...201121987741
laboratory detection and diagnosis of filoviruses.ebola virus (ebov) and marburg virus (marv), belonging to the filoviridae family, emerged four decades ago and caused severe viral hemorrhagic fever in human and other primates. as high as 50-90% mortality, filoviruses can cause significant threats to public health. however, so far no specific and efficient vaccine has been available, nor have other treatment methods proved to be effective. it is of great importance to detect these pathogens specific, rapidly and sensitively in order to control ...201121468930
lessons learned during active epidemiological surveillance of ebola and marburg viral hemorrhagic fever epidemics in africa.to review epidemiological surveillance approaches used during ebola and marburg hemorrhagic fever epidemics in africa in the past fifteen years. overall, 26 hemorrhagic epidemic outbreaks have been registered in 12 countries; 18 caused by the ebola virus and eight by the marburg virus. about 2551 cases have been reported, among which 268 were health workers (9,3%).201021413569
the use of a mobile laboratory unit in support of patient management and epidemiological surveillance during the 2005 marburg outbreak in angola.marburg virus (marv), a zoonotic pathogen causing severe hemorrhagic fever in man, has emerged in angola resulting in the largest outbreak of marburg hemorrhagic fever (mhf) with the highest case fatality rate to date.201121629730
regulation of marburg virus (marv) budding by nedd4.1: a different ww domain of nedd4.1 is critical for binding to marv and ebola virus vp40.the vp40 matrix protein of marburg virus (marv) has been shown to be the driving force behind marv budding, a process in which the pppy l-domain motif of vp40 plays a critical role. here, we report that vps4b and nedd4.1 play critical roles in marv vp40-mediated budding. we showed that unidentified activities of the nedd4.1 hect domain, along with its e3 ubiquitin ligase activity, may be required for marv budding. moreover, we showed that the first ww domain of nedd4.1, ww1, is critical for bind ...201019812267
filovirus budding.family filoviridae, which includes ebola virus (ebov) and marburg virus (marv), is a growing threat to human and non-human primate populations in central africa. although many facets of the filovirus life cycle remain to be deciphered, a great deal has been learned in recent years. in particular, a clearer understanding of the roles played by viral, as well as cellular, proteins in the assembly and budding processes has been achieved. this review will discuss the current state of filovirus buddi ...200415567496
biodistribution and toxicological safety of adenovirus type 5 and type 35 vectored vaccines against human immunodeficiency virus-1 (hiv-1), ebola, or marburg are similar despite differing adenovirus serotype vector, manufacturer's construct, or gene inserts.the vaccine research center has developed vaccine candidates for different diseases/infectious agents (including hiv-1, ebola, and marburg viruses) built on an adenovirus vector platform, based on adenovirus type 5 or 35. to support clinical development of each vaccine candidate, pre-clinical studies were performed in rabbits to determine where in the body they biodistribute and how rapidly they clear, and to screen for potential toxicities (intrinsic and immunotoxicities). the vaccines biodistr ...200818830892
ebola virus matrix protein vp40 uses the copii transport system for its intracellular transport.the ebola virus matrix protein vp40 plays an important role in virion formation and viral egress from cells. however, the host cell proteins and mechanisms responsible for intracellular transport of vp40 prior to its contribution to virion formation remain to be elucidated. therefore we used coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometric analyses to identify host proteins interacting with vp40. we found that sec24c, a component of the host copii vesicular transport system, interacts specifically w ...200818329616
de novo syntheses of marburg virus antigens from adenovirus vectors induce potent humoral and cellular immune responses.marburg virus (marv) is an african filovirus that causes a deadly hemorrhagic fever in humans, with up to 90% mortality. currently, there are no marv vaccines or therapies approved for human use. we hypothesized that developing a vaccine that induces a de novo synthesis of marv antigens in vivo will lead to strong induction of both a humoral and cell-mediated immune response against marv. here, we develop and characterize three novel gene-based vaccine candidates which express the viral glycopro ...200616530297
global suppression of the host antiviral response by ebola- and marburgviruses: increased antagonism of the type i interferon response is associated with enhanced virulence.we studied the effect of filovirus infection on host cell gene expression by characterizing the regulation of gene expression responses in human liver cells infected with zaire ebolavirus (zebov), reston ebolavirus (rebov), and marburgvirus (marv), using transcriptional profiling and bioinformatics. expression microarray analysis demonstrated that filovirus infection resulted in the up-regulation of immune-related genes and the down-regulation of many coagulation and acute-phase proteins. these ...200616501110
development of treatment strategies to combat ebola and marburg viruses.ebola and marburg viruses are emerging/re-emerging pathogens that pose a significant threat to human health. these naturally occurring viral infections frequently cause a lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. the disastrous consequences of infection with these viruses have been pursued as potential biological weapons. to date, there are no therapeutic options available for the prophylaxis or treatment of infected individuals. the recognition that ebola and marburg viruses may ...200616441210
rab9 gtpase is required for replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, filoviruses, and measles virus.rab proteins and their effectors facilitate vesicular transport by tethering donor vesicles to their respective target membranes. by using gene trap insertional mutagenesis, we identified rab9, which mediates late-endosome-to-trans-golgi-network trafficking, among several candidate host genes whose disruption allowed the survival of marburg virus-infected cells, suggesting that rab9 is utilized in marburg replication. although rab9 has not been implicated in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) re ...200516140752
different potential of c-type lectin-mediated entry between marburg virus strains.the glycoproteins (gps) of filoviruses are responsible for virus entry into cells. it is known that gp interacts with cellular c-type lectins for virus attachment to cells. since primary target cells of filoviruses express c-type lectins, c-type lectin-mediated entry is thought to be a possible determinant of virus tropism and pathogenesis. we compared the efficiency of c-type lectin-mediated entry between marburg virus strains angola and musoke by using a vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) pseudo ...201020219911
haemorrhagic fever in gabon. i. incidence of lassa, ebola and marburg viruses in haut-ogooué.a serological enquiry aimed at determining the incidence of infection with lassa, ebola and marburg viruses was conducted on the human population of the region of haut-ogooué (gabon) and on primates. the results, obtained by the indirect immunofluorescence technique, showed that more than 6% of the human population had had contact with ebola virus but no antibodies against marburg or lassa viruses were found. most sera reacted to an ebola antigen from a zairian strain, but showed little or no re ...19827164137
physicochemical inactivation of lassa, ebola, and marburg viruses and effect on clinical laboratory analyses.clinical specimens from patients infected with lassa, ebola, or marburg virus may present a serious biohazard to laboratory workers. we have examined the effects of heat, alteration of ph, and gamma radiation on these viruses in human blood and on the electrolytes, enzymes, and coagulation factors measured in laboratory tests that are important in the care of an infected patient. heating serum at 60 degrees c for 1 h reduced high titers of these viruses to noninfectious levels without altering t ...19846490832
the nucleotide sequence of the l gene of marburg virus, a filovirus: homologies with paramyxoviruses and rhabdoviruses.the nucleotide sequence of the l gene of marburg virus, strain musoke, has been determined. the l gene has a single long open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 2330 amino acids (mw 267,175) that represents the viral rna-dependent rna polymerase. the putative transcription start signal (3'cuaccuauaauu 5') and the termination signal (3' uaauucuuuuu 5') of the gene could be identified. computer-assisted comparison of the l protein with l proteins of other nonsegmented negative-stranded rna vi ...19921546452
ebola virus entry requires the cholesterol transporter niemann-pick c1.infections by the ebola and marburg filoviruses cause a rapidly fatal haemorrhagic fever in humans for which no approved antivirals are available. filovirus entry is mediated by the viral spike glycoprotein (gp), which attaches viral particles to the cell surface, delivers them to endosomes and catalyses fusion between viral and endosomal membranes. additional host factors in the endosomal compartment are probably required for viral membrane fusion; however, despite considerable efforts, these c ...201121866103
rig-i activation inhibits ebolavirus replication.hemorrhagic fever viruses are associated with rapidly progressing severe disease with high case fatality, making them of public health and biothreat importance. effective antivirals are not available for most of the members of this diverse group of viruses. a broad spectrum strategy for antiviral development would be very advantageous. perhaps the most challenging target would be the highly immunosuppressive filoviruses, ebolavirus and marburgvirus, associated with aerosol infectivity and case f ...200919628240
large serological survey showing cocirculation of ebola and marburg viruses in gabonese bat populations, and a high seroprevalence of both viruses in rousettus aegyptiacus.ebola and marburg viruses cause highly lethal hemorrhagic fevers in humans. recently, bats of multiple species have been identified as possible natural hosts of zaire ebolavirus (zebov) in gabon and republic of congo, and also of marburgvirus (marv) in gabon and democratic republic of congo.200919785757
differential induction of cellular detachment by envelope glycoproteins of marburg and ebola (zaire) viruses.human infection by marburg (mbg) or ebola (ebo) virus is associated with fatal haemorrhagic fevers. while these filoviruses may both incite disease as a result of explosive virus replication, we hypothesized that expression of individual viral gene products, such as the envelope glycoprotein (gp), may directly alter target cells and contribute to pathogenesis. we found that expression of ebo gp in 293t cells caused significant levels of cellular detachment in the absence of cell death or virus r ...200010950971
detection of all known filovirus species by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using a primer set specific for the viral nucleoprotein gene.the filoviruses, marburg virus (marv) and ebola virus (ebov), are causative agents of severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates in humans and non-human primates. sporadic outbreaks of filovirus infection have occurred in central africa and parts of asia. identification of the natural reservoir animals that are unknown yet and epidemiological investigations are current challenges to forestall outbreaks of filovirus diseases. the filovirus species identified currently include one in the m ...201021093485
marburg virus angola infection of rhesus macaques: pathogenesis and treatment with recombinant nematode anticoagulant protein c2.the procoagulant tissue factor (tf) is thought to play a role in the coagulation disorders that characterize filoviral infections. in this study, we evaluated the pathogenesis of lethal infection with the angola strain of marburg virus (marv-ang) in rhesus macaques and tested the efficacy of recombinant nematode anticoagulant protein c2 (rnapc2), an inhibitor of tf/factor viia, as a potential treatment.200717940973
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