letter: human pulmonary dirofilariasis: entry method of infective larvae. 1975238798
filaria in the vitreous of the eye of man in peninsular active worm was seen in the right eye of a 62-year-old man in malaysia. the worm was behind the lens and attached at one end to some vitreous fibers. it was tentatively identified as an immature dirofilaria immitis. there appear to be only five previous authentic reports of filariae in the vitreous.1977596511
dirofilaria immitis: a cause of human intra-ocular infection. 1978689747
the detection of antibodies in human and animal filariases by counterimmunoelectrophoresis with dirofilaria immitis antigens.counterimmunoelectrophoresis revealed the presence of precipitin antibody in all of 6 dogs and the 1 cat infected with dirofilaria immitis and in the serum of 17 of 24 individuals living in a setting of hyperendemic subperiodic bancroftian filariasis. antigens used in the test were prepared from microfilariae and adult male d. immitis. some humans and animals had antibodies to both antigens while others had antibodies against microfilariae or adult worms only. the presence of soluble circulating ...19761262695
diseases, parasites and survival of coyotes in south-central georgia.serologic testing, radio-telemetry and post-mortem diagnostic evaluations were used to investigate survival and causes of mortality among 17 coyotes (canis latrans) in south-central georgia (usa). prevalence of canine heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) microfilariae was lower (p = 0.057) among fall-captured (22%) than among winter-captured (75%) coyotes. prevalence of heartworm was higher among adults than juveniles in the fall, but no significant difference was detected between animals captured in ...19921474655
differential recognition of dirofilaria immitis antigens by human igg and igm positive sera. preliminary data based on eitb analysis.preliminary data are presented on the differential recognition of dirofilaria immitis antigens by sera positive for igg and igm (detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, elisa) using the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer technique (eitb). the sera were followed prospectively over a year to detect seasonal variations. igg mainly recognized antigens with a molecular weight (mw) lower than 74 kda, while igm recognized those with a mw higher than 43 kda. the antigens with mw between 74 and 6 ...19921519027
induction of fc epsilon rii/cd23 on human t cells by excretory and secretory antigen of dirofilaria immitis.we investigated the capacity of excretory and secretory antigen (es) derived from living filarial worms in the induction of cd23 expression on human peripheral blood t cells by using flow cytometry. es (10 micrograms/ml) significantly induced the expression of cd23 on human t cells. moreover, increased cd23 expression was completely abolished by preincubation with specific antibody to es. the results suggest that es might play a certain role in ige antibody production by induction of cd23 expres ...19911833343
poor vector efficiency of culex quinquefasciatus following infection with dirofilaria immitis.the vector efficiency of the haiti and covington strains of culex quinquefasciatus after feeding on dog blood infected with dirofilaria immitis (approximately 110 microfilariae (mf)/20 microliters of blood) was 1.2 and 0.3%, respectively, versus nearly 20% for the vero beach strain of aedes taeniorhynchus. at a much higher microfilaremia (approximately 400 mf/20 microliters), it was 1.6, 0.5 and 31.5%, respectively. the poor vector efficiency of the 2 cx. quinquefasciatus strains probably was du ...19912045806
human pulmonary dirofilariasis: report of a new european case.we report a new european case of pulmonary dirofilariasis occurring in an italian patient. the paper emphasizes the peculiar pathological features of pulmonary dirofilariasis, that, on clinical and radiological grounds, closely imitates primary or secondary neoplasms. the disease characteristically presents itself as a solitary subpleural coin-like lesion, histologically corresponding to a well demarcated, roughly spherical infarct, centered by a medium-sized thrombosed artery whose lumen contai ...19902134386
pulmonary coin lesions caused by dirofilaria immitis.the dog heartworm dirofilaria immitis has been diagnosed by thoracotomy as the etiology of neoplastic-appearing nodules in two patients in the peoria, illinois area. this brings the total number of reported cases of human pulmonary dirofilariasis to approximately 81 in the united states. the major concern of this benign disease is that in making the diagnosis the patients undergo the risk of surgery because of the presumed preoperative diagnosis of cancer. greater awareness of this disease is ne ...19902200928
human pulmonary dirofilariasis.a case of human pulmonary dirofilariasis is reported. this human infestation must be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pulmonary "coin" lesion, which lies adjacent to a pleural surface, especially where tissue sections reveal a pulmonary infarct.19902303694
cloning and characterization of an onchocerca volvulus specific dna sequence.a cloned sequence, povs134, was isolated from a genomic library prepared from onchocerca volvulus of savanna origin in the plasmid puc9. povs134 hybridizes to all the geographic isolates of o. volvulus tested from both the new and the old world, but not to the species onchocerca gibsoni, onchocerca gutturosa, onchocerca ochengi, onchocerca cervicalis, the filarial parasites brugia malayi, or dirofilaria immitis, nor to human or simuliid dna. as little as 250 pg of dna can be detected on a dot bl ...19892811941
human and experimental anisakiasis in the united the past 13 years, 24 cases of anisakiasis have been reported in the united states. of these, 14 were infections by phocanema sp. and found in california and alaska, and most were of the tissue non-invasive type. the remaining 10 cases were infections by larvae of anisakis type i (l3 and l4). of these 10 cases, 4 were found on the west coast, 5 were on the east coast and one was in hawaii. in 3 of the 10 cases, the parasite invaded the digestive tract. a characteristic symptom of the throat n ...19863527918
polyamine metabolism in filarial worms.the human and animal filarial parasites onchocerca volvulus, dirofilaria immitis, brugia patei and litomosoides carinii contained low levels of putrescine but much higher levels of spermidine and spermine as estimated by ion-pair high pressure liquid chromatography; n-acetylated polyamines were present only in minute amounts. enzyme activities of ornithine decarboxylase (ec and arginine decarboxylase (ec, respectively, were not detectable. experiments carried out with o. volv ...19873627168
dirofilaria immitis (dog heartworm) as a cause of a pulmonary lesion in man. 19734719032
detection of circulating toxocaral antigens in dogs by sandwich enzyme-immunoassay.this study describes the presence of circulating toxocaral antigens (cta) in the sera of dogs infected with toxocara canis (t. canis) by using a sandwich enzyme-immunoassay (seia). a specificity of this assay with different antigens was observed, i.e. the eia values, which express the antigen concentration, of excretory-secretory antigen from t. canis larvae were higher than those of other antigens (ascaris lumbricoides, dirofilaria immitis and fasciola hepatica). the variability in intra-assay ...19846365746
serological diagnosis of subcutaneous dirofilariosis.we present serological evidence that dirofilaria immitis was the causative agent of subcutaneous nodules in two patients. elisa and enzyme-linked immunoblot analysis showed that the two human sera had a reactivity pattern similar to that of d. immitis rabbit immune serum. the reaction pattern of the human sera was very different to that of dirofilaria repens rabbit immune serum. in the light of our findings, the traditional view that subcutaneous filarial nodules are due to d. repens has to be r ...19957671389
human infection with dirofilaria repens in malaysia.human dirofilariasis is a rare infection in malaysia. thus far, only two human cases have been reported viz. dirofilaria immitis and d. (nochtiella) repens and in both instances, adult worms were recovered from infected patients. the two cases reported in the present study, one from melaka and the other from penang, were diagnosed histologically. based on the diagnostic criteria for identifying dirofilaria in tissue sections, the parasites were identified as d. (nochtiella) repens.19968960220
dirofilaria, visceral larva migrans, and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia.helminthic infections are prevalent worldwide. the intestinal ascarid, toxocara, the animal filarial parasite, dirofilaria, and the human filarial parasite, wuchereria or brugia, produce an array of pulmonary disease in humans. infections are common in temperate, tropical, and subtropical regions of the world. pulmonary dirofilariasis is essentially an asymptomatic disease. most cases are diagnosed accidentally after thoracotomy for a solitary pulmonary nodule presumed to be lung cancer. clinica ...19979195679
[excretion-secretion antigens from adult dirofilaria immitis in the diagnosis of human filariasis by solid phase immunoenzyme assay].the solid phase enzymatic immuno-assay (elisa) was normalized for detecting antibodies against. filaria using excretion-secretion antigens (esa) from dirofilaria immitis adults in a group of asymptomatic and microfilaraemic patients infected by different species of filariae (loa loa, wuchereria bancrofti, onchocerca volvulus, mansonella ozzardi and mansonella perstans), and in another group of symptomatic and aminorofilaraemic patients, temporary residents in an area with endemic loiasis. the es ...19919768181
advances in the identification of dirofilaria repens and dirofilaria immitis by a pcr-based approach.the differential epidemiology of d. repens and d. immitis is still poorly understood due to the lack of a diagnostic method which would make possible the routine identification of these parasites as developing larvae either in the vector or in unsuitable hosts, including man. the pcr-based method here described allows: i) the unambiguous identification of mature and immature adult worms in bioptic material, of microfilariae in blood samples and of developing larvae in mosquito vectors; ii) the a ...19979802101
[canine heartworm on são luís island, northeastern brazil: a potential zoonosis].a survey on the prevalence of canine heartworm was conducted in 1, 495 dogs from maranhão island, state of maranhão, northeastern brazil, from 1991 to 1994, by testing for microfilariae in blood. of the total, 1,358 (12.8% of which were infected) were dogs with no known history; they included 1,265 homeless animals (10.3% with microfilariae) and 93 kept by owners at the time the survey was conducted (37.8% of which were infected). prevalence is high among dogs captured and/or living along the se ...199910409793
human pulmonary dirofilariasis in el salvador. 200212116868
images in medicine. human pulmonary dirofilariasis. 200312703142
[investigation on zoonoses among veterinary technicians].we conducted a survey on how much veterinary clinics staff, mostly veterinary technicians, know about zoonosis and how extensively they inform pet owners of ways to prevent zoonosis. the number of people who took part in the survey was 1,057. the ratio of people who said their knowledge on zoonosis is "neither sufficient nor insufficient" was 53.8%, which is larger than the ratio of people who replied "sufficient" or "insufficient." the percentage of those who said their way of giving informatio ...200312806928
[comparison of present foci of canine filariasis due to dirofilaria immitis and the previous zones of human paludism of the coast of provence]. 195313145909
human dirofilariasis in costa rica: dirofilaria immitis in periorbital tissues. 200312669355
human pulmonary dirofilariasis: review of the literature.the dog heartworm dirofilaria immitis is known to cause solitary pulmonary nodules in humans. human pulmonary dirofilariasis (hpd) is more prevalent along the coastal regions of the united states, especially along the mississippi river valley. diagnosis is generally made by surgical resection, since hpd is often preoperatively presumed to be lung cancer.199910094266
[pulmonary dirofilariasis associated with pleural effusion].a 61-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of a long history of productive coughing. a chest roentgenogram and ct scan showed a right-sided pleural effusion. the effusion fluid was blood-stained but showed no cytological evidence of malignancy. marked eosinophilia was found in blood and in the pleural effusion fluid. ouchterlony's double-diffusion test done with the patients serum and pleural effusion fluid in agarose showed specific bands toward dirofilaria immitis antigen, and this ...19989754010
[focus of canine heartworm disease in marajó island, north of brazil: a risk factor for human health].the occurrence of human pulmonary dirofilariasis maintains a relation with the prevalence of dirofilaria immitis infection in the canine population. several mosquito species are vectors of this nematode. canine blood samples collected in pingo d'agua and união villages, salvaterra municipality (marajó island, pará), in june, 2004 (n = 34) and april, 2005 (n = 90) were analyzed. parasitological and immunological (elisa--kit snap(r) 3dx biobrasil) diagnoses were compared following the examination ...200617119746
dirofilaria immitis: experimental infection of rabbits with immature fifth-stage establish an animal model for human pulmonary dirofilariasis, we experimentally infected nine rabbits with immature fifth-stage worms of dirofilaria immitis. the rabbits were infected by subcutaneous transplantation with various numbers of immature worms collected from 110- and 120-day-old infections of dogs. four of seven rabbits infected with up to four larvae possessed encapsulated worms in the lungs at 196 or 308 days post-transplantation. two rabbits transplanted with eight worms died of ...19979430524
a preliminary assessment of the recombinant antigen pla2 in the diagnosis of human dirofilariosis.two recombinant antigens (p22u and pla2), cloned in a l4 dirofilaria immitis cdna library, were analyzed by western-blot and elisa to investigate their characteristics for the diagnosis of human dirofilariosis. p22u seems related to a di22 native antigen useful for the diagnosis of pulmonary dirofilariosis, but it is unspecifically recognized by sera from patients with different parasitic and non parasitic pulmonary diseases. pla2 is not related to di22 but specifically reacts in western-blot an ...19979296061
larval biology of six filariae of the sub-family onchocercinae in a vertebrate host.the development of six filariae of the sub-family onchocercinae-litomosoides sigmodontis, acanthocheilonema viteae, molinema dessetae, monanema martini, brugia malayi, b. pahangi-was compared in rodents, following a single inoculation of a low or high dose of infective larvae. analysis was done with 105 rodents dissected and 53 rodents fixed for histopathology. the percentage of larvae which developed corresponded to the proportion of those which were able to penetrate into the sub-cutaneous lym ...19949140491
rapid detection of wuchereria bancrofti and brugia malayi in mosquito vectors (diptera: culicidae) using a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer multiplex pcr and melting curve analysis.we developed a single-step real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer (fret) multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) merged with melting curve analysis for the detection of wuchereria bancrofti and brugia malayi dna in blood-fed mosquitoes. real-time fret multiplex pcr is based on fluorescence melting curve analysis of a hybrid of amplicons generated from two families of repeated dna elements: the 188 bp sspi repeated sequence, specific to w. bancrofti, and the 153-bp hhai repeated seque ...200919198529
xenomonitoring of wuchereria bancrofti and dirofilaria immitis infections in mosquitoes from american samoa: trapping considerations and a comparison of polymerase chain reaction assays with dissection.entomologic monitoring of filarial infections, xenomonitoring, may have advantages in certain epidemiologic situations to assess the presence of infections in humans. hemalum staining and dissection and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) were compared to determine the filarial infection status of aedes (stegomyia) mosquitoes in american samoa. the overall prevalences of wuchereria bancrofti and dirofilaria immitis infections in ae. polynesiensis were, respectively, 0.16% and 1.06% by dissection and ...200919407123
changing distribution patterns of canine vector borne diseases in italy: leishmaniosis vs. dirofilariosis.abstract : ecological and climatic changes, human and animal population dynamics are among the several factors that have favoured the spread or the (re)introduction and establishment of "novel" vector species and pathogens they transmit in previously disease-free geographical areas. as key examples of the changing pattern of distribution of canine vector borne diseases (cvbds), the current distribution of canine leishmaniosis (canl) by leishmania infantum and dirofilariosis by dirofilaria immiti ...200919426441
second case of zoonotic onchocerca infection in a resident of oita in japan.a non-gravid female onchocerca was found in histopathological sections of a biopsy specimen taken from a painful nodule in the wrist of a 57-year old woman in oita, in southern japan. six species of onchocerca have been found in animals in japan: two in wild bovids, one in equids, and three in domestic bovids of which one, onchocerca sp., is only known by the microfilaria and infective stage. distinctive morphological features of the worm, including a three-layered thick cuticle with prominent a ...19968758554
immunodiagnosis of human dirofilariasis in puerto rico.a seroepidemiologic study was carried out in humans inhabiting southeastern puerto rico, the area on this island with highest prevalence of canine heartworm, to detect the presence of antibodies to dirofilaria immitis. three hundred serum samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using somatic antigens of the adult worm. serum samples from eight patients were positive for anti-dirofilarial igg. these patients had a mean age of 54 years. although the study population had ...19938480862
zoonotic implications of cats and dogs in filarial transmission in peninsular malaysia.filarial infections in 447 cats and 68 dogs from six endemic areas of human filariasis in peninsular malaysia were studied as part of the study on the zoonotic transmission of subperiodic brugia malayi infection. 20.6% of cats and 57.4% of dogs had filarial infections. cats were infected with subperiodic b. malayi, b. pahangi, dirofilaria repens and d. immitis. dogs were infected with b. pahangi and d. immitis. 6.9% of the cats had subperiodic b. malayi infection. the zoonotic implications of th ...19807210162
production of monoclonal antibody against toxocara cati second-stage larvae and its application for the detection of circulating antigens.toxocariasis is an important zoonotic disease caused by the second-stage larvae of toxocara species. human toxocariasis is usually diagnosed by serological methods. we prepared monoclonal antibody specific for toxocara cati (t. cati) and performed the following experiments using this antibody to increase the sensitivity of our capture elisa for antigen detection. the isotype of monoclonal antibody was igg3. using this monoclonal antibody, a capture elisa was developed. the produced monoclonal an ...201020568996
human pulmonary dirofilariasis in the united states: a critical review.the published data on 60 patients with solitary pulmonary nodules caused or presumed caused by dirofilaria immitis acquired in the united states are reviewed to characterize the clinical and parasitological features of this disease. thus far, cases have been reported from 15 states and their geographic distribution has followed that of canine dirofilariasis. infections have occurred in males twice as often as in females and 56% of all infections have presented in the age group 40-59 years. there ...19827072894
case report. pulmonary dirofilariasis in man.a case of pulmonary dirofilariasis in a 69-year-old woman is presented. a review of the literature revealed 56 documented cases. as in most cases of pulmonary dirofilariasis, our patient presented roentgenologically a single noncalcified coin lesion and required thoracotomy for diagnosis. the gross and histologic characteristics of the lesion, the life cycle of the parasite, the subcutaneous form of human dirofilariasis, and the possible role of the immunologic tests in establishing the diagnosi ...19827064993
combination of techniques for concentration and identification of microfilariae from peripheral blood.human blood containing a known number of dirofilaria immitis or brugia malayi microfilariae was incubated with giemsa-stain or methylene blue solution and then subjected to density gradient centrifugation in percoll-solution at a density of 1.090 g/ml. this resulted in complete separation of microfilariae from cellular components. subsequently the microfilaria-containing layer was altered through a polycarbonate membrane. the stained parasites are then easily recognized and identified on the com ...19817029799
pulmonary dirofilariasis: a diagnostic challenge.the canine heart worm, dirofilaria immitis, can occasionally cause pulmonary granulomas in man. fewer than 100 such cases have been reported in the united states, mostly from along the atlantic seaboard and gulf coast. none of these cases have been from the mississippi valley states. we have described a patient with a 14-year history of smoking, a patient in whom an enlarging pulmonary nodule was found. the resected nodule contained a filarial worm. this case illustrates the difficulty in distin ...19846142535
dirofilaria immitis in a portacaval shunt.the fifth known case of intravascular human infection with an adult dirofilaria immitis (canine heartworm) is reported. this mature, but nongravid, female nematode was recovered at autopsy from a prosthetic portacaval shunt. a brief review of human dirofilariasis is presented.19854054898
identification and partial characterization of a parasite antigen in sera from humans infected with wuchereria bancrofti.the purpose of this study was to identify and characterize soluble parasite antigens present in sera from humans infected with the filarial nematode wuchereria bancrofti. affinity chromatography and immunoblot methods were used to demonstrate a 200,000 m.w. circulating parasite antigen in sera from infected humans which corresponded to an antigen released by adult w. bancrofti during in vitro culture. two monoclonal antibodies were produced to this antigen by immunizing mice with antigens from d ...19873553330
culex tritaeniorhynchus and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) as natural vectors of dirofilaria immitis (spirurida: filariidae) in miki city, japan.natural infections with dirofilaria immitis (leidy) in a population of mosquitoes and dogs and its antibodies in a human population were surveyed in miki city, a rural area of japan, to reveal ecological features of this arthropod-borne zoönotic parasite. microfilaremic and amicrofilaremic infection rates in 190 dogs were 52.6 and 9.0%, respectively, as determined by the hematocrit centrifuge method and the indirect fluorescent antibody test. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) test for ...19892769708
pulmonary presentation of dirofilaria immitis (canine heartworm) in man.canine heartworm or dirofilaria immitis can occasionally infect man. we present the case of a 36-year-old balkan woman referred to us for a thoracoscopic biopsy of a well defined pulmonary mass. the latter was thoracoscopically resected and proved to be due to dirofilaria immitis on histopathological examination. to our knowledge this is the second reported case in western australia, the first being that reported by brine et al. the prevalence of the disease in australia was recognized in 1969 i ...199910571099
immunohistochemical detection of dirofilaria immitis using a rabbit polyclonal anti-serum against adult somatic antigens and excretory-secretory immunohistochemical study on tissue sections of kidney, lung, liver and spleen from six dogs naturally infected by dirofilaria immitis was carried out, using a rabbit polyclonal anti-serum against somatic antigen (sa) of adult worms, excretory-secretory products (es) of adult worms and fraction c3 of complement (dog c3). positive immunoreactions were observed on circulating microfilariae when anti-sa and anti-es were used, but no differences were noted between the two anti-sera. no antigen de ...19979802110
solitary pulmonary nodule in a 62-year-old man. 19957813291
limitations of the radioimmunoprecipitation polyethylene glycol assay (ripega) for detection of filarial antigens in serum.the performance of the radioimmunoprecipitation polyethylene glycol assay (ripega) was examined for quantitation of filarial antigens (brugia malayi and dirofilaria immitis) in serum from infected human and animal hosts and non-infected controls. multiple peg concentrations were employed to determine the level of non-specific binding (nsb) in non-exposed human sera (nehs) containing no filarial antigen. the nsb observed when 3 different 125i-labeled igg antibodies were added to 26 nehs varied 3- ...19846707481
human dirofilariasis with reactive arthritis--case report and review of the literature.a 43-year-old german man suffered from an insect bite, which was followed by a severe local inflammation and lymphadenitis. a year later, he developed dry cough, chest pain, and an oligoarthritis of the ankle and knee joints. while other causes of the symptoms could be excluded, serologic findings suggested a dirofilarial infection with reactive arthritis due to the parasite. the observation points out, that in cases of unclassifiable mono- or oligoarthritis, reactive arthritis due to parasites ...19873626438
human pulmonary dirofilariasis: does diagnosis require thoracotomy?the incidence of pulmonary coin lesions as a result of dirofilaria immitis (dog heartworm) seems to be increasing. a case of human pulmonary dirofilariasis is described, and its pathogenesis and the limitations of preoperative diagnostic tests in this condition are discussed.19883355289
c1q enhancement of antibody-dependent granulocyte-mediated killing of nonphagocytosable targets in vitro.a possible role for c1q in antibody-dependent granulocyte-mediated killing of nonphagocytosable targets was investigated utilizing igg-dependent granulocyte cytotoxicity directed against microfilariae of dirofilaria immitis. granulocyte-mediated killing of microfilariae is enhanced by addition of fresh serum. lack of c4 did not significantly reduce the observed increase in cytotoxicity. the addition of highly purified monomeric human clq (0.2 microgram/ml) in the presence of immune igg resulted ...19882843577
haplotype h1 of culex pipiens implicated as natural vector of dirofilaria immitis in an endemic area of western hundred and twenty five female culicid mosquitoes were captured in an area of western spain where dirofilaria immitis is endemic. pcr was applied for the detection of larval d. immitis dna in mosquitoes. the its-2 rdna region of the mosquito dna was also amplified and sequenced to characterize the haplotype of infected individuals. two cx. pipiens showed positive reaction to d. immitis dna, both specimens belonging to the haplotype h1. it is the first time that a culicid mosquito species i ...200717979532
epidemiology of heartworm: what is happening in south america and mexico?canine heartworm has been known to exist in the americas for more than 150 years (1847), and the first south american report was published approximately 30 years later (1875). the first human case was reported in 1887 and the first feline case in 1921. coincidently, these two reports were from brazil, where most surveys of the disease during the past two decades have been conducted in dogs. feline cases are seldom found in the south american literature, although feline heartworm disease has been ...200516198820
human infection with a subcutaneous dirofilaria immitis. 196414222182
combined ivermectin and doxycycline treatment has microfilaricidal and adulticidal activity against dirofilaria immitis in experimentally infected dogs.there is still a pressing need for effective adulticide treatment for human and animal filarial infections. like many filarial nematodes, dirofilaria immitis, the causative agent of canine heartworm disease, harbours the bacterial endosymbiont wolbachia, which has been shown to be essential for worm development, fecundity and survival. here the authors report the effect of different treatment regimens in dogs experimentally infected with adult d. immitis on microfilariemia, antigenemia, worm rec ...200818433753
zoonotic dirofilaria immitis infections in a province of northern spain.dirofilaria immitis is the causal agent of canine and feline cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis. moreover, the existence of canine dirofilariasis implies a risk for human populations living in an endemic area in which, the parasite can cause pulmonary dirofilariasis. the spanish epidemiological situation is not well understood, lacking data from many central and northern provinces. in our study, epidemiological data on canine and human dirofilariasis for la rioja (northern spain) have been obtained ...201019619388
identification of immunoreactive proteins of dirofilaria immitis and d. repens recognized by sera from patients with pulmonary and subcutaneous dirofilariosis.human pulmonary and subcutaneous dirofilariosis caused by dirofilaria immitis and dirofilaria repens are worldwide diagnosed with increasing frequency. these species are responsible for the development of benign pulmonary and subcutaneous nodules, respectively, that can be confused with lung or cutaneous cancer. the aim of the present work was to identify d. immitis and d. repens proteins differentially recognized by serum samples from individuals with human pulmonary and subcutaneous dirofilari ...201020197111
human pulmonary dirofilariasis: one more case in greece suggests that dirofilaria is a rather common cause of coin lesions in the lungs in endemic areas of europe.herein we describe a case of a 52 year-old male from greece who presented with a coin lesion in the right lung, which proved to be an infection from dirofilaria immitis. a careful review of the literature shows that, contrary to the common perception, humans may be frequently infected by dirofilaria species. for this reason the authors suggest that in every case which presents with a coin lesion in the lung in endemic areas, dirofilariasis should always be considered, and excluded before any oth ...201020378021
observations on the specificity and clinical use of dirofilaria immitis antigen in the diagnosis of human filariasis (wuchereria bancrofti). 194621009777
human pulmonary dirofilariasis. report of three cases and brief review of the literature.three patients with human pulmonary dirofilariasis are presented. the clinical, parasitologic, and pathologic features of this entity are discussed, and the literature is briefly reviewed. a condition that generally has been considered to be an innocuous process can manifest with repeated pulmonary infarctions and multiple pulmonary nodules. at present, there are no distinguishing clinical, roentgenographic, or laboratory features that permit its diagnosis preoperatively. the purpose of this art ...19854014074
immune response to and tissue localization of the wolbachia surface protein (wsp) in dogs with natural heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) infection.human and animal parasitic filarial nematodes, including the agent of canine and feline heartworm disease dirofilaria immitis, harbour intracellular bacteria of the genus wolbachia (rickettsiaies). it is thought that these bacteria play an important role in the pathogenesis and immune response to filarial infection. immunoglobulin g (total igg, igg1, igg2) production against and immunohistochemical staining of tissues for the wolbachia surface protein (wsp) from dogs with natural heartworm infec ...200515876457
seroconversion to filarial antigens in australian defence force personnel in investigate whether australian soldiers were exposed to filarial parasites that cause lymphatic filariasis during a 6-month deployment to timor-leste, antifilarial antibody levels were measured in 907 soldiers using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). initial testing using dirofilaria immitis antigen demonstrated that 49 of 907 (5.4%) soldiers developed antifilarial antibodies of the igg1 subclass after deployment, whereas 1 of 944 (0.1%) seroconverted to the igg4 subclass. when a s ...200818385349
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