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myxoviruses.myxoviruses can be divided into 2 groups, orthomyxoviruses and paramyxoviruses. the former comprise the influenza group which is subdivided into types a,b and c. influenza b and c are purely human pathogens but influenza a, which includes a large number of antigenic subtypes, occurs in nature in pigs, horses, birds and man. all influenza a viruses irrespective of origin are chemically, biologically and genetically related. the epidemics which they cause are curious and puzzling and are an import ...197547825
antiviral activity against transmissible gastroenteritis virus, and cytotoxicity, of natural porcine interferons alpha and beta.porcine interferon (poifn)-alpha prepared in primed peripheral blood leukocyte cultures induced with newcastle disease virus and poifn-beta from pk-15 cell cultures induced with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid were partially purified by precipitation with potassium thiocyanate and anion exchange chromatography. mean purification factors in terms of units of poifn per mg of protein, of 37 and 12 were obtained for poifn-alpha and poifn-beta respectively. in yield reduction assays in swine testis a ...19911653103
hyporeactivity to interferon induction in newborn piglets.the aim of this study was to produce sustained activation of natural killer (nk) cells in newborn piglets by interferon (ifn) induction with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid complexed with poly-l-lysine and carboxymethylcellulose [poly(iclc)]. when a second dose of poly(iclc) was given 24 or 48 h after the first dose, the piglets were found to be hyporeactive, and the levels of induced ifn were insufficient to activate nk cells in vivo or in vitro. a hyporeactive factor was demonstrated in the se ...19901691769
the site of bluetongue virus attachment to glycophorins from a number of animal erythrocytes.bluetongue virus (btv) was shown to agglutinate human, ovine and porcine erythrocytes. removal of neuraminic acid (na) from erythrocytes by vibrio cholerae neuraminidase prevented their agglutination. haemagglutination was also inhibited by n-acetyl neuraminic acid (nana), n-glycol neuraminic acid (ngna) and n-acetyl neuramin-lactose. the ability of btv to agglutinate trypsin-treated human erythrocytes, which lack the amino-terminal domain and the single n-linked oligosaccharide of glycophorin a ...19892558161
induction and characterization of swine beta interferon.newcastle disease virus (ndv) strain "h" and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly i:c) were used for interferon (ifn) induction in secondary pig kidney cells. a functional ifn system was detected and characterized. a wide similarity with the correspondent human and bovine systems was appreciated, with particular regard to the kinetics of synthesis. a glycosylated protein was essential for activity in bovine cells, but not in swine cells. poly i:c proved to be a very weak inducer, even in condit ...19873034503
serology and virology of the bowhead whale (balaena mysticetus l.).sera from four bowhead whales (balaena mysticetus l.) were examined for the presence of specific antibodies, and tissue and swab samples from six and four animals respectively were processed for isolation of viruses and for initiation of bowhead whale cell cultures. all sera were negative for antibodies to nine serovars of leptospira interrogans and to 21 orthomyxovirus subtypes and a paramyxovirus (newcastle disease virus). all sera were positive, however, for neutralizing antibodies to one or ...19873820430
[effect of prostaglandin f2 alpha on the immune response in rabbits].investigations were carried out to make clear the effect of prostaglandin f2alfa on forming the primary immune response, using a model of the la sota antigen. it was found that up to the 48h hour following the use of prostaglandins the immune response decreased, while at the 72nd hour no such drop was observed. it is suggested to pay due attention also to the application of prostaglandin preparations in taking immunoprophylactic measures in cattle breeding and industrial pig farming.19853911550
a mutant of hog cholera virus inducing interference in swine testicle cell cultures. 19704319263
identification of selected animal viruses with fluorescent antibodies prepared from multivalent antiserums. 19714330674
mechanism of perpetuation of animal viruses in nature. 19694392000
interference activity and sensitivity to interferon of original and "cold" strains of adenovirus types 1 and 2. 19714399137
propagation and transmission of hog cholear virus in nonporcine hosts. 19684966758
evaluation of the fluorescent antibody--cell culture test for detection and titration of hog cholera virus. 19694977314
enhancement of rubella virus replication in swine testicle cells by co-infection with hog cholera virus. 19715003257
a preliminary report of the isolation of a lentogenic strain of newcastle disease virus (cdf 66) from a pig. 19695817387
[antiviral action of swine leukocyte interferon in mouse experiments].swine leukocytes had previously been found to produce interferon which has an antiviral effect not only in swine cells but also in human cells. preliminary experiments in tissue cultures showed the culture of primarily trypsinized mouse embryo fibroblasts to be as sensitive to swine interferon as human diploid cells. the experiment studying the antiviral effect of swine leukocyte interferon in the animals demonstrated it to protect mice against the pathogenic a/aishi/68 (h3n2) strain; with a red ...19816171098
induction and production of interferon with porcine, bovine, and equine leukocytes. 19816173632
role of interferon in enhanced replication of newcastle disease virus in swine cells infected with hog cholera virus. 19695307404
zoonotic studies on influenza in pigs and birds, india, 1980-81.five hundred and twenty pig sera collected from pune, maharashtra state, india during 1980 were examined in haemagglutination inhibition (hi) tests to determine the antibody prevalence to nine human influenza virus strains covering the subtypes a(hon1), a(h1n1), a(h2n2), a(h3n2), type b and one swine influenza virus strain a(hsw1n1). this study indicated considerable prevalence of antibodies to the four h3n2 strains isolated from 1973 onwards, particularly to the two recent h3n2 strains, limited ...19836315619
serological differentiation of virulent and avirulent strains of newcastle disease virus. 19744445589
activation of the complement system by interferon inducers. 19724404904
[detection of viral antigens in bone marrow cells]. 19724348425
[preservation of chicken and quinea-pig erthrocytes for the haemagglutination test by "newcastle disease virus": electron microscopic studies]. 19744218826
hog cholera (european swine fever). 19734202750
interferon induction in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes of man and farm animals by poxvirus vector candidates and some poxvirus constructs.prototypes of three poxvirus genera--orthopoxvirus (opv), parapoxvirus (ppv), avipoxvirus (apv)--and newcastle disease virus (ndv) as a control, as well as three recombinant opv strains and one recombinant apv strain, were incubated in vitro with peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (pbml) of man, sheep and swine. antiviral activity was determined in pbml culture supernatants at different time intervals after virus cell interaction using a cytopathic effect inhibition bioassay. additionally, ...19957502485
different effects of bursectomy of chickens on immune response to newcastle disease virus and salmonella pullorum antigens. 19734201880
properties of natural porcine interferons.natural porcine interferons (poifns) were obtained from: adherent peripheral blood leukocytes induced with newcastle disease virus (ndv) (ifn-alpha), kidney fibroblasts induced with poly(i:c) (ifn-beta) and whole blood leukocytes induced with phytohemagglutinin (ifn-gamma). poifn-alpha was active in porcine, bovine, human, and murine cells. it was sensitive to anti-human ifn-alpha antiserum. analyzed by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by gel filtration, the molecular weight of the mai ...19882452850
[disturbed globulin (transferrine) and antibody formation during the leucopenic stage of swine plague (author's transl)]. 1975170748
glycosidases in structural analysis. 19948139502
local pathological reactions induced in pigs and cats by adjuvant isa-70 containing inactivated newcastle disease virus antigen.gross and microscopic changes at the injection site in pigs and cats were investigated for 8 weeks after an intramuscular injection of oil adjuvant isa-70 emulsion, containing inactivated newcastle disease virus antigen. in pigs, an egg-sized and discolored lesion with pinpoint to miliary-sized nodules was observed at 2 to 8 weeks post injection (pi). in cats, there was partial thickening of the subcutaneous tissue at 2 to 8 weeks pi. histopathologic changes in pigs were fundamentally similar to ...19948204753
reverse plaque formation method for titration of non-cytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease virus.the reverse plaque formation (rpf) method with a semi-micro plate was applied to the titration of a non-cytopathogenic (non-cp) strain of bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease (bvd-md) virus. all the five non-cp strains used in this experiment formed reverse plaques (rp) on bovine testicle cell culture under methyl cellulose overlay. the rpf was inhibited by the pretreatment of a non-cp virus strain with immune rabbit serum to a reference strain. the specificity of the rpf method was demonstrate ...19836097820
a rapid enzyme-linked semi-microwell assay for the enumeration of antibody-forming cells to viral and bacterial antigens in domestic animals.details of an enzyme immunoassay for the enumeration of antibody-forming cells are given with examples of its application to immunization with viral (newcastle disease virus) or bacterial (haemophilus pleuropneumoniae) pathogens of domesticated species. the assays showed reciprocal specificity when compared to another virus (avian paramyxovirus serotype 3) or another bacterium (bordetella bronchiseptica) and were used to show the class specificity of avian afc and the effect of passive antibody ...19873611797
[diagnosis of contagious diseases in animals using pcr].the pcr is used for diagnostic purposes as it allows to detect infections agents within a much shorter time than by cultural isolation. in addition, it can detect non-infectious viruses and bacteria in clinical samples. these advantages are important factors in the diagnosis of highly contagious animal diseases (mainly caused by viruses) since a rapid laboratory diagnosis will allow to take immediate disease control actions. pcr is routinely used at the institute of african and classical swine f ...19958584867
a new assay for classical swine fever virus based on cytopathogenicity in porcine kidney cell line fs-l3.a new assay termed the dome disappearance method for classical swine fever virus (csfv) using fs-l3 cells with serum-free culture medium was developed. the csfv live vaccine gpe- strain grows well and shows a slight cytopathic effect (cpe) in fs-l3 cells. this cpe results in the disappearance of the unique fluid-filled multicellular domes on a single monolayer of fs-l3 cells. by using this phenomenon, dome disappearance, as a marker of infection, it was possible to determine the titers of csfv a ...19989506817
the structural proteins of a porcine paramyxovirus (lpmv).the porcine paramyxovirus is a newly identified agent of a fatal disease in piglets, endemic in mexico since 1980, where it was seen around the town of la piedad, michoacan, mexico (hence lpm virus). at least six [35s]methionine-labelled proteins could be resolved by sds-page and five of them were clearly immunoprecipitated. selective labelling of lpmv-infected cells with [3h]glucosamine revealed two bands with an mr of about 66k and 59k, corresponding to the two viral glycoproteins, the haemagg ...19902313267
isolation of a cytopathogenic virus from a case of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (prrs) and its characterization as parainfluenza virus type 2.from a lung of a fetus of a breeding sow showing prrs-like symptoms a viral agent could be isolated. it was characterized as an enveloped, hemagglutinating rna virus. ultrastructural examination of purified virus revealed paramyxovirus-like pleomorphic virions of approx. 200 nm in diameter. the helical nucleocapsids were about 18 nm in diameter. the virus was found to be antigenically related to simian virus 5 (sv5) a prototype strain of parainfluenza virus type 2, but not to bovine respiratory ...19989856104
antigenic characterization of indian isolates and vaccine strains of newcastle disease virus. 19989881434
amino acid substitutions in a conserved region in the stalk of the newcastle disease virus hn glycoprotein spike impair its neuraminidase activity in the globular domain.the ectodomain of the paramyxovirus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) glycoprotein spike can be divided into two regions: a membrane-proximal, stalk-like structure and a terminal globular domain. the latter contains all the antibody recognition sites of the protein, as well as its receptor recognition and neuraminidase (na) active sites. these two activities of the protein can be separated by monoclonal antibody functional inhibition studies and mutations in the globular domain. herein, we show ...199910092015
the activity of newcastle disease virus-envelope proteins after treatment with detergents.treatment of ndv with anionic detergents or lipid solvents destroys the activities of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. after disruption of the virus with non-ionic detergents, the activities of envelope proteins remain unchanged. it is suggested that the phosholipids are very important for the biological activity of ndv-envelope proteins.19751213050
characterization of the stunting syndrome agent: relatedness to known viruses.an enteric disease of young turkeys, referred to as stunting syndrome (ss), causes reduced growth and impaired feed efficiency. a recently isolated virus, stunting syndrome agent, (ssa) has been found to be the etiologic agent of ss. the objective of the present study was to determine relatedness of the ssa with other viral agents. serologic (viral neutralization and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [elisa]) assays and a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) were used. the an ...200010737643
[inhibitor of the action of swine leukocyte interferon].studies on the antagonists of interferon effect ("stimulon", "tai", "blocker", "antiinterferon") formed under the influence of viruses and mitogens as well as those found in noninfected tissues deal largely with their blocking effect on the antiviral activity of interferon. previously we had found an inhibitor of antiviral effect in preparations of human cadaverous and swine leukocyte interferons. this paper presents the results of studies on some physico-chemical properties of an inhibitor of t ...19826181615
[inhibition of ndv reproduction with antibodies against its f protein].obtained were the jgg and fab fragments from a monovalent serum against the f-protein of the newcastle disease virus. both the jgg and the fab fragment inhibited the virus reproduction in cell cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts and bhk21 if they were added after the adsorption and virus penetration of the cells. the inhibitory action of the antibodies was due to their direct fixation by the newly synthesized f-protein in the cells infected with the virus. the rate of inhibition of the newcastl ...19836659362
[effect of virus-induced interferon on mast cell resistance to the degranulating action of immune complexes].regularities of endogenous interferon (ifn) induction with newcastle disease virus (ndv) in rats and the effect of this process of the resistance of mast cells to the degranulating effect of immune complexes are described. increased resistance of mast cells to the damaging effect of immune complexes for 72 hours after a single induction of endogenous ifn with virus was demonstrated in experiments in vivo. inoculation of rats with ndv treated at ph = 2.0 did not induce the production of endogenou ...19882464242
molecular weapons against agricultural vulnerability and the war on terror.the multiple reports in this issue of the journal from the agenda for action conference, coupled with the analysis by the national academy of sciences, the national research council, and the auditor general (uk) on bioterror preparedness and homeland security, highlight the immediate need for rapid disease detection and advanced diagnostic capabilities to protect the public health, animal agriculture, and the numerous associated economies in the united states. in response to the potentially deva ...200312970863
effect of newcastle disease virus on human or rabbit platelets. aggregation and loss of constituents. 19734634021
characterization of a porcine kidney cell line resistant to influenza virus infection.a mutant cell line of porcine kidney cells that resists the cytopathic effect of influenza virus has been obtained and characterized. these cells, designated esk-r, were originally obtained by prolonged cultivation of cells surviving influenza b/kanagawa/73 virus infection. no infectious virus was recovered from esk-r cells, and no evidence for the presence of virus antigens in the cells was demonstrated by immunofluorescent staining. esk-r cells also showed a distinct resistance to various othe ...19853973972
[experimental variability of newcastle disease viruses]. 196414271693
[experiences in the production of oil emulsion vaccines]. 19872963599
biological similarities of rat fibroblast interferon to human and mouse alpha interferons.high titres of rat interferon (ifn) can be produced by rat embryo fibroblast (cd) cells after treatment with newcastle disease virus. this cd ifn was characterized by sds-page, and was found to contain three species at 30k to 33k, 25k to 27k and 17k to 22k mol. wt. antibody affinity chromatography revealed that 95% of the cd ifn bound to an anti-human leukocyte ifn antibody column, 34% to an anti-mouse l cell ifn antibody column and none to an anti-human fibroblast ifn antibody column. the ifn t ...19852411850
the induction and characterization of natural porcine interferons alpha and beta.the purpose of this study was to define optimum conditions for the production of high concentrations of natural porcine interferon (poifn)-alpha and poifn-beta, and to characterize the ifns which were produced. the inducers used were newcastle disease virus (ndv), polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly ic), poly ic complexed with diethylaminoethyl dextran (poly ic-deaedx) and poly ic complexed with poly-l-lysine and carboxymethylcellulose. the highest yields of poifn-alpha were obtained from porc ...19902379114
interferon production in mouse spleen cells and mouse fibroblasts (l cells) stimulated by various strains of newcastle disease virus.interferon production in mouse spleen cells and mouse fibroblasts (l cells) stimulated by three strains of newcastle disease virus (ndv), italian, la sota and ulster, was investigated. strain italian was fully infectious and highly virulent; strain ulster exhibited very low infectivity and very low virulence; strain la sota was between these extremes. all of these strains of mdbk cell-grown ndv could induce interferon in mouse spleen cells, and it was concluded that proteolytic cleavage of f0 pr ...19826183397
characterization of classical swine fever virus associated with defective interfering particles containing a cytopathogenic subgenomic rna isolated from wild boar.classical swine fever virus (csfv) strain wb82, isolated from a wild boar in 1982, induced a distinct cytopathic effect (cpe) in primary swine testicle cell culture and in most of the porcine cell lines. this strain of csfv was found to be composed of two biotypes. cytopathogenic (cp) csfv, as a minor population, and noncytopathogenic (noncp) csfv, as a major population. the noncp csfv (designated strain wb82/e+) was obtained by biological cloning, and it showed the exaltation of newcastle disea ...200111503902
isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses and a newcastle disease virus from wild birds in barbados: 2003-2004.zoonotic transmission of an h5n1 avian influenza a virus to humans in 2003-present has generated increased public health and scientific interest in the prevalence and variability of influenza a viruses in wild birds and their potential threat to human health. migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are regarded as the primordial reservoir of all influenza a viral subtypes and have been repeatedly implicated in avian influenza outbreaks in domestic poultry and swine. all of the 16 hemagglutinin and ni ...200717992942
[complex environmental and virological monitoring in the primorye territory in 2003-2006].the paper presents the results of monitoring of viruses of western nile (wn), japanese encephalitis (je), tick-borne encephalitis (tbe), geta, influenza a, as well as avian paramicroviruses type i (virus of newcastle disease (nd)) and type 6 (apmv-6) in the primorye territory in 2003-2006. totally throughout the period, specific antibodies to the viruses were detected by neutralization test in wild birds (7.3%, wn; 8.0%, geta; 0.7% batai; 2.8%, alpine hare (lepus timidus); by hemagglutination-in ...200718041224
development of a reliable assay protocol for identification of diseases (rapid)-bioactive amplification with probing (bap) for detection of newcastle disease virus.due to appearance of new genotypes of newcastle disease virus (ndv) with no cross-protection and with vaccine strains, some outbreaks have been reported in taiwan that caused significant damage to the poultry industry. a reliable assay protocol, (rapid)-bioactive amplification with probing (bap), for detection of ndv that uses a nested pcr and magnetic bead-based probe to increase sensitivity and specificity, was developed. primers and probes were designed based on the conserved region of the f ...200818261864
hemagglutinating and fusogenic activities of newcastle disease virus: studies on receptor binding specificity and ph-induced conformational changes.vaccinal and wild strains of newcastle disease virus (ndv) were analyzed for cell receptor binding and fusogenic biological properties associated with their hn (hemagglutinin-neuraminidase) and f (fusion protein) surface structures respectively. the evaluation of the biological activities of hn and f was carried out respectively by determination of hemagglutinating titers and hemolysis percentages, using erythrocytes from various animal origins at different ph values. significant differences in ...19958551956
[detection of antibodies against hog cholera virus, chinese strain. i. laboratory tests]. 19704932470
detection and characterization of avian influenza and other avian paramyxoviruses from wild waterfowl in parts of the southeastern united states.cloacal swabs were taken from migratory hunter-killed, nonmigratory, nesting waterfowl and migratory shorebirds from wildlife refuges in alabama, georgia, and florida during 2006 to 2008. samples were processed in embryonated eggs followed by hemagglutination (ha), directigen, and real-time reverse transcription-pcr tests. sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin (h) gene of the h10n7 alabama isolate revealed that it was closely related (98%) to recent isolates from delaware and canada, but only 9 ...200919276434
[isolation and identification of swine ndv jl01 strain and phylogenetic analysis of f gene].an outbreak of fever and dyspnea with high incidence rate and case fatality rate occurred among pigs in a pigfarm in jilin province, china, in 2000. the paramyxovirus-like particles could be observed in lungs, spleens and kidneys of the dead pigs under the transmission electron microscope. a newcastle disease virus (ndv) isolate designated as jl01 was determined as the causal agent for the disease outbreak. the purified virus was reinoculated into pigs, and then the pigs infected with the virus ...200919437887
complement components required for virus neutralization by early immunoglobulin antibody.virus neutralization by early antisera usually requires or is enhanced by the presence of complement. the particular components of the complement system which are needed for neutralization of newcastle disease virus by early igm antibodies were studied. it was found in this system that participation of only the first four of the nine complement components (c1, c2, c3, and c4) was necessary and sufficient for neutralization to occur. it was concluded that the role of complement in neutralization ...19694982356
micro method for performing titration and neutralization test of hog cholera virus using established porcine kidney cell strain.hog cholera (hc) virus and antibody against it were estimated by the end method with microplates and cpk porcine kidney cell strain. to establish the technique of this method, studies were made on such basic conditions of the method as the type of strain of newcastle disease virus (ndv), the time of challenge with this virus, and the concentration of serum in culture fluid. there was little difference in the infective titer of hc virus estimated between the end method performed by the establishe ...19817200574
characterization of the interferon-α response of pigs to the weaning stress.the interferon (ifn)-α response of pigs to the stressing event of early weaning was investigated in a field trial. all the animals under study remained healthy and tested negative for common viral infections. however, a low-titered ifn-α response was detected in many sera by a bioassay on madin-darby bovine kidney (mdbk) cells on day +6 after weaning. porcine ifn-α was unambiguously identified by a neutralization assay on a pool of ifn-α-positive sera. by gel filtration chromatography, the antiv ...201020950132
[isolation, identification and genetic analysis of an h1n1 subtype isolate of swine influenza virus].in 2006, a swine influenza virus (siv) isolate was isolated from 30 nasal swabs samples collected from pigs with clinical syndromes of swine influenza in a pig farm of liaoning province. the virus isolate was studied and identified by the growth in 9-11 days old chicken embryo, hemagglutination (ha) assay, hemagglutination inhibition (hi) assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays (rt-pcr) for its genetic subtype, whole gene sequence analysis and animal trial for its virulence ...201021043141
clinical results obtained in cattle and swine by means of biological immunostimulators.the conditioned infections due to opportunistic organisms, can be controlled by biological immunostimulators. the poli-if (newcastle virus plus endotoxin of e. coli and freund's incomplete adjuvant) rapidly induces the aspecific immunity. given twice with 7-10 days interval in between, on occasion of a programmed stress (weaning, transport, crowding) it proved its efficacy in artificially suckled calves and in weaning piglets. the field trials, carried out on 2,782 treated calves in comparison w ...19862431832
improved method for the isolation and sub-typing of avian influenza viruses from oropharyngeal samples of ducks.waterfowl are the natural reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (aivs), from which the virus can spread to other species including humans, poultry, and swine. for the surveillance of aiv in their natural reservoir, most laboratories initially screen the samples using real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction because of its high speed and sensitivity. thereafter, virus isolation is used to isolate viruses from positive samples. although many studies point to the need of testing bo ...201122017043
[effect of specific vaccinal antigens and preparations on general resistance in growing experimental and domestic animals].studied was the effect of some viral and bacterial antigens as well as of a preparation obtained by filatov's method (modified by the author) on the general resistance in growing laboratory and domestic animals. it was found that in infantile albino mice the best protection against challenge with escherichia coli and pasteurella avicida was provided through the treatment with a biostimulator and a killed culture of a strongly proteolytic, unidentified strain of the 't3' bacterium. the vaccines a ...19826820584
persistent infection of cell cultures with an australian strain of newcastle disease virus. 19817271610
the release of n-acetyl- and n-glycolloyl-neuraminic acid from soluble complex carbohydrates and erythrocytes by bacterial, viral and mammalian sialidases.a series of substrates, sialyl(2 leads to 6)galnac and ganglioside gm3, containing either n-acetylneuraminic acid (acneu) or n-glycolloylneuraminic acid (gcneu), has been prepared. the trisaccharide gcneu(2 leads to 3)lactose was preapred by ozonolysis of gcneu-gm3, and the disaccharides acneu(2 leads to 6)galnac and gcneu(2 leads to 6)galnac were isolated from bovine submandibular-gland mucin by alkali elimination. sialidases from newcastle-disease virus, fowl-plague virus, influenza virus a2, ...19817325957
porcine leukocyte interferon exhibits close antigenic relatedness to human interferon alpha 2, but not to human interferon alpha 1.as reported by others using polyclonal antisera, natural human and porcine interferons (ifn)-alpha are antigenically related. using monoclonal antibodies (mab) in neutralization and elisa experiments, we found differences in the subtype/antigenic composition between virus-induced porcine and human leukocyte preparations. human leukocyte ifn-alpha contains two major antigenically distinct subtypes, ifn-alpha 1 and ifn-alpha 2. however, swine leukocytes produced only a single predominant species o ...19937507275
identification and characterization of the sda beta 1,4,n-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase from pig large intestine.the high occurrence in large intestine epithelial cells from pig of a beta-n-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase with a substrate specificity very similar to that of the sda beta 1,4-n-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase from other tissues is reported. the enzyme strictly recognized the neuac alpha 2,3gal beta terminal sequence of n- and o-linked oligosaccharides bound to glycoproteins. the transferase activity required mn2+ and an optimum ph of 7.4. in contrast to the kidney sda-enzyme from humans and ...19947804011
[inactivation of the inductor virus (newcastle disease virus) during the isolation of porcine leukocyte interferon].the use of the routine method for inactivation of the inductor virus by acidification of interferon to ph 2.0 resulted in a significant decrease in the antiviral activity of pig leukocytic interferon, since the preparation was highly sensitive to changes in the ph values. the use of 0.1 per cent solution of formalin provided complete inactivation of the virus. the antiviral activity of interferon treated with formalin was on an average 5 times higher than that of the preparation incubated at ph ...19854026250
differential sensitivity of two related viruses, newcastle disease virus and sendai virus, to interferon in mouse had-2 cells: selective inhibition of translation of ndv mrna.had-2, a mouse mutant cell line derived from fm3a, constitutively releases interferon-alpha and beta and acquires resistance to newcastle disease virus (ndv) and other viruses. however, had-2 was found as susceptible to sendai virus (hvj) as fm3a. even when had-2 cells were infected simultaneously with ndv and hvj, only the replication of ndv was inhibited, while that of hvj was not. northern blot hybridization analysis indicated that accumulation of ndv-specific primary transcripts was somewhat ...19968920820
establishment of a serum-free culture cell line, cpk-ns, which is useful for assays of classical swine fever virus.a stable porcine kidney cell line, cpk-ns, was established and maintained in serum-free culture. a cytopathic effect (cpe) was observed clearly in cpk-ns cells infected with some classical swine fever virus (csfv) strains which did not show the exaltation of newcastle disease virus (end) phenomenon. chromosome condensation and dna fragmentation, a marker for apoptosis, were detected in cells infected with end phenomenon-negative csfv strains. by using the cpe induced by infection with an end phe ...19989820575
fusion between newcastle disease virus and erythrocyte ghosts using octadecyl rhodamine b fluorescence assay produces dequenching curves that fit the sum of two exponentials.the kinetics of fusion between newcastle disease virus and erythrocyte ghosts has been investigated with the octadecyl rhodamine b chloride assay [hoekstra, de boer, klappe, and wilschut (1984) biochemistry 23, 5675-5681], and the data from the dequenching curves were fitted by non-linear regression to currently used kinetic models. we used direct computer-assisted fitting of the dequenching curves to the mathematical equations. discrimination between models was performed by statistical analysis ...19948002938
a rapid virus neutralization assay for newcastle disease virus with the swine testicular continuous cell line.five continuous cell lines, swine testicular (st), human rectal tumor (hrt 18), fetal rhesus monkey kidney (ma104), bovine turbinate (bt), and quail tracheal (qt35), were evaluated and compared with chicken embryo fibroblasts (cefs) for their ability to propagate b1 or texas gb strains of newcastle disease virus (ndv). the ndv texas gb strain replicated in all the continuous cell lines used in this study. only the st and qt35 cells produced a cytopathic effect (cpe) similar to that produced in c ...199910494428
fusogenic activity of reconstituted newcastle disease virus envelopes: a role for the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein in the fusion process.enveloped viruses, such as newcastle disease virus (ndv), make their entry into the host cell by membrane fusion. in the case of ndv, the fusion step requires both transmembrane hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) and fusion (f) viral envelope glycoproteins. the hn protein should show fusion promotion activity. to date, the nature of hn-f interactions is a controversial issue. in this work, we aim to clarify the role of the hn glycoprotein in the membrane fusion step. four types of reconstituted de ...200211854039
enhancement of fusion from within by antiviral antibody in cells infected with newcastle disease virus. 1979514096
[pets as permanent excretors of zoonoses pathogens].when scrutinizing zoonoses with regard to risks for human beings, the spectrum of pathogens with dogs, cats and birds leading to persistent infections and consequently to the fact that the animals become carriers and permanent excretors is relatively small. most of the zoonoses cause clinical symptoms and will be taken care of correspondingly. with regard to dogs there is a multitude of persistent infections that are transferred from the pet to the human being and vice versa. in reality, however ...19938333899
a novel role of classical swine fever virus e(rns) glycoprotein in counteracting the newcastle disease virus (ndv)-mediated ifn-beta induction.e(rns) is an envelope glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus (csfv) and has an unusual feature of rnase activity. in the present study, we demonstrate that e(rns) counteracts newcastle disease virus (ndv)-mediated induction of ifn-beta. for this purpose, e(rns) fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) was transiently expressed in porcine kidney 15 (pk15) cells. in luciferase activity assay, e(rns)-egfp was found to prevent ifn-beta promoter-driven luciferase expression and blo ...200717927891
isolation and analysis of two naturally-occurring multi-recombination newcastle disease viruses in china.two newcastle disease viruses (ndv), designated qg/hebei/07 and xd/shandong/08, were isolated from infected chicken flocks in china in 2007 and 2008, respectively. the results of phylogenetic and recombination analyses on complete ndv genome sequences (excluding terminal segments) show that the qg/hebei/07 isolate had evidence of recombination in the m and f genes, and recombination in the xd/shandong/08 isolate in the f, l genes and the non-coding region between the hn and l genes. these two na ...201020363269
genetic analysis of avian paramyxovirus-1 (newcastle disease virus) isolates obtained from swine populations in china related to commonly utilized commercial vaccine strains.newcastle disease virus (ndv) has been thought to only infect avian species. however, at least eight ndv strains were isolated from swine populations in china during 1999-2006, four of which were characterized genetically and phylogenetically. genetic analysis revealed that jl106 and sp13 had a (112)g-r-q-g-r-l(117) motif at the cleavage site of f protein, while jl01 and mp01 possessed a (112)g-k-q-g-r-l(117) motif, which indicated that all of them were typical of low-virulence viruses. phylogen ...201020661635
[anti-tumor vaccination].five year survival rates are presented for 32 primary operated breast cancer patients who were postoperatively treated with an optimal dose of autologous ndv-modified tumor vaccine. their overall survival and their recurrent-free survival was significantly better than that of 31 comparable breast cancer patients treated simultaneously with a suboptimal dose of the same type of vaccine. the concept, development and mechanism of action of this vaccine are als commented on.200010929644
cytopathogenicity of classical swine fever viruses that do not show the exaltation of newcastle disease virus is associated with accumulation of ns3 in serum-free cultured cell lines.pestiviruses can be distinguished as two biotypes, cytopathogenic (cp) and noncytopathogenic (noncp), by the morphological changes that they induce during growth in cultured cells. in this study, the cp phenotype of several classical swine fever viruses (csfv) was evaluated by the detections of the nonstructural proteins ns2-3 and ns3 using immunoprecipitation and western blotting in different porcine cell lines. most csfvs that showed the exaltation of newcastle disease virus (end) phenomenon ( ...200415031544
n(pro) of classical swine fever virus is an antagonist of double-stranded rna-mediated apoptosis and ifn-alpha/beta induction.classical swine fever virus (csfv) protects cells from double-stranded (ds) rna-mediated apoptosis and ifn-alpha/beta induction. this phenotype is lost when csfv lacks n(pro) (deltan(pro) csfv). in the present study, we demonstrate that n(pro) counteracts dsrna-mediated apoptosis and ifn-alpha/beta induction independently of other csfv elements. for this purpose, we generated porcine sk-6 and pk-15 cell lines constitutively expressing n(pro) fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) ...200516043207
immunological cross-reactivity between large and small (2'-5')oligoadenylate synthetases from pig cells.using glycerol gradient centrifugation, the molecular sizes of porcine (2'-5')oligoadenylate synthetases (2-5a synthetases) were estimated. the 2-5a synthetase purified from pig spleen was about 150 kda, while the enzyme extracted from nuclei of newcastle disease virus-infected pig epithelial cells (sk-h) was about 20-40 kda. the nuclear 2-5a synthetase was selectively adsorbed to protein a-sepharose beads conjugated with anti-spleen 2-5a synthetase antibody. thus, the smaller 2-5a synthetase in ...19846469950
triggering of the newcastle disease virus fusion protein by a chimeric attachment protein that binds to nipah virus receptors.the fusion (f) proteins of newcastle disease virus (ndv) and nipah virus (niv) are both triggered by binding to receptors, mediated in both viruses by a second protein, the attachment protein. however, the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) attachment protein of ndv recognizes sialic acid receptors, whereas the niv g attachment protein recognizes ephrinb2/b3 as receptors. chimeric proteins composed of domains from the two attachment proteins have been evaluated for fusion-promoting activity with e ...201121460213
expression and functional characterization of classical swine fever virus e(rns) protein.e(rns) is an envelope glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus (csfv) with unusual rnase activity. recently, e(rns) was found to have a new function of counteracting the beta-interferon (ifn-beta) induction pathway. in this study, wildtype ernssm and two mutated e(rns) proteins ernsh297k and ernsh346k were expressed in insect cells and purified for rnase activity and function analysis. rnase activity assay in vitro demonstrated that only wildtype e(rns) protein had rnase activity. however, bo ...200717587595
newcastle disease virus: propagation, quantification, and storage.newcastle disease virus (ndv) is a prototype paramyxovirus used to define basic steps in the life cycle of this family of viruses. ndv is also an ideal virus system for elucidating determinants of viral pathogenicity. some strains of this virus are important agricultural pathogens that cause disease in poultry with a high mortality while other strains are avirulent and used for vaccines. methods for preparation and titration of virus stocks are essential for all of these purposes. procedures for ...200618770579
molecular characterization and complete genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus type 4 prototype strain duck/hong kong/d3/75.avian paramyxoviruses (apmvs) are frequently isolated from domestic and wild birds throughout the world. all apmvs, except avian metapneumovirus, are classified in the genus avulavirus of the family paramyxoviridae. at present, the apmvs of genus avulavirus are divided into nine serological types (apmv 1-9). newcastle disease virus represents apmv-1 and is the most characterized among all apmv types. very little is known about the molecular characteristics and pathogenicity of apmv 2-9.200818937854
a new in vitro method (end) for detection and measurement of hog cholera virus and its antibody by means of effect of hc virus on newcastle disease virus in swine tissue culture. i. establishment of standard procedure. 196113755081
sample size calculations for disease freedom and prevalence estimation surveys.we developed a bayesian approach to sample size calculations for studies designed to estimate disease prevalence that uses a hierarchical model for estimating the proportion of infected clusters (cluster-level prevalence) within a country or region. the clusters may, for instance, be villages within a region, cities within a state, or herds within a country. our model allows for clusters with zero prevalence and for variability in prevalences among infected clusters. moreover, uncertainty about ...200616287201
selective hemagglutination of myxoviruses. 196414166656
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