[pathohistological changes in splenectomized sheep experimentally infected with babesia ovis].studied were histopathologically the viscera (liver, lung, kidneys, heart lymph nodes, and brain) of 15 animals (10 ewes and 5 lambs), experimentally infected with blood taken from sheep donors having acute babesiasis. during the experimental period 9 of the animals died, and 6 were killed within the interval from the 4th to the 9th day. dystrophic changes were observed in the epithelial cells of the liver and the kidney tubuli as well as pycnosis of the gangliar cells. in some of the tubuli the ...1977919337
an elisa for the diagnosis of babesia ovis infection utilizing a synthetic, babesia bovis-derived antigen.the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of babesia ovis antibodies is described. in an initial study, a crude babesia bovis antigen and a synthetic b. bovis-derived antigen (designated 11c5) were used to screen 46 b. ovis-positive and 55 negative sheep sera. a 95% correlation between the two antigenic preparations was found with the positive sera; no negative sera gave positive reactions. the synthetic antigen was then used in the screening of 1466 sera ...19911957483
histopathological changes in sheep experimentally infected with babesia ovis.histopathological study was made of 12 merino sheep - five splenectomized and seven intact - experimentally infected with babesia ovis. non-purulent encephalitis; initially exudative and subsequently interstitial pneumonia; pericarditis, myocarditis and haemorrhagic endocarditis; centrilobular necrotic hepatitis; hyperplasia of the lymphoreticular system; necrosis and vascular changes in adrenal glands were observed. the kidney was the most severely affected organ, exhibiting acute tubular necro ...19912024425
antibody response and duration of latent infection in sheep following experimental infection with babesia ovis.babesia ovis isolated in extremadura (spain) was the subject of a serological study in experimentally inoculated sheep. the first antibody titres, determined by the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test, were observed 7-8 days post infection (p.i.) in all animals except the splenectomized group, in which the only animal that survived showed antibody response 10 days p.i. a faster response following challenge was observed in sheep which were seropositive before inoculation, which suggests the ...19902188415
[premunition against blood cell parasites. i. the role of the spleen in the formation of antibodies against babesia ovis]. 19734802913
the effect of imidocarb dipropionate on babesia ovis infection in sheep. 19827043832
experimental transmission of some blood parasites by rhipicephalus species in egypt ii. the role of r. turanicus in transmitting babesia ovis in sheep. 19827153568
the indirect fluorescent antibody test based on schizont antigen for study of the sheep parasite theileria indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat), based on schizont-infected lymphoblastoid cells, was applied to study the course of antibody production in adult sheep inoculated with attenuated, in vitro grown, theileria lestoquardi (theileria hirci) infected cells. bright fluorescence of the intracellular schizonts could first be demonstrated 15 days after inoculation. a 32-64-fold rise in antibody titres was recorded 1 month after infection, and substantial titres were still observed 90 days aft ...19979187025
tick-borne diseases of sheep and goats and their related vectors in iran.haemoparasitic diseases have long been considered as a major problem to efficient sheep and goats production in iran. theileriosis due to theileria hirci and babesiosis due to babesia ovis and b. motasi are the most pathogenic protozoa. b. crassa, anaplasma ovis and eperythrozoon ovis are usually non-pathogenic and do not cause any apparent problem. the major tick genera found on sheep and goats are hyalomma, rhipicephalus, haemaphysalis, ixodes and rarely dermacentor distributed in all part of ...19979530694
conventional vaccines for tick-borne haemoparasitic diseases of sheep and goats.of the many tick-borne haemoparasites of sheep and goats, three may be controlled by vaccination. a live virulent blood vaccine for cowdria ruminantium infection (heartwater) is used widely in southern africa in an infection and treatment procedure. a live vaccine for babesia ovis attenuated by passage in splenectomised sheep has been used extensively in bulgaria with good results. a live vaccine for theileria hirci, consisting of schizonts propagated in a lymphoid cell culture and attenuated by ...19979530695
seroprevalence of babesia ovis in sheep in catalonia, northeastern indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) was developed in order to detect antibodies against babesia ovis in different sheep flocks from catalonia, northeastern spain. of the total 2174 sera included in the study, 133 (6.1%) were positive. considerable differences in seroprevalence were detected depending on the geographical areas from which the animals originated. this must have been a consequence of the presence or absence of the vector tick, rhipicephalus bursa, the distribution of which ...19989831951
general review of tick species present in present, 24 species are known to occur in portugal: argas vespertilionis, ornithodoros maritimus and ornithodoros erraticus in argasidae; ixodes acuminatus, ixodes bivari, ixodes canisuga, ixodes frontalis, ixodes hexagonus, ixodes ricinus, ixodes simplex simplex, ixodes ventalloi, ixodes vespertilionis, dermacentor marginatus, dermacentor pictus', haemaphysalis hispanica, haemaphysalis inermis, haemaphysalis punctata, rhipicephalus bursa, rhipicephalus pusillus, rhipicephalus sanguineus, rhi ...199911071535
tick-borne diseases in ruminants of central and southern italy: epidemiology and case reports.sera and blood from cattle and sheep were examined for the presence of babesia and theileria spp by microscopy and serology at the parasitology department of the istituto zooprofilattico sperimentale of abruzzo and molise (izsam). of the 47 bovine herds (323 animals) tested, 15 were found positive for babesia bigemina and 1 for babesia bovis. two outbreaks occurred, one caused by b. bigemina and one by b. bovis. the b. bigemina outbreak occurred in abruzzo and has been followed for two years. th ...199911071553
studies on theileria and babesia infecting live and slaughtered animals in al arish and el hasanah, north sinai governorate, egypt.during the year 2001, a total of 475 sheep, 200 goats, 135 cattle and 190 camels in el arich city and el hassanah center were examined for babesia ovis and theileria ovis. blood films were taken from the vein of the ear. meanwhile, the animals were examined for tick infestations. b. ovis and th. ovis were detected in 13 (2.7%), and 14 (2.9%) sheep, 14 (7.0%), and 15 (7.5%) goats, 13 (9.6%), and 11 (8.1%) cattle and 18 (9.5%), and 24 (12.6%) camels respectively. on the other hand, double infectio ...200212214937
simultaneous detection and differentiation of theileria and babesia parasites infecting small ruminants by reverse line blotting.characteristic sequence signatures were identified within the hypervariable region 4 (v4 region) of the small ribosomal rna gene of ovine/caprine piroplasm species including theileria lestoquardi, t. ovis, t. separata, babesia ovis, b. motasi, b. crassa [comprising strains b. crassa (iran) and b. crassa (turkey)] and several novel species: theileria sp. 1 (china), theileria sp. 2 (china) and babesia sp. (china), [comprising strain babesia sp. (lintan), and babesia sp. (ningxian)] as defined prev ...200414652747
determination of rhipicephalus spp. as vectors for babesia ovis in iran.the tick-borne diseases of livestock constitute a complex of several diseases with different etiological agents, such as protozoa, rickettsia, bacteria, and viruses. one problem discussed in protozoan infection is the determination and characterization of the transmitter agent. because many analyses were performed with the salivary gland smears using the methyl-green-pyronin staining method or the feulgen staining method, the transfer vector remains unanswered in some cases. the aim of this stud ...200717554562
therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate on experimental babesia ovis infection of lambs.the objective of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate (imdp) against babesiosis and to determine specific antibodies against babesia ovis in experimentally infected lambs. thirty-six 6-month-old splenectomized lambs were used. the lambs were randomly divided into six groups with six animals each, and were intravenously inoculated with 50 ml b. ovis-infected erythrocytes as follows: group i (therapy group) was treated with imdp (1.2 mg/kg ...200717709209
an epidemiological survey on bovine and ovine babesiosis in kurdistan province, western iran.the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the babesia infection in domestic animals in kurdistan province of iran for the first time. in this survey, 9,111 domestic livestock, including cattle and sheep, were randomly sampled and examined from 500 flocks in kurdistan province from july 2007 to september 2009. thin peripheral blood smears were taken and then stained by giemsa staining method. from a total of 9,111 collected samples, 2,642 were sheep and 6,469 were cattle. babesia s ...201222109588
Babesia ovis as the main causative agent of sheep babesiosis in Iran.Babesiosis is a haemoparasitic disease with high economical losses in livestock industry worldwide. The early diagnosis and successful therapy of babesiosis belong to the key steps of control and health management of livestock. Ethanol-fixed blood samples of 400 sheep were analyzed for Babesia infection. Reverse line blot (RLB) was established specifically for Theileria lestoquardi, Theileria (China 1), Theileria (China 2), Theileria ovis, Theileria separata, Babesia ovis, Babesia motasi, Babesi ...201121975684
evaluation of antioxidant status and oxidative stress in sheep naturally infected with babesia ovis.the present study aimed to assess antioxidant status and oxidative stress in sheep naturally infected with babesia ovis. red blood cell (rbc) count, hemoglobin (hb) concentration, packed cell volume (pcv), piroplasm parasitemia percentage, malondialdehyde (mda) concentration, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (sod), glutathione peroxidase (gsh-px), catalase (cat) activities and total antioxidant capacity (tac) were determined in 52 sheep naturally infected with b. ovis as well as same number of h ...201122030375
ticks threatening lineage of anatolian wild sheep (ovis gmelinii anatolica) and determination of their tick-borne pathogens.we aimed to determine the ticks of the anatolian wild sheep and to define their tick-borne pathogens while molecularly studying their relationships with those of the domestic sheep. furthermore, another aim of this study is to investigate tick paralysis resulting in the death of the anatolian wild sheep. ticks and blood samples were collected from the wild sheep whilst tick samples were also collected from hares, guinea fowls, chickens, and a turkey living in the anatolian wild sheep breeding ar ...201627692336
molecular identification, genetic diversity and distribution of theileria and babesia species infecting small ruminants.detection and identification of theileria and babesia species in 920 apparently healthy small ruminants in eastern turkey, as well as parasite genetic diversity, was investigated using a specifically designed reverse line blot (rlb) assay. the hypervariable v4 region of the 18s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene was amplified and hybridized to a membrane onto which catchall and species-specific oligonucleotide probes were covalently linked. three theileria and one babesia genotype were identified. compar ...200717490817
development of a polymerase chain reaction method for diagnosis of babesia ovis infection in sheep and this study, a pair of oligonucleotide primers were designed according to the nucleotide sequence of the small subunit ribosomal rna (ssu rrna) gene of babesia ovis isolated from sheep in eastern turkey. the primers were used to detect parasite dna from blood samples of b. ovis-infected sheep and goats by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). a 549-bp dna fragment was specifically amplified from blood samples from sheep and goats, naturally infected with b. ovis. no pcr products resulted from babes ...200516043298
effect of passage of babesia ovis in the gerbil (acomys cahirinus) on the course of infection in splenectomized lambs.splenectomized gerbils (acomys cahirinus) have been found to be susceptible to babesia ovis applied via blood inoculation, whereas intact gerbils were not infected. blood from splenectomized latently infected gerbils caused infection in a splenectomized lamb. intact acomys cahirinus gerbils did not become infected by b. ovis, and all captured rodents in an enzootic area, intact and splenectomized, were found to be negative for b. ovis. it can thus be concluded that acomys cahirinus does not serv ...19968916410
[immunobiological and antigenic studies of babesia ovis strains in bulgaria].a comparative study was carried out on the immunologic and antigenic properties of 8 strains of babesia ovis isolated in 5 districts of the country. the immunologic capacity was tested through challenging with each of the strains in group of 4 weaned lambs that were preliminary vaccinated with one of the strains - veliko turnovo. two nonvaccinated animals were included in each group, serving as controls. the strength of immunity was checked by both the temperature and the parasitic reaction as w ...19817303478
efficacy, toxicity and metabolism of imidocarb dipropionate in the treatment of babesia ovis infection in intramuscular dose of 1.2 mg kg-1 of imidocarb dipropionate (imdp) was effective in controlling fatal infections with babesia ovis in sheep. the sheep were infected by the intravenous injection of sheep blood containing b ovis. a severe recrudescence of infection occurred in most sheep 10 to 14 days after therapy but this could be controlled by a second dose of 1.2 mg kg-1 imdp. studies on the toxicology, residues and metabolism of imdp showed this to be a safe dosage regimen. transient or mi ...19863764099
[deep freezing of babesia ovis in liquid nitrogen].comparative investigations were carried out to determine the optimal concentration of glycerin and dimethylsulfoxide in deep freezing of sheep erythrocytes infected with babesia ovis. the blood was obtained from experimentally infected weaned lambs in the phase of acute parasitemia. equal blood samples, mixed with the same volume of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-molar concentrations of the two cryoprotective agents as well as blood samples without such agents were frozen by the slow and the fast method up t ...1977595370
detection of babesia ovis by pcr in rhipicephalus bursa collected from naturally infested sheep and goats.polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to assess the presence and the frequency of babesia ovis infection in the adult rhipicephalus bursa and their hosts in elazig province located in eastern turkey. tick and blood samples were collected from 32 sheep and 28 goats of four selected herds. a total of 226 r. bursa were randomly selected from the collected ticks and their salivary glands were dissected out in 0.85% saline under stereo microscope. dna amplification method revealed that the frequen ...200817881019
seroprevalence of babesia ovis in mouflon sheep in spain.a serological survey detected antibodies against babesia ovis in mouflon sheep (ovis musimon) from two different reserves located in catalonia in northeastern spain. an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) was developed using a b. ovis isolate of ovine origin as the antigen. of 50 sera tested, six (12%) showed titres between 1:160 and 1:640 and were considered positive. these results indicate that exposure of mouflon to babesia ovis is common in this region.19989706577
attenuation of babesia ovis by rapid successive passages in splenectomized lambs. 19989719830
status of the tick-borne diseases in sheep and goats in turkey.a serological survey using indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) for babesia ovis infection of sheep has been carried out in different geographical regions of turkey. the results indicated that 71.6% of 141 sheep in black sea region, 70.9% of 93 sheep in central anatolia, 80.2% of 96 sheep in aegean region and 55.7% of 122 sheep in eastern anatolia were seropositive. this means that b. ovis infection is endemic throughout turkey. in addition, occurrence of b. ovis, b. motasi, theileria hirci ...19979530701
determination of prevalence and risk factors for infection with babesia ovis in small ruminants from turkey by polymerase chain this study, pcr and thin blood smear-based diagnostic methods were used to assess the frequency of babesia infection in small ruminants. a total of 300 sheep and 100 goats from 37 randomly selected herds located in eight locations of eastern turkey were examined for the presence of babesia infection and any tick species on the body of the animals. of 400 blood samples examined, 6 (1.5%) were positive for babesia spp. piroplasms upon microscopic examination, whereas 33 (8.25%) were positive fo ...200717096146
seroprevalence of babesia ovis in spanish ibex (capra pyrenaica) in catalonia, northeastern spain.a serologic survey was carried out in order to detect antibodies against babesia ovis in a large population of spanish ibex (capra pyrenaica) from a hunting reserve in catalonia, northeastern spain. for this purpose, an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) was developed using a b. ovis isolate of ovine origin as antigen. of the total 475 sera tested, 155 (32.6%) showed titres between 1:160 and 1:1280 and were considered positive. these results reveal that exposure of spanish ibex to b. ovis ...19989637213
the effect of the ovine host parasitaemia on the development of babesia ovis (babes, 1892) in the tick rhipicephalus bursa (canestrini and fanzago, 1877).batches of rhipicephalus bursa adult ticks were fed on two lambs with 10.0% (batch 1) and 0.3% (batch 2) babesia ovis parasitaemia, respectively. haemolymph and eggs were checked for parasites daily after detachment, before and after appearance of b. ovis in the lamb's blood.b. ovis kinetes were found in the haemolymph and eggs earlier in the engorged ticks detached before appearance of the parasite in the host blood. rates of haemolymph and egg infection with b. ovis as well as the percentage o ...200111240093
a study on ovine tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites (theileria and babesia) in the east black sea region of this study, the frequency of theileria and babesia species was assessed via reverse line blotting and blood smear-based diagnostic methods in small ruminants. a total of 201 apparently healthy animals from 26 randomly selected herds located in 4 locations (artvin, giresun, gumushane, and tokat) of east black sea region of turkey were investigated for the blood protozoans. in a polymerase chain reaction (pcr), the hypervariable v4 region of the 18s ribosomal rna gene was amplified with a set o ...201222231266
biometrical and genetical characterization of large babesia ovis in species of babesia was identified on the blood smear of 20 different naturally infected sheep in the northwest of iran. it was polymorphic, including double pyriform with acute or obtuse angle, single pyriform, and ring form. the size of typical paired pyriforms with acute angle was 2.7 x 0.4 microm (n=10) and with obtuse angle was 3.5 x 0.6 microm (n=10). although the morphological and biometrical parameters resembled the babesia motasi, the results of seminested polymerase chain reaction ( ...200818386062
at least two genetically distinct large babesia species infective to sheep and goats in china.a fatal disease of sheep and goats in the northern part of china has been reported to be due to babesia ovis. however, some characteristics of the causative agent in recent reports are not in accordance with the original attributes ascribed to this parasite. therefore, the 18s small subunit ribosomal rna (18s rrna) genes of a number of babesia isolates in china were sequenced and compared with that of other babesia and theileria species in an attempt to clarify their taxonomic position. in the p ...200717531391
determination of prevalence and risk factors of infection with babesia in small ruminants from greece by polymerase chain reaction amplification.a total of 124 blood samples were collected from 92 sheep and 32 goats from 21 randomly selected herds located in two regions of greece. data on the characteristics of the animals (species, gender, age, tick burden, presence of haemoglobinuria, prior treatment for babesiosis) and the herd (location, size, species of animals, dogs associated with the herds, tick burden of dogs associated with the herds) were collected through questionnaires. nineteen animals (15%) produced the dna fragment specif ...200616139956
identification, genetic diversity and prevalence of theileria and babesia species in a sheep population from northern spain.the genetic diversity and prevalence of virtually all theileria and babesia species in a sheep population were studied using a specifically designed reverse line blot macroarray. the amplified hypervariable v4 region of the 18s rrna gene was hybridised against generic and species-specific probes. in a first screening (study i), 320 apparently healthy animals corresponding to 32 flocks located in the basque country (northern spain) were analysed. the survey demonstrated a high prevalence of subcl ...200415313132
an epidemiological study on ovine babesiosis in the mashhad suburb area, province of khorasan, iran.the prevalence of babesia spp. infection was studied in sheep of the mashhad area in iran from 1998 to 2000. a total of 677 sheep originating from 115 flocks were clinically examined and investigated for the presence of babesia spp. in appropriate blood smears and any tick species on the body of the animals. the study revealed that the infection rate for babesia ovis and babesia motasi were 167 (24.6%) and 4 (0.5%), respectively. double (mixed) infections occurred in 21 (3%) sheep. differences i ...200212208039
development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of theileria sp. infection in sheep.a rapid, sensitive and specific diagnostic method, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), was developed for the diagnosis of theileria sp. infection in sheep; and optimal conditions were established, such as antigen concentration, serum dilution, coating time, tween-20 concentration and conjugate. the results were analyzed by measuring the coefficient of variation (cv). three sera titers (high, middle, low) were analyzed over the measurement range, resulting in a cv of around 10%, whereas ...200212051613
some epizootiological and clinical aspects of ovine babesiosis caused by babesia ovis--a review.the study shows a close relationship between incidence of ovine babesiosis caused by babesia ovis and the activity period and distribution area of the vector tick rhipicephalus bursa. the most important factor limiting the distribution of this tick is a decrease in humidity. in general, it is absent from areas with an average annual rainfall of less than about 300 mm. the rate of parasitaemia and the degree of anaemia were not correlated. decrease of the packed-cell volume ranged from 30 to 40%. ...19989561703
piroplasms of domestic animals in the macedonia region of greece. 3. piroplasms of small ruminants.a study was carried out on piroplasms of small ruminants in the macedonia region of greece. during 1984-1985, 721 serum samples were collected from sheep in 49 localities and 487 from goats in 43 localities. blood smears were also prepared from 26 sheep and eight goats in 16 localities. the prevalence of positive ifa titres for sheep and goat sera, respectively, was: 24.6% and 0.6% for theileria ovis, 52.1% and 36.4% for babesia ovis, 10.5% and 4.2% for babesia motasi, 12.6% and 6.6% for babesia ...19968792581
clinical, clinico-pathological and serological studies of babesia ovis in experimentally infected sheep.clinical, clinico-pathological and serological studies were performed in sheep experimentally infected with babesia ovis. acute babesiosis occurred in all the lambs infested with adult rhipicephalus bursa ticks and in one lamb infested with the larvae. the rate of parasitaemia and the degree of anaemia were not correlated. decrease in the packed-cell volume ranged from 30 to 40%. parasitized erythrocytes were not observed to block capillaries in the brain, which explained the absence of nervous ...19989780825
a study of an enzootic focus of sheep babesiosis (babesia ovis, babes, 1892).morbidity and mortality due to babesia ovis in sheep flocks grazing in an enzootic area of israel occur yearly, about 2 weeks after detection of adult rhipicephalus bursa ticks on the animals. disease incidence peaks in may, but lasts throughout the active period of the adult ticks in the spring-summer months of april-july. no clinical cases of babesiosis have been registered during the active period of the preimaginal stages of r. bursa, from october to february. incidence of parasitaemia durin ...19958747918
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