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listeriosis in a raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides) associated with canine distemper.a wild raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides) that manifested severe illness and died was examined. necropsy revealed severe emaciation, systemic icterus and petechial hemorrhages on the mucous membranes. histopathologically, necroses were seen in the liver and brain stem associated with meningitis. eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in the spleen and intestinal mucosa, and eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were seen in transitional epithelium in the bladder. l ...200010907692
phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin gene of canine distemper virus strains detected from breeding foxes, raccoon dogs and minks in china.canine distemper virus (cdv) infects a variety of carnivores, including wild and domestic canidae. genetic/antigenic heterogeneity has been observed among the various cdv strains, notably in the haemagglutinin (h) gene, that appears as a good target to gather epidemiological information. based on sequence analysis of the h gene, wild-type cdv strains cluster into distinct geographic lineages (genotypes), irrespective of the species of isolation. the sequence of the h gene of 28 cdv strains detec ...201019647380
differentiation of canine distemper virus isolates in fur animals from various vaccine strains by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism according to phylogenetic relations in china.in order to effectively identify the vaccine and field strains of canine distemper virus (cdv), a new differential diagnostic test has been developed based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp). we selected an 829 bp fragment of the nucleoprotein (n) gene of cdv. by rflp analysis using bamhi, field isolates were distinguishable from the vaccine strains. two fragments were obtained from the vaccine strains by rt-pcr-rflp an ...201121352564
isolation and sequence analysis of a canine distemper virus from a raccoon dog in jilin province, china.canine distemper virus (cdv) is a major pathogen not only in raccoon dogs but also in a variety of carnivorous animals, including domesticated animals, particularly if they have not been vaccinated. in this study, a wild-type strain of cdv was isolated from lung tissue from a raccoon dog kept at a fur farm in jilin province, china. cytopathic effects typical of cdv infection were observed after three blind passages in vero cells, yielding a virus titer of 10(4.6) tcid50/ml. virus identification ...201526265248
wildlife reservoirs of canine distemper virus resulted in a major outbreak in danish farmed mink (neovison vison).a major outbreak of canine distemper virus (cdv) in danish farmed mink (neovison vison) started in the late summer period of 2012. at the same time, a high number of diseased and dead wildlife species such as foxes, raccoon dogs, and ferrets were observed. to track the origin of the outbreak virus full-length sequencing of the receptor binding surface protein hemagglutinin (h) was performed on 26 cdv's collected from mink and 10 cdv's collected from wildlife species. subsequent phylogenetic anal ...201424454897
pathological findings in the red fox (vulpes vulpes), stone marten (martes foina) and raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides), with special emphasis on infectious and zoonotic agents in northern germany.anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. the present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (vulpes vulpes), stone marten (martes foina) and raccoon dog (nyctereu ...201728399176
epidemiology of canine distemper virus in wild raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonoides) from south korea.raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonoides) are widespread and common in south korea. in 2011, we obtained serum samples from 102 wild raccoon dogs to survey their exposure to canine distemper virus (cdv). forty-five of the 102 animals (44.1%) were seropositive. field cases of canine distemper in wild raccoon dogs from 2010 to 2011 were investigated. fourteen cases of cdv infection were identified by a commercially available cdv antigen detection kit. these cases were used for virus isolation and mo ...201222608695
phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin gene of canine distemper virus strains detected from giant panda and raccoon dogs in china.canine distemper virus (cdv) infects a variety of carnivores, including wild and domestic canidae. in this study, we sequenced and phylogenetic analyses of the hemagglutinin (h) genes from eight canine distemper virus (cdv) isolates obtained from seven raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonoides) and a giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca) in china.201323566727
deduced sequences of the membrane fusion and attachment proteins of canine distemper viruses isolated from dogs and wild animals in korea.canine distemper virus (cdv) causes highly contagious respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological diseases in wild and domestic animal species. despite a broad vaccination campaign, the disease is still a serious problem worldwide. in this study, six field cdv strains were isolated from three dogs, two raccoon dogs, and one badger in korea. the full sequence of the genes encoding fusion (f) and hemagglutinin (h) proteins were compared with those of other cdvs including field and vaccine stra ...201323624803
[establishment and application of a vero cell line stably expressing raccoon dog slam, the cellular receptor of canine distemper virus].the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (slam, also known as cd150), is used as a cellular receptor by canine distemper virus (cdv). wild-type strains of cdvs can be isolated and propagated efficiently in non-lymphoid cells expressing this protein. our aim is to establish a vero cells expressing raccoon dog slam (rslam) to efficiently isolate cdv from pathological samples.201223457801
epizootic canine distemper virus infection among wild mammals.in the spring of 2007, seven raccoon dogs and a weasel were captured near the city of tanabe in wakayama prefecture, japan. the causative agent of the animals' death 1-2days after capture was identified as canine distemper virus (cdv) by virus isolation, immunostaining with an anti-cdv polyclonal antibody, and a commercially available cdv antigen-detection kit. sequence analysis of hemagglutinin genes indicated the isolated viruses belong to genotype asia-1 and possess the substitution from tyro ...201121840141
epizootiological investigations of canine distemper virus in free-ranging carnivores from germany.canine distemper virus (cdv) infects a broad range of carnivores. to assess whether wild carnivores may play a role in the epidemiology of cdv in domestic dogs in germany, the seroprevalence of cdv was determined. in sera from red foxes (30 of 591 (5%)) and stone martens (2 of 10 (20%)) antiviral antibodies were detected using a neutralization assay, whereas sera of raccoons, two mink, one pine marten and one raccoon dog were negative. in foxes, there was a significantly higher prevalence in urb ...200010831852
pathology and epidemiology of canine distemper in raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonoides).from september to december 1991, a large number of free-ranging raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonoides) died from a highly contagious disease in the vicinity of tokyo. eighteen seriously ill or dead animals were submitted for necropsy. the pathological findings resembled those in a masked palm civet (paguma larvata) found infected with canine distemper virus (cdv) in the same area in late august 1991. the most striking features were pneumonia and gastroenteritis. microscopical lesions consisted ...19938366205
identification and characterization of the toll-like receptor 8 gene in the chinese raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides).tlr8 is an important sensor of single-stranded rna (ssrna) from the viral genome and plays an essential role in innate antiviral responses via the recognition of conserved viral molecular patterns. in this report, tlr8 in the chinese raccoon dog was characterized and analyzed for the first time. the full-length sequence of raccoon dog tlr8 (rdtlr8) cdna was cloned by rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) and is 3191bp with a 3117-bp open reading frame (orf) encoding 1038 amino acids. the putat ...201627481482
an outbreak of canine distemper virus in tigers (panthera tigris): possible transmission from wild animals to zoo animals.canine distemper virus (cdv), a morbillivirus that causes one of the most contagious and lethal viral diseases known in canids, has an expanding host range, including wild animals. since december 2009, several dead or dying wild raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonoides) were found in and around one safari-style zoo in japan, and cdv was isolated from four of these animals. in the subsequent months (january to february 2010), 12 tigers (panthera tigris) in the zoo developed respiratory and gastroin ...201122214864
pathogenesis of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected raccoon dogs, foxes, and minks.canine distemper virus (cdv) infects a broad range of carnivores and causes a highly contagious disease with severe immunosuppression. the disease severity markedly varies in different species. to investigate the pathogenesis of cdv in raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides), fox (vulpes vulpes) and mink (neovison vison) species, three groups of cdv sero-negative animals were infected with cdv strain ln(10)1. this cdv strain belongs to the asia-1 genotype, which is epidemiologically predominant i ...201526210812
emergence of canine distemper virus strains with two amino acid substitutions in the haemagglutinin protein, detected from vaccinated carnivores in north-eastern china in 2012-2013.a total of 16 strains of canine distemper virus (cdv) were detected from vaccinated minks, foxes, and raccoon dogs in four provinces in north-eastern china between the end of 2011 and 2013. upon sequence analysis of the haemagglutinin gene and comparison with wild-type cdv from different species in the same geographical areas, two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in 10 cdv strains, which led to amino acid changes at positions 542 (isoleucine to asparagine) and 549 ( ...201424618397
canine distemper virus infection among wildlife before and after the epidemic.in 2007-2008, a canine distemper virus (cdv) epidemic occurred among wild animals in wakayama prefecture, japan, and many mammals, including the wild boar and deer, were infected. in this study, cdv prevalence among wild animals was surveyed before and after the epidemic. at first, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated protein a/g was established to detect cdv antibodies in many mammalian species. this established elisa was available for testing dogs ...201526074342
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