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letter: asymptomatic non-fatal canine rabies. 197547030
[study of the antigenic relationship of different strains of the rabies group viruses].in neutralization tests in animals close antigenic relationship between human virus of acute encephalomyelitis (aem) and viruses (297 and 598 sg strains) isolated from wild rodents in czechoslovakia was first established. at the same time, poor antigenic relationship of human aem virus to viruses isolated in africa from bats (lagos bat) and from shrews (yban 27377) was demonstrated. certain differences in the antigenic properties of viruses isolated in africa and in czechoslovakia were found. t ...197554997
use of the hemadsorption phenomenon for determining virus and neutralizing antibody titers of rabies.chicken embryo cells infected with the hep flury strain of rabies virus adapted to tissue culture produced a hemadsorption (had) phenomenon by using goose erthyrocytes. the optimal conditions for had included the incubation of cell cultures at 37c for 3 days after virus inoculation, the use of a 0.4% suspension of goose erythrocytes in phosphate buffer adjusted at ph 6.2, and adsorption of erythrocytes at 4c. this phenomenon was inhibited with anti-rabies serum. virus titer obtained with the had ...197657927
[newly developed virusvaccines in veterinary medicine (author's transl)].newly developed vaccines in veterinary medicine can be classified into two categories. the first category comprises inactivated vaccines produced by "classical" methods such as inactivation of the virus by formalin and the use of a1(oh)3 as adjuvant. besides, this category also includes live vaccines from attenuated virus. thus, all of these vaccines represent no genuinely new developments and owe their origin to the fact that the importance of several virus diseases of animals has grown in the ...1978566007
plaque assay of rabies virus on porcine kidney cell monolayers.the era strain of rabies virus was adapted to growth on monolayers of a porcine kidney cell line (pk-2a). a reproducible plaque assay system was subsequently developed, which appears to be satisfactory for conducting plaque neutralization tests.1976972180
[epidemiology of rabies as a current problem]. 19921463142
reduction in the dosage schedule of bpl-inactivated neural tissue vaccine for rabies prophylaxis in man.there exist two different immunization schedules for neural tissue rabies vaccine (ntv) for human use in india, the amount of vaccine given by the schedule recommended by central research institute (cri), kasauli, being higher than that recommended by pasteur institute of india (pii), coonoor. a study was therefore undertaken to assess the feasibility of reducing the cri dosage schedule for rabies prophylaxis. the antirabies antibody response in laboratory animals and human subjects following 7, ...19902269504
properties of rabies strain ("pasteur potsdam") adapted to primary dog kidney cells.the pasteur strain of fixed rabies virus (pasteur institute paris, passage 2061 in rabbit brain) was adapted by alternate passages to primary dog kidney cells. the adapted rabies virus designated as "pasteur potsdam" developed no cpe and yielded four harvests with a titre of 5.5-7.0 (log micld50/ml). the strain could be grown in bhk 21/s13, cer and n2a neuroblastoma cells. in the cultures of bhk 21/s13 cells the virus titered 6.0-8.5 (log micld50/ml). in sds page its g protein migrated faster th ...19892483605
use of recombinant vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein virus for oral vaccination of wildlife against rabies: innocuity to several non-target bait consuming species.the pathogenicity of a vaccinia recombinant virus expressing the rabies glycoprotein (vvtggrab) was tested in several wild animal species which could compete with the natural rabies host, the red fox (vulpes vulpes) in consuming vaccine baits in europe. the following species were included in this study: wild boar (sus scrofa), eurasian badger (meles meles), wood mouse (apodemus sylvaticus), yellow-necked mouse (apodemus flavicollis), bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus), common vole (microtus arv ...19892681844
sensitivity of different cell lines for rabies virus isolation. 19883188725
[biological traits and immunologic value of the babeş strain of fixed rabies virus]. 19883250362
[specific activity of a concentrated, chromatography-purified cultured rabies vaccine].animal experiments and trials on humans have shown that purified and concentrated chromatographic tissue-culture rabies vaccine is safe and essentially more potent than commercial tissue-culture rabies vaccine.19883364079
further studies on an improved haemagglutination inhibition test with higher sensitivity for rabies virus antibody.the efficiency of the removal of non-specific inhibitors of rabies virus haemagglutinin by treatment with colloidal silicic acid, which was proposed in an earlier study, was examined in a number of test samples. the non-specific inhibitors were removed in 289 out of 296 normal human sera (97.6%) by this treatment to a level that was undetectable at the 1:4 starting dilution in the haemagglutination inhibition test. antigenic differences among three strains of rabies virus were detected in the ha ...19863488135
evidence for inapparent rabies infection. 19744138244
[complement fixation tests in the serology of rabies]. 19714254909
[study of street rabies virus isolated in a natural focus]. 19724268420
identification of selected animal viruses with fluorescent antibodies prepared from multivalent antiserums. 19714330674
[serum dnaase i activity as a protective factor in infections caused by dna-genome viruses]. 19744375371
mechanism of perpetuation of animal viruses in nature. 19694392000
[coupled cytoenzymologic and immunofluorescent technic (author's transl)]. 19744613252
era strain rabies vaccine--intracerebral passage in dogs. 19734718373
proceedings: adaptation of rabies virus (flury lep strain) to hamster kidney cell culture. preliminary report. 19744828509
proceedings: preliminary evaluation of pathogenic and immunogenic properties of the flury lep and hep strains of rabies virus multiplied in chick embryo fibroblasts. 19744828510
mokola virus. further studies on iban 27377, a new rabies-related etiologic agent of zoonosis in nigeria. 19725025622
a preliminary report on rabies in suspected equine encephalomyelitis cases in the united arab republic. 19665296239
[complement fixation test. application to rabies virus]. 19695387006
[preparation of cell cultures of kidneys of stunted unweaned piglets for the study of aujeszky's disease]. 19695393337
rabies vaccines for veterinary use. 19705422529
the effect of altering metabolic rate on the mortality and incubation time of rabies. 19685655650
immune lysis of rabies virus-infected cells. 19685749193
freeing rabies virus of the neuroallergenic factor from brain tissue.a method of fixed rabies virus purification from infected sheep brains was proposed. it consisted of suspending the brain tissue in phosphate-buffered hypertonic (0.3 m) nacl solution, shaking at 37 degrees c and low speed centrifugation at the same temperature. from 65 to 85% ballast proteins were removed, the neuroallergenic activity of the material was lost, but practically no losses of the virus occurred.19816115564
rabies vaccine prepared from the virus grown in japanese quail embryo cell cultures.fixed rabies virus strain mniivp-74 was grown in japanese quail embryo cell cultures, concentrated by ultrafiltration and inactivated with beta-propiolactone. the resulting vaccine was markedly antigenic and immunogenic for laboratory animals. human volunteers injected with 2.0 ml vaccine on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 30 and 90 exhibited more intensive and longer antibody production than those injected daily for 14 days.19836133431
a new inactivated tissue culture rabies vaccine for use in man. evaluation of pcec-vaccine by laboratory tests.a new inactivated rabies vaccine (purified chick embryo cell vaccine) has been developed using the flury lep-c 25 strain of rabies virus propagated in primary chick embryo cell cultures. the antigen was purified and concentrated by continuous density gradient centrifugation and inactivated by betapropiolactone. this vaccine was tested for innocuity, tolerability and protective capacity in a series of laboratory tests and compared with human diploid cell strain (hdc)-vaccines of similar antigenic ...19846199357
pseudorabies virus infection in raccoons: a review.pseudorabies is a rarely reported disease of raccoons. laboratory and field evidence of prv infection suggests the raccoon is a "dead end" host with little opportunity for raccoon-to-raccoon spread of virus. all reported field cases have been associated closely with infected swine and swine have been considered the source of the raccoon infection. the clinical signs of prv in raccoons closely resembles those of canine distemper and rabies virus infections. infection with the latter viruses are c ...19826285008
[protective action of undegraded and s-sulfonated 7s antibodies in 4 different experimental virus infections]. 19826293456
immunofluorescent examination of the skin of rabies-infected animals as a means of early detection of rabies virus antigen.correlations were made on immunofluorescence positivity to antirabies conjugate between cranium-derived nerve fibers in skin and traditional samplings of brain tissue from several species and illness categories of animals with naturally acquired rabies. the overall correlation of results from all categories was about 98% (n, 104) for those that were brain positive and 100% (n, 99) for those that were brain negative. some animals that ultimately developed rabies were found to have immunofluoresce ...19836355152
evaluation of immunofluorescence staining of skin for the diagnosis of rabies. 19846372335
[biological and immunological behavior of an attenuated strain of rabies virus propagated in a primary culture of fetal bovine kidney]. 19846522875
purified chick embryo cell (pcec) rabies vaccine for human use. laboratory data.a new inactivated rabies vaccine (purified chick embryo cell vaccine) for use in humans has been developed. the flury-lep c25 strain of rabies virus was adapted to propagate in primary chick embryo cell cultures. the antigen was purified and concentrated by continuous density gradient centrifugation and inactivated by betapropiolactone. the pcec-rabies vaccine was tested for innocuity, tolerability and protective capacity in a series of laboratory tests and compared with human diploid cell strai ...19846525146
the primary hamster kidney cell rabies vaccine: adaptation of viral strain, production of vaccine, and pre- and postexposure treatment.the hamster kidney cell rabies vaccine was investigated as a substitute for classical nervous tissue rabies vaccine. the beijing strain of fixed rabies virus was adapted to primary hamster kidney cells (phkcs), and four types of rabies vaccine (plain, adjuvant, concentrated, and concentrated adjuvant vaccines) were developed for human use. the potencies of the vaccines met the requirements of the world health organization, and these vaccines elicited rather satisfactory antibody responses in vol ...19836833794
cellular tests for assessing the immunogenicity of rabies vaccines. 19817053012
immunization of foxes vulpes vulpes by the oral and intramuscular routes with inactivated rabies vaccines.inactivated rabies vaccines prepared from common vaccine strains of virus were inoculated into foxes by the intramuscular and intestinal route. there were differences among the vaccines in the duration of antibody produced after intramuscular administration. inactivated vaccines deposited directly into the lumen of the duodenum by means of a fiberscope caused seroconversion in some foxes, especially following a booster dose, but the antibodies produced were for the most part of short duration. t ...19827172102
rabies vaccine (babeş strain of fixed rabies virus) inactivated with betapropiolactone. 19817340722
biological and immunogenic properties of a canarypox-rabies recombinant, alvac-rg (vcp65) in non-avian species.a canarypox-based (alvac) recombinant expressing the rabies g glycoprotein has been utilized to assess in vitro and in vivo biological properties of the canarypox virus vector system. in vitro studies have shown that no replication of the virus can be detected on six human-derived cell lines, nor can the virus be readily adapted to replicate on non-avian cells. expression of the rabies g can be detected on all cell lines analyzed in the absence of productive viral replication. analysis of viral- ...19957483774
expression of the nucleoprotein of rabies virus in escherichia coli and mapping of antigenic sites.investigations were performed to delineate the antigenic sites i and iv of rabies virus nucleoprotein (n), the former of which is well conserved among the rabies and rabies-related viruses. the n cdna of the rc-hl strain was inserted into an expression vector pet3a, with which the e. coli bl21(de3) was transformed. upon induction with isopropyl-1-thio-beta-d-galactoside, the transformants produced a protein with a size (56 k-da) almost identical to that of the authentic n protein. the protein al ...19957611878
[the evaluation of a monoclonal antibody panel for lyssavirus typing in mexico].the purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a panel of eight antinucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies developed in europe to identify different strains of rabies virus isolated from a variety of animal species from diverse geographic areas in mexico. fifty-one virus-positive samples of brain tissue from various animal species and humans were studied. material from these samples was used to infect mice, whose brains were later tested by indirect immunofluorescence, using the monoclonal ...19958540994
use of elisa for in vitro potency test of rabies vaccines for animal use.the use of elisa for the potency test of inactivated rabies vaccines for animal use was evaluated. sandwich elisa was developed, using monoclonal antibodies which enabled to recognize the glycoprotein (g-protein) of rabies virus and showed a protective effect in mice. soluble g-protein which displays an elisa activity but a low immunogenicity was removed by gel filtration before elisa was carried out. the elisa titres of the first fraction of vaccines separated by gel filtration were correlated ...19968889055
safety study of the sag2 rabies virus mutant in several non-target species with a view to its future use for the immunization of foxes in europe.the safety of the sag2 virus, a low virulence mutant of the sad strain, was investigated in ten species of mammals and seven species of birds liable to consume vaccine baits. these species are the western hedgehog (erinaceus europaeus), the meadow vole (microtus arvalis), the bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus), the water vole (arvicola terrestris), the field mouse (apodemus flavicollis or a. sylvaticus), the norway rat (rattus norvegicus), the european badger (meles meles), the domestic ferret ...19969014291
effect of beta-propiolactone treatment on the complement activation mediated by equine antisera.reduction of complement activation through an alteration of the fc fragment of immunoglobulins by beta-propiolactone treatment was carried out in equine antisera raised against rabies virus, bothrops venoms and diphtherial toxin. results were evaluated by means of an anaphylactic test performed on guinea-pigs, and compared to the ones obtained with the same sera purified by saline precipitation (ammonium sulfate), followed or not by enzymatic digestion with pepsin. protein purity levels for anti ...19979394526
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1998.during 1998, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,961 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the centers for disease control and prevention, a decrease of 6.5% from 8,509 cases in nonhuman animals and 4 cases in human beings reported in 1997. more than 92% (7,358 cases) were in wild animals, whereas > 7.5% (603 cases) were in domestic species (compared with 93% in wild animals and 7% in domestic species in 1997). decreases were evident in al ...199910613210
viral encephalitis of public health significance in india: current status.japanese encephalitis (je) and rabies are 2 viral encephalitis that are of public health importance in india. je is a zoonosis with the primary cycle occurring in arthropods (mosquito vectors) and vertebrate animals (primarily the pig), man being only an incidental 'dead end' host. out-breaks have been seen in most parts of india except the north west. the disease presents with a prodromal stage, an acute encephalitic stage with coma, convulsions and variable deficits and a convalescent stage. d ...199910798039
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1999.during 1999, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,067 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals to the centers for disease control and prevention, a decrease of 11.2% from 7,961 cases in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being reported in 1998. more than 91% (6,466 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 8.5% (601 cases) were in domestic species (compared with 92.4% in wild animals and 7.6% in domestic species in 1998). no cases of rabies were reported in human beings in 1 ...200011132881
genetic characterization and geographic distribution of rabies virus isolates in brazil: identification of two reservoirs, dogs and vampire bats.we analyzed 50 rabies virus samples isolated in brazil from 12 dogs, 11 cats, 5 vampire bats, 15 cattle, 2 horses, 1 pig, 1 sheep, and 3 humans to investigate the molecular epidemiology of rabies viruses. we sequenced 203 nucleotides on the nucleoprotein gene by direct sequencing of the pcr-amplified products. all the isolates belonged to the genotype 1 and homology of the 203 nucleotides was at least 83.7% among isolates. the main reservoirs were estimated based on the homology of nucleotide se ...200111384221
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2000.during 2000, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,364 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 5 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention, an increase of 4.3% from 7,067 cases in nonhuman animals reported in 1999. ninety-three percent (6,855 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 6.9% (509 cases) were in domestic species (compared wth 91.5% in wild animals and 8.5% in domestic species in 1999). compared with cases reported in 1999, the numbe ...200111767918
detection of rabies virus rna isolated from several species of animals in brazil by rt-pcr.brain samples from different animal species including humans: five vampire bats, 14 cattle, 12 dogs, 11 cats, two horses, one pig, one sheep and three humans collected from various geographical regions of brazil were found to be positive for rabies by means of the fluorescent antibody test (fat) and the mouse inoculation test (mit). the brain samples were retested for rabies by means of the reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) with 2 primer sets (p1/p2 and rhni/rhns3), wh ...200111789609
antigenic typing of brazilian rabies virus samples isolated from animals and humans, 1989-2000.animal and human rabies samples isolated between 1989 and 2000 were typified by means of a monoclonal antibody panel against the viral nucleoprotein. the panel had been previously established to study the molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in the americas. samples were isolated in the diagnostic laboratory of the pasteur institute and in other rabies diagnostic centers in brazil. in addition to the fixed virus samples cvs-31/96-ip, preserved in mouse brain, and pv-bhk/97, preserved in cell c ...200212048546
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2001.during 2001, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,437 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the centers for disease control and prevention, an increase of < 1% from 7,364 cases in nonhuman animals and 5 human cases reported in 2000. more than 93% (6,939 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 6.7% (497 cases) were in domestic species (compared with 93.0% in wild animals and 6.9% in domestic species in 2000). the number of cases reported in 2001 increased among bats, cat ...200212494966
discrimination between dog-related and vampire bat-related rabies viruses in brazil by strain-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.there is a geographical overlap between the two main rabies epidemiological cycles maintained by dogs and vampire bats in latin america. the geographical and temporal coincidence of rabies outbreaks of respective origins is not unusual in rural areas of latin america. these circumstances make it difficult to discriminate the intraspecies and interspecies transmission pathways of rabies.200312637081
treatment of wounds inflicted by rabid animals.this paper describes a series of experiments in which guinea-pigs were inoculated intramuscularly with a strain of fixed-virus rabies, and their wounds treated, after intervals of varying duration, with different viricidal substances. the authors found that cauterization with fuming nitric acid gave no greater protection against the development of rabies than did irrigation with a 20% soap-solution; a cationic detergent, zephiran, was found to be the treatment of choice for wounds artificially c ...195413182603
fluorescent antibody staining of rabies virus antigens in the salivary glands of rabid animals.staining with fluorescent antibody of street rabies antigens in smears made from the salivary glands of rabid animals is described.the salivary glands of 157 animals, including dogs, foxes, cats, pigs, cows, one squirrel and one rat were processed with fluorescent antibody. in addition, staining was carried out for negri bodies and virus isolation studies were made on the brains and salivary glands. by virus isolation from the brains, a total of 55 animals were found to be rabid. of these, 51 we ...195913850801
local application of antirabies gamma-globulin in dried form for the prevention of rabies.the authors report on guinea-pig experiments conducted to determine the effect of dried antirabies gamma-globulin in the local treatment of wounds infected with street rabies.the results showed that local application of dried gamma-globulin within 30 minutes of the time of infection of the wound protected the majority of animals and resulted in a considerably longer incubation period in the remainder than in the controls. when the preparation was applied later than 30 minutes after infection, th ...196213915039
[allergic encephalomyelitis and intermediate antigens of nerve tissues infected with viruses]. 196414164801
[on viruses isolated from patients with encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis. i. pathogenic and antigenic properties of the isolated viruses]. 196414195994
quantitative determination of the dissemination of flury rabies virus in the central nervous system of the guinea-pig after intramuscular inoculation in the hind leg. 195914405670
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2002.during 2002, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,967 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention, an increase of 7.2% from the 7,436 cases in non-human animals and 1 case in a human being reported in 2001. more than 92% (7,375 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 7.4% (592) were in domestic species (compared with 93.3% in wild animals and 6.7% in domestic species in 2001). compared with cases reported in 2001, the numbers of ...200314690203
emerging encephalitogenic viruses: lyssaviruses and henipaviruses transmitted by frugivorous bats.three newly recognized encephalitogenic zoonotic viruses spread from fruit bats of the genus pteropus (order chiroptera, suborder megachiroptera) have been recognised over the past decade. these are: hendra virus, formerly named equine morbillivirus, which was responsible for an outbreak of disease in horses and humans in brisbane, australia, in 1994; australian bat lyssavirus, the cause of a severe acute encephalitis, in 1996; and nipah virus, the cause of a major outbreak of encephalitis and p ...200415119765
genetic and phylogenetic analysis of glycoprotein of rabies virus isolated from several species in brazil.genetic and phylogenetic analyses of the region containing the glycoprotein (g) gene, which is related to pathogenicity and antigenicity, and the g-l intergenic region were carried out in 14 brazilian rabies virus isolates. the isolates were classified as dog-related rabies virus (drrv) or vampire bat-related rabies virus (vrrv), by nucleoprotein (n) analysis. the nucleotide and amino acid (aa) homologies of the area containing the g protein gene and g-l intergenic region were generally lower th ...200415297743
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2003.during 2003, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,170 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the cdc. this represents a 10% decrease from the 7,967 cases in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings reported in 2002. more than 91 (n = 6,556) were in wild animals, and 8.6% (614) were in domestic species (compared with 92.5% in wild animals and 74% in domestic species in 2002). the relative contributions of the major groups of animals were as follows: 2,635 raccoons ...200415643834
[biological characteristics of the adapted rabies virus 3ag-v in vero cell].to study the biological features of the adapted rabies virus 3ag-v in vero cell.200415650786
purification, potency and immunogenicity analysis of vero cell culture-derived rabies vaccine: a comparative study of single-step column chromatography and zonal centrifuge purification.continuous vero cell lines are more suitable for large-scale production of rabies vaccine. the purification of vero cell-derived rabies vaccine is critical because of the residual cellular dna and serum proteins. the perfection of techniques using column chromatography with different matrix material, gel filtration and zonal centrifugation is of paramount importance for the optimal purification of rabies vaccine, leaving minimal residual cellular dna, below the permissible level of 100 pg per do ...200516046167
[laboratory diagnosis of rabies in the west region of são paulo state].the pólo da alta sorocabana laboratory, presidente prudente, sp, brazil, and the biological institute in são paulo state, performed an evaluation of rabies diagnosis from 1996 to 2003 in the west region of são paulo state. for the tests, the laboratories used direct immunofluorescence and mice inoculation in 4,950 samples, that were sent for analysis involving dogs, cats, cattle, chiroptera (bats) and other animals. according to the results, the laboratories found 74 positive samples; of which 5 ...200616410925
rabies virus binding to cellular membranes measured by enzyme immunoassay.the binding of rabies virus to cellular membranes was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). virus binding to membranes adsorbed to the wells of microtiter plates was detected with rabies virus antibody and alkaline phosphatase-linked second antibody. the greatest degree of binding was to myotube, neuroblastoma, and salivary gland membranes; intermediate levels occurred in striated muscle and nerve membranes; and low levels of binding were found in other membranes, includin ...198516758601
[antiviral activity of bacillus intermedius rnaase in guinea-pigs and rabbits infected with outdoor rabies virus].single injection of bacillus intermedius rnaase in a dose of 5 mg/kg could protect 40 and 50-70% of the outdoor rabies virus-preinfected guinea-pigs and rabbits, respectively. in the control group there were 100 and 75-100% deaths of the rnaase-untreated guinea-pigs and rabbits, respectively. animal protection was observed only when rnaase was injected into the site of viral administration. the intramuscular injection of rnaase, other than the site of viral administration failed to protect the i ...200617087065
propagation of rabies virus in pig kidney cell culture. 196417421687
porcine rabies in a closed feeder barn.rabies was diagnosed in a 40 kg pig from a closed feeder barn in which recently unexplained deaths of eight to ten pigs had occurred. a stray cat, probably crawling through a ventilation duct into the barn, was the suspected vector. over a four and one-quarter year period a disproportionate 53 cases of animal rabies had been diagnosed within a 5 km radius of the farm (13% of the cases in the county in 3% of the county area). histological lesions, mostly lymphocytic cuffing of blood vessels in th ...198617422636
[anti-rabies immunoglobulin preparation based on f(ab')2 fragments].technology of manufacturing of new anti-rabies immunoglobulin preparation based on f(ab')2 fragments has been developed. this preparation is characterized by low reactogenicity, increased virus-neutralizing activity and stability.200717523436
an outbreak of pig rabies in hunan province, china.the first dog-associated outbreak of rabies in swine in china (hunan province) has been diagnosed and the related virus isolated. sequence analysis showed that the pig isolate was a genotype 1 rabies virus with a very high nucleotide identity to local dog isolates.200817559696
molecular epidemiology of rabies in guangxi province, south of china.surveillance data for rabies in guangxi province in china showed that human rabies cases have gradually increased since 1996.200717588806
[comparative study between 2 conjugates for the diagnosis of rabies in cuba by direct immunofluorescence].a comparison was made between the conjugate of national production made by "carlos j. finlay" enterprise of biological products for diagnosing rabies by direct immunofluorescence and the viral antinucleocapsid conjugate manufactured by biorad that is commercialized at the international level. 150 samples of brain from different animal species were studied at the rabies reference laboratory of "pedro kouri" institute of tropical medicine from 2000 to 2002. on comparing both conjugates, there were ...200517966581
a recombinant pseudorabies virus expressing rabies virus glycoprotein: safety and immunogenicity in dogs.several recombinant vaccines expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein have been developed, particularly for the oral vaccination of wildlife. while these vaccines induce protective immunity in some animal species such as foxes, they are less effective in others. pseudorabies virus (prv) has been licensed for use as a live vaccine in pigs and possesses an excellent safety and efficacy record. we have used it to construct a recombinant virus, rprv/egfp/rgp, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein ...200818262313
induction and sequencing of rousette bat interferon alpha and beta genes.bats are considered to be natural reservoirs for several viruses of clinical importance, including rabies virus, nipah virus, and hendra virus. type i interferons (ifns) is an important part of the immune system in the defense against viral infection. to investigate the function of type i ifns upon viral infection in bats, the nucleic acid, and amino acid sequences of egyptian rousette (rousettus aegyptiacus) ifn-alpha and -beta were characterized. sequence data indicated that bat ifn-alpha cons ...200818436311
use of rabies virus as a transneuronal tracer of neuronal connections: implications for the understanding of rabies pathogenesis.in neurosciences, rabies virus (cvs strain) has become a very powerful tool for studying multisynaptic neuronal connections, due to its ability to function as a self-replicating marker and to propagate exclusively between connected neurons by transneuronal transfer, which is strictly time-dependent. in this laboratory, transneuronal tracing studies of rabies virus propagation in primates and rodent models during the asymptomatic period have provided valuable information on rabies pathogenesis. w ...200818634512
efficacy and safety of a live canine adenovirus-vectored rabies virus vaccine in swine.rabies infections in swine have been reported occasionally in recent years in certain geographic locations. although a protective vaccine consisting of inactivated rabies virus is available for use in swine, searching for a more economically viable formulation for use in developing countries is always a priority. this work describes the testing of a canine adenovirus that expresses a rabies viral epitope (cav-2-e3delta-rgp) in a porcine rabies model. the data presented here show that the recombi ...200818721839
[new animal hosts of rabies virus in mountain areas in zhejiang province].to understand the prevalence of rabies among wild animals and the animal species in rabies epidemic areas of zhejiang province.200919731524
temporal and spatial dynamics of rabies viruses in china and southeast asia.phylogenetic studies have revealed a profound understanding about the biodiversity of rabies viruses in china, but little is known about their evolutionary dynamics in the country. in the present study, the complete g gene sequences of 33 rabies virus isolates (rabvs) isolated from distinct chinese provinces were determined and phylogenetic analysis was conducted using these g sequences and 93 others retrieved from genbank representing china and southeast asia. further evolutionary history of ra ...201020214936
a method for simultaneous detection and identification of brazilian dog- and vampire bat-related rabies virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.at present, the sporadic occurrence of human rabies in brazil can be attributed primarily to dog- and vampire bat-related rabies viruses. reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) was employed as a simultaneous detection method for both rabies field variants within 60 min. vampire bat-related rabies viruses could be distinguished from dog variants by digesting amplicons of the rt-lamp reaction using the restriction enzyme alwi. amplification and digestion could both ...201020403387
immunohistochemical study of rabies virus within the central nervous system of domestic and wildlife species.immunohistochemistry using a commercial polyclonal antibody for lyssavirus was applied to 39 archival cases of rabies. paraffin blocks from 13 different species were available, including 3 dogs, 4 cats, 1 pig, 6 cattle, 4 horses, 1 llama, 7 skunks (mephitis mephitis), 7 raccoons (procyon lotor), 1 bat (myotis species), 1 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), 1 bobcat (lynx rufus), 2 gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus), and 1 red fox (vulpes vulpes). all cases had previously been diagnose ...201020484176
analysis of chinese rabies virus isolates from 2003-2007 based on p and m protein genes.phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences or deduced amino acid sequences of phosphoprotein (p protein), matrix (m) protein, and glycoprotein (g protein) genes of 18 chinese isolates of rabies virus (rabv) from 2003-2007 showed that these isolates formed a separate monophyletic lineage consisting of sub-lineages a and b. compared with laboratory-fixed strains, recent chinese isolates of sub-lineage b contained val or ala instead of met69 in p protein, which is involved in generating truncate ...201020545436
rabies virus strains circulating in bhutan: implications for control.summarywe report a molecular epidemiological study of rabies virus (rabv) strains circulating in animal populations in bhutan, and investigate potential origins of these viruses. twenty-three rabv isolates originating from dogs and other domestic animals were characterized by sequencing the partial nucleoprotein (n) gene (395 bp). phylogenetic analysis was conducted and the bhutanese isolates were compared with rabies viruses originating from other parts of the world. phylogenetic analysis showe ...201021108870
presence of antibodies against rabies in wild boars.serum samples of 746 shot wild boars collected throughout slovenia during the hunting season of 2005/2006 were examined for the presence of antibodies against rabies virus: 541 samples were collected in areas subjected to yearly antirabies vaccination, and 205 samples were collected in areas where preventive antirabies vaccination was not practised. using a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), in 209 out of 746 sera (28%) the levels of antibodies against rabies virus were higher t ...201121354950
porcine teschovirus polioencephalomyelitis in western canada.beginning in 2002, a small number of pig farms in western canada began reporting 4-7-week-old pigs with bilateral hind-end paresis or paralysis. low numbers of pigs were affected, some died, most had to be euthanized, and those that survived had reduced weight gains and neurological deficits. necropsies revealed no gross lesions, but microscopic lesions consisted of a nonsuppurative polioencephalomyelitis, most severe in the brain stem and spinal cord. the lesions were most consistent with a vir ...201121398466
establishment of a stable cho cell line with high level expression of recombinant porcine ifn-ß.a cho cell clone (cho-poifn-ß) with stable porcine ifn-ß expression under control of cmv promoter was selected under g418 pressure. in a 25cm(2) cell culture flask (5 ml culture medium), the cumulative protein yield of recombinant poifn-ß reached 2.3×10(6) iu/ml. this cells clone maintained stable expression for at least 20 generations even in the absence of g418 selection pressure. the expressed recombinant poifn-ß could induce the expression of porcine mx protein in pk15 cells, and activate th ...201121459017
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