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round table on morbilliviruses in marine mammals.since 1988 morbilliviruses have been increasingly recognized and held responsible for mass mortality amongst harbour seals (phoca vitulina) and other seal species. virus isolations and characterization proved that morbilliviruses from seals in northwest europe were genetically distinct from other known members of this group including canine distemper virus (cdv), rinderpest virus, peste des petits ruminants virus and measles virus. an epidemic in baikal seals in 1987 was apparently caused by a m ...19921481361
comparison of two morbilliviruses isolated from seals during outbreaks of distemper in north west europe and siberia.recently morbilliviruses were isolated from harbour seals (phoca vitulina) in north west europe (phocid distemper virus-1: pdv-1) and from baikal seals (phoca sibirica) in siberia (phocid distemper virus-2: pdv-2) during outbreaks of severe disease which resembled distemper in dogs. pdv-1 and pdv-2 were passaged in spf dogs, in which they caused distemper-like disease symptoms, and were subsequently passaged in vero cells in which they caused cytopathic changes. pdv-1, pdv-2, and canine distempe ...19902141248
mass mortality in seals caused by a newly discovered morbillivirus.during a recent disease outbreak among harbour seals (phoca vitulina) in the north and baltic seas, more than 17,000 animals have died. the clinical symptoms and pathological findings were similar to those of distemper in dogs. based on a seroepizootiological study, using a canine distemper virus (cdv) neutralization assay, it was shown that cdv or a closely related morbillivirus (phocid distemper virus-pdv) was the primary cause of the disease. the virus was isolated in cell culture from the or ...19902205971
fusion protein gene nucleotide sequence similarities, shared antigenic sites and phylogenetic analysis suggest that phocid distemper virus type 2 and canine distemper virus belong to the same virus entity.nucleotide sequencing of the fusion protein (f) gene of phocid distemper virus-2 (pdv-2), recently isolated from baikal seals (phoca sibirica), revealed an open reading frame (nucleotides 84 to 2075) with two potential in-frame atg translation initiation codons. we suggest that the second in-frame atg triplet at positions 264 to 266 initiates the translation, resulting in a protein of 537 amino acid residues with a calculated m(r) of 63,035. the putative f1/f2 cleavage site, located approximatel ...19938376973
prevalence of morbilliviruses among pinniped and cetacean species.since 1987, morbillivirus infections have caused serious disease outbreaks with high mortality among aquatic mammals. baikal seals (phoca sibirica) in siberia were involved in an outbreak caused by a virus closely related to canine distemper virus (cdv) in 1987. harbour seals (phoca vitulina) and grey seals (halichoerus grypus) in north-western europe were struck by a newly recognised morbillivirus of seals (pdv1). a serological survey has indicated that these morbillivirus infections frequently ...19938518442
morbilliviruses and morbillivirus diseases of marine mammals.in recent years, serious disease outbreaks among seals and dolphins were attributed to infection with established or newly recognized morbilliviruses. the first identification of a morbillivirus as causative agent of mass mortality among marine mammals was in 1988, when the previously unrecognized phocine distemper virus (pdv) caused the death of 20,000 harbor seals (phoca vitulina) in northwestern europe. a similar epizootic among baikal seals (phoca sibirica) in siberia in 1987 was later attri ...19958548190
morbillivirus infections of aquatic mammals: newly identified members of the genus.several disease outbreaks, which have caused the deaths of many thousands of seals and dolphins during the last decade, have now been attributed to infections with newly identified morbilliviruses. outbreaks in the late eighties amongst harbour seals (phoca vitulina) and grey seals (halichoerus grypus) in northwestern europe and amongst baikal seals (phoca sibirica) in siberia were caused by the newly discovered phocine distemper virus and by a strain of canine distemper virus, respectively. alt ...19958588316
characterisation of morbilliviruses isolated from lake baikal seals (phoca sibirica).sequence analysis of the haemagglutinin protein (h) gene of the morbillivirus (pdv-2) isolated from a siberian seal (phoca sibirica) during the 1987/1988 epizootic in lake baikal revealed that it was most closely related to two recent isolates of canine distemper virus (cdv) from germany and different from cdv vaccines currently in use in that region. the virus continued to circulate in seals in lake baikal after the 1987/1988 epizootic since sera collected from culled seals in the spring of 199 ...19958588319
canine distemper virus in lake baikal seals (phoca sibirica).the virus epizootic which resulted in significant mortality in siberian seals (phoca sibirica) in lake baikal during 1987/88 was caused by canine distemper virus. sequence analysis of the virus glycoprotein genes revealed that it was most closely related to recent european field isolates of canine distemper virus. this paper presents evidence that the same virus continued to circulate in seals in lake baikal after the initial epizootic. three out of 45 brain tissue samples collected from seals c ...19968735261
morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals.morbillivirus infections which were not documented in aquatic mammals until 1988, have caused at least five epizootics in these species during the last 10 years. affected populations include european harbour seals (phoca vitulina) and grey seals (halichoerus grypus) in 1998, baikal seals (phoca siberica) in siberia from 1987-1988, striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba) in the mediterranean sea from 1990-1992 and bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) along the eastern coast of the united sta ...19989807724
[molecular-genetic comparison of morbilliviruses which caused epizooty in baikal (phoca siberica) and caspian (phoca caspica) seals].the nucleotide sequences were determined for a phosphoprotein gene fragment of canine distemper virus (cdv) by using the rt-pcr method with the subsequent sequencing of amplicons from total rna isolated from 2 samples of caspian seals, 15 samples of baikal seals and from samples of dog's and sea-lion's brains. the above materials were phylogenetically analyzed. the heterogeneity of the virus circulating in the baikal-seal population was demonstrated. morbillivirus, that caused epizooty in caspia ...200314664160
genetic diversity of hungarian canine distemper virus strains.to achieve proper diagnosis of dogs based on acute clinical symptoms and poorly preserved field samples taken from animals that died due to canine distemper (cd), a new differential diagnostic test has been developed based on polymerase chain reaction (pcr). in this study, more than 150 samples collected from dogs showing respiratory, gastrointestinal and neurological signs suggesting canine distemper virus (cdv) infection were examined. the samples consisted of urine, blood and nasal swabs coll ...200717350769
canine distemper virus diversity in lake baikal seal (phoca sibirica) population.morbillivirus epizootics in marine mammals have been found in a variety of marine mammal species throughout the world over the past 20 years. the virus epizootic which resulted in significant mortality of siberian seals (phoca sibirica) in lake baikal during 1987-1988 was caused by the canine distemper virus (cdv). in our previous papers we provided evidence that the cdv similar to strain, identified in 1988, continued to circulate in lake baikal seals after 1988. the aim of this study was an up ...201020083361
canine distemper virus: an emerging disease in wild endangered amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica).fewer than 500 amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica) remain in the wild. due to low numbers and their solitary and reclusive nature, tiger sightings across their range in the russian far east and china are rare; sightings of sick tigers are rarer still. serious neurologic disease observed in several wild tigers since 2001 suggested disease emergence in this endangered species. to investigate this possibility, histology, immunohistochemistry (ihc), in situ hybridization (ish), and reverse transcr ...201323943758
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