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antigenic relationship of the feline infections peritonitis virus to coronaviruses of other species.utilizing the direct and indirect fluorescent antibody procedure, the antigenic relationship of the feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) to 7 other human and animal coronaviruses was studied. fipv was found to be closely related to transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) of swine. transmissible gastroenteritis virus and fipv were in turn antigenically related to human coronavirus 229e (hcv-229e) and canine coronavirus (ccv). an interesting finding in the study was that the 8 coronavirus ...197881044
congenic strains of mice susceptible and resistant to mouse hepatitis virus.a congenic strain of c3hss mice, which is histocompatible with c3h mice but differs from them in susceptibility to mouse hepatitis virus (mhv), has been developed by introducing the gene for susceptibility to the mhv-pri virus from the pri mice. this was accomplished by continual back-crossing of the hybrids to the c3h mice, but at the same time by selection of susceptibility by use of macrophage culture tests. after 20 back-crosses, a strain homozygous for susceptibility was produced by brother ...1976135262
immunopathology of mouse hepatitis virus type 3 infection. iii. clinical and virologic observation of a persistent viral infection.three types of viral sensitivity were observed in various mouse strains upon mhv3 infection: resistance, full susceptibility, and semisusceptibility. in the latter type, seen in several inbred strains including c3h, approximately 50% of the adult injected animals resisted to the acute disease. most of the surviving mice, however, developed a chronic disease with a wasting syndrome and occurrence of paralysis. the chronic period of the disease was characterized by a persistent viral infection, si ...1975168262
carrier state of antibody and viruses in a mouse breeding colony persistently infected with sendai and mouse hepatitis viruses.in a large-scale mouse breeder colony persistently infected with sendai and mouse hepatitis viruses, most adult breeders 8 wk or more of age were shown to have antibodies to both viruses when monitored over a periof of 20 mo. antibody to sendai virus, apparently transmitted from the dam, was detected in 76% and 2% of mice aged 3 and 4 wk. respectively, and 64% and 100% of mice aged 6 and 8 wk, respectively. by seroconversion of sentinel cage-mates, a sendai virus-carrier state was demonstrated w ...1976178959
response of nude mice to a mouse hepatitis virus isolated from a wasting nude mouse.chronic active hepatitis was produced in nude mice after inoculation with a mouse hepatitis virus from a natural nude case which was incapable of causing fatal infection in haired heterozygous mice without cortisone. survival time of infected nude mice varied greatly from 1 to 10 weeks after the inoculation. degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes, apparition of small and megalocytic hepatocytes, and infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells with fibrosis, were most remarkable in those which ...1976180312
an improved method for titration of mouse hepatitis virus type 3 in a mouse cell culture. 1976189731
age-dependent response of mice to a mouse hepatitis virus, mhv-s.to a mouse hepatitis virus strain mhv-s, 4 week-old icr mice were shown to be fully resistant irrespective of route and dose of inoculation, and fatal infection was produced only with cortisone treatment. two-week-old mice also showed high resistance to mhv-s except for after intracerebral inoculation, and 60% of infected mice died. mice aged 1 week or less, however, died after intracerebral, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous and intranasal inoculation, while some of them survived after peroral inoc ...1977194073
naturally occurring mouse hepatitis virus infection in the nude mouse.a group of athymic nude mice developed an unusual chronic wasting disease within 1-3 months after their arrival into the laboratory. affected nude mice had severe, acute-to-chronic, active hepatitis with multinucleated giant hepatocytes and fibrosis. vascular and central nervous system lesions were frequently present, giant cell peritonitis, ascites, and multinucleated giant cells in the intestinal epithelial villi were less frequently observed. mouse hepatitis virus was isolated from the livers ...1977195136
respiratory infection in mice with sialodacryoadenitis virus, a coronavirus of rats.sialodacryoadenitis virus (sdav), a coronavirus of rats, evoked both serum neutralization and complement fixation antibody responses when inoculated intranasally in mice. weanling gnotobiotic cd-1 mice inoculated intranasally with 10(3.0) mean tissue culture infective doses of sdav remained asymptomatic. virus was recovered from the nasopharynx, trachea, and lung from day 2 to day 7. viral antigen was readily detected by indirect immunofluorescence in the lung but rarely in the nasopharynx. infe ...1977201568
serologic study on the prevalence of murine viruses in five canadian mouse colonies.a serologic study was made of five canadian mouse colonies to determine the prevalence of antibodies to 11 murine viruses. a total of 139 sera from the five colonies were evaluated by complement fixation or hemagglutination inhibition methods. viral antibodies were present in all five colonies. antibodies to pneumonia virus of mice, minute virus of mice, theiler's encephalomyelitis virus, and reovirus type 3 were found in all five colonies. k-virus antibodies were present in four colonies. polyo ...1977201796
rna of mouse hepatitis virus.the rna of mouse hepatitis virus, a coronavirus, was isolated from the virus released early in the infection and analyzed by sucrose gradient sedimentation and electrophoresis. it was found to consist of a piece of single-stranded rna of about 60s. its molecular weight was estimated to be 5.4 x 10(6) by electrophoresis in methylmercury-agarose gels. at least one third of the rna contained polyadenylated sequences. it is, therefore, probably positive stranded. the virus harvested late in the infe ...1978207885
virus infection in demyelinating diseases.several animal and human demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (cns) are associated with rna or dna viruses. these viruses infect cns cells lytically or persistently. they mainly belong to the group of envelope viruses which derive their envelope partly from the host cell membrane. the process of virus release may result in the appearance of new antigens of virus-infected cells or the incorporation of cell membrane material into the viral envelope. these changes may lead to an imm ...1978211825
in vitro growth characteristics and heterogeneity of mouse hepatitis virus type 3.the in vitro virus yield of mhv3 reached 10(7) pfu/ml in mouse dbt cells infected with a virus suspension in hepes-buffered medium containing deae-dextran. the virus titer was 10(6) pfu/ml in the presence of 10 micrograms actinomycin d/ml mhv3 growth in dbt cells gave three peaks of density (1.10--1.14 g/cm3, 1.18--1.20 g/cm3, and 1.25--1.31 g/cm3) in sucrose gradients. all these peaks retained infectivity.1978211989
hepatosplenic myelosis in naturally occurring mouse hepatitis virus infection in the nude mouse. 1978214604
[effects of silver carbon on eliminating mouse hepatitis virus in water (author's transl)]. 1978215805
induction of lytic plaques by murine leukemia virus in murine sarcoma virus-transformed nonproducer mouse cells persistently infected with mouse hepatitis virus mhv-s.kirsten murine sarcoma virus-transformed, nonproducer balb3t3 (k-balb) cells were persistently infected with mouse hepatitis virus, mhv-s. the cultures developed plaques after infection with murine leukemia viruses. if the murine leukemia virus-infected cultures were further submitted to the uv-xc assay, comparable numbers of xc plaques were obtained. the sensitivity to murine leukemia viruses, as determined by the uv-xc assay, was higher in mhv-s-infected cells as compared to uninfected k-balb ...1979218897
new strain of mouse hepatitis virus as the cause of lethal enteritis in infant mice.a new strain of mouse hepatitis virus (mhv) was isolated from pooled gut suspensions from an epizootic of lethal enteritis in newborn mice. negative-contrast electron microscopy showed an abundance of coronavirus particles in the intestinal contents and intestinal epithelium of moribund mice. we found no other virus in the epizootic. dams seroconverted to mhv polyvalent antigen and to the agent isolated, but did not develop antibodies to other known mouse pathogens. virus propagated in nctc-1469 ...1979222687
pathogenesis of mouse hepatitis virus infection. the role of nasal epithelial cells as a primary target of low-virulence virus, mhv-s. 1979224286
influence of the mouse hepatitis virus (mhv) infection on the growth of human tumors in the athymic mouse.the growth characteristics and histological appearance of tumors resulting from transplantation of the tumor lines hep-2 and sw480 into pathogen-free and mouse hepatitis virus infected athymic mice were studied. subcutaneous or intraperitoneal implantation 1 x 10(6) neoplastic cells into pathogen-free animals resulted in tumor growth. subcutaneous transplants grew locally, surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue. the fibrovascular stroma supporting the neoplastic tissue was minimal and infi ...1979437922
lactobacillus sp. isolates from mouse livers: saprophyte or potential pathogen?over a 3-year sampling period lactobacillus sp. has been isolated from the livers of barrier-maintained and conventional mice. serology has failed to detect presence of mouse hepatitis virus antibodies in any of these mice. histopathological examination revealed only mild fatty change and small monocytic infiltrates.1975806745
maternally-derived passive immunity to enterotropic mouse hepatitis virus.maternally-derived antibody to enterotropic mouse hepatitis virus (mhv) strain y was transferred to pups by both intrauterine (igg) and lactogenic (iga and igg) routes. antibody present in the gastric whey of pups suckling immune dams dropped to undetectable levels by weaning age (21 days post partum). mhv-specific igg was found in the serum of passively immune pups up to 10 weeks of age. immune dams transferred equal levels of antibody to 3 consecutive litters of pups, without evidence of decli ...19921309638
coronavirus infects and causes demyelination in primate central nervous system.two species of primates, owl and african green monkeys, were inoculated intracerebrally with either the neurotropic mouse hepatitis virus jhm or the putative multiple sclerosis brain coronavirus isolate sd. these viruses caused an acute to subacute panencephalitis and/or demyelination in the infected animals. the course of pathogenesis and sites of detected viral rna and antigen was dependent both on animal species and virus strain but the results clearly showed that these viruses replicated and ...19921314455
identification and characterization of a coronavirus packaging signal.previously, a mouse hepatitis virus (mhv) genomic sequence necessary for defective interfering (di) rna packaging into mhv particles (packaging signal) was mapped to within a region of 1,480 nucleotides in the mhv polymerase gene by comparison of two di rnas. one of these, dissf, is 3.6 kb in size and exhibits efficient packaging, whereas the other, disse, which is 2.3 kb, does not. for more precise mapping, a series of mutant dissf rnas with deletions within this 1,480-nucleotide region were co ...19921316465
localization of an rna-binding domain in the nucleocapsid protein of the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus.the interaction between the nucleocapsid (n) protein of mouse hepatitis virus (mhv) and rna was studied in an effort to define portions of the n molecule that participate in binding to rna. n mrnas transcribed from sp6 and t7 vectors were translated in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. analysis of synthesized n protein in a nondenaturing gel system showed that it bound in vitro to an endogenous rna in the reticulocyte lysate but not to its own mrna. a set of deletion mutants was constructed in order ...19921322650
inhibition of mouse hepatitis virus multiplication by an oligonucleotide complementary to the leader rna.an oligonucleotide complementary to a leader rna of positive-stranded mouse hepatitis virus (mhv) was tested for the effect on the viral multiplication in mouse dbt cells. a 14-mer antisense oligonucleotide contained a sequence complementary to the conserved pentanucleotide sequence, ucuaa, of the leader rna. a treatment of mhv-infected cells with the antisense oligonucleotide at concentrations from 5 to 25 microm had an inhibitory effect on the viral multiplication and reduced the synthesis of ...19921322713
immune response to a murine coronavirus: identification of a homing receptor-negative cd4+ t cell subset that responds to viral glycoproteins.the lymphocyte proliferative response to mouse hepatitis virus, strain jhm (mhv-jhm), a well-described cause of chronic and acute neurological infections, has been studied using vaccinia virus recombinants expressing individual mhv proteins. the surface (s) and transmembrane (m) glycoproteins were the most active proteins in causing proliferation of lymphocytes isolated from immunized adult mice, whereas lymphocytes from persistently infected mice proliferated only in response to the s protein. ...19921347668
membrane assembly of the triple-spanning coronavirus m protein. individual transmembrane domains show preferred orientation.the m protein of mouse hepatitis virus strain a59 is a triple-spanning membrane protein which assembles with an uncleaved internal signal sequence, adopting an nexoccyt orientation. to study the insertion mechanism of this protein, domains potentially involved in topogenesis were deleted and the effects analyzed in topogenesis were deleted and the effects analyzed in several ways. mutant proteins were synthesized in a cell-free translation system in the presence of microsomal membranes, and thei ...19921400501
mechanism of coronavirus transcription: duration of primary transcription initiation activity and effects of subgenomic rna transcription on rna replication.previously, we established a system whereby an intergenic region from mouse hepatitis virus (mhv) inserted into an mhv defective interfering (di) rna led to transcription of a subgenomic di rna in helper virus-infected cells. by using this system, the duration of a primary transcription initiation activity which transcribes subgenomic-size rnas from the genomic-size rna template in mhv-infected cells was examined. efficient di genomic and subgenomic rna synthesis was observed when the di rna was ...19921583719
hepatitogenicity of three plaque purified mutants of hepatotropic mouse hepatitis virus, mhv-2.hepatitogenicity of three plaque purified mutant strains of mouse hepatitis virus, designated as mhv-2s, -2m and -2l, isolated from mhv-2 infected sr-cdf1-dbt cells was studied. after intraperitoneal inoculation with 2 x 10(5) pfu of parental mhv-2 and its mutants to 4-week-old female icr mice, 40% of mice inoculated with mhv-2s and 20% of mice with -2m died in one week, whereas with -2l all mice survived. all mice inoculated with mhv-2 died in 3 days postinoculation (p.i.). virus titer of the l ...19911657211
the role of gamma interferon in infection of susceptible mice with murine coronavirus, mhv-jhm.infection of balb/c mice with mouse hepatitis virus, strain jhm (mhv-jhm), at any of several intervals relative to ovalbumin (ova) administration resulted in elevated ova-specific igg 2 a titers. since gamma interferon (ifn) has been implicated as an up-regulator of igg 2 a production, attempts were made to determine whether levels of this cytokine were modified in sera of infected mice. serum ifn-gamma was not detected, but treatment of mhv-jhm-infected mice with monoclonal anti-ifn-gamma antib ...19911662041
susceptibility to murine hepatitis virus (type 3)-induced paralysis is influenced by class i genes of the mhc.using h-2 recombinant congenic strains of mice, genetic analysis of resistance to murine hepatitis virus type 3 (mhv3)-induced paralysis was performed. it appeared that both h-2k and h-2d, two class i gene regions of the mouse major histocompatibility complex (mhc), can play independent significant roles in the establishment of such resistance.19911663392
effect of olfactory bulb ablation on spread of a neurotropic coronavirus into the mouse brain.previous results suggested that, after intranasal inoculation, mouse hepatitis virus (mhv), a neurotropic coronavirus, entered the central nervous system (cns) via the olfactory and trigeminal nerves. to prove this hypothesis, the effect of interruption of the olfactory pathway on spread of the virus was studied using in situ hybridization. unilateral surgical ablation of this pathway prevented spread of the virus via the olfactory tract on the side of the lesion. mhv rna could be detected, howe ...19901698910
protection of mice from a lethal coronavirus infection in the central nervous system by adoptive transfer of virus-specific t cell clones.the protective effect of a mouse hepatitis virus type-4 (mhv-4)-specific cd8+ cytotoxic t cell clone and a cd4+ helper t cell clone was examined by the adoptive transfer into brains of mice lethally infected with mhv-4. mice survived acute encephalitis if more than 5 x 10(5) cells of either type of the virus-specific t cell clones had been transferred into h-2-matched recipients by 1 day post-infection. although the adoptive transfer of both types of the t cell clones suppressed viral growth and ...19911705943
cloning of the mouse hepatitis virus (mhv) receptor: expression in human and hamster cell lines confers susceptibility to mhv.the cellular receptor for murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (mhv)-a59 is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (cea) family of glycoproteins in the immunoglobulin superfamily. we isolated a cdna clone (mhvr1) encoding the mhv receptor. the sequence of this clone predicts a 424-amino-acid glycoprotein with four immunoglobulinlike domains, a transmembrane domain, and a short intracytoplasmic tail, mhvr1 is closely related to the murine cea-related clone mmcgm1 (mus musculus carcinoembryo ...19911719235
[the antiviral activity of amiksin and its effect on the interferon status in hepatitis in mice].a single administration of amixin followed by oral infection with mouse hepatitis virus provided protection of 40%-50% animals for 72 hours and normalized the interferon status. in parallel with decreasing level of virus-induced endogenous interferon the interferon-inhibiting activity of lymphocytes of the infected animals increased and approached normal levels.19902167565
a major role of macrophage activation by interferon-gamma during mouse hepatitis virus type 3 infection. ii. age-dependent resistance.in contrast to adult mice, young a/j mice, developed an acute hepatitis following infection with mouse hepatitis virus type 3. 100% of the young animals died 4 to 5 days after the infection and high levels of virus were found in the liver and peritoneal exudate. very low levels of ifn-gamma were found in the serum and peritoneal exudate of infected young mice. this was in contrast to the levels observed in adult mice. spleen cells and macrophage cultures from young a/j mice, again in contrast to ...19902177034
identification of two epitopes in the carboxyterminal 15 amino acids of the e1 glycoprotein of mouse hepatitis virus a59 by using hybrid proteins.cdna fragments coding for the carboxy terminus of the e1 envelope glycoprotein from mouse hepatitis virus a59, a coronavirus, were cloned into the bacterial expression vector pex. clones expressing e1 antigenic determinants were selected with a polyclonal anti-e1 antibody and used for immunization of rabbits and for affinity purification of existing polyclonal antisera. immunofluorescence testing and immunoperoxidase labeling of coronavirus-infected cells showed that these reagents were monospec ...19862431163
virus strain specificity of challenge immunity to coronavirus.the resistance of immunized mice to challenge with the same or a different strain of mouse hepatitis virus (mhv) was examined as a model of challenge immunity to coronavirus infection. genetically susceptible balb/cbyj mice were given an intranasal immunizing infection of respiratory-type mhv-jhm, mhv-s, or enterotropic mhv-y. control mice were sham-immunized with sterile tissue culture fluid. recovered mice were challenged intranasally with mhv-jhm, mhv-s or sterile tissue culture fluid at 30 d ...19892468325
monoclonal antibodies to the matrix (e1) glycoprotein of mouse hepatitis virus protect mice from encephalitis.monoclonal antibodies to the matrix or e1 glycoprotein of mouse hepatitis virus (mhv) were tested for their ability to protect mice from a normally lethal challenge of mhv-4. four antibodies were tested, and two of these, j.1.3 and j.3.9, were protective. protection did not correlate with virus neutralization in vitro, antibody isotype, recognition of a unique e1 antigenic site, or dependence on complement in vivo. survival from acute encephalitis was followed by subacute demyelination, as has b ...19892535900
effect of sensitized t cell transfer on mouse hepatitis virus type 4 infection in athymic nude mice. 19892538671
spread of a neurotropic murine coronavirus into the cns via the trigeminal and olfactory nerves.the route of entry into the central nervous system (cns) of most neurtropic viruses has not been established. the coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus strain jhm (mhv-jhm), causes acute encephalomyelitis and acute and chronic demyelinating diseases and is an important model system for virus-induced neurological disease. suckling c57bl/6 mice infected intranasally with mhv-jhm develop either the acute encephalomyelitis or a late onset, symptomatic demyelinating encephalomyelitis, depending on wheth ...19892543129
comparison of physicochemical properties of mouse hepatitis virus strains. 19892548030
immunopathology of chronic progressive hepatitis in nude mice infected with low-virulent mouse hepatitis virus.progressive hepatitis in athymic nude (nu/nu) mice due to a low-virulent mouse hepatitis virus, mhv-2 cc, was examined for involvement of immunocytes and serum antibodies. at 3 to 6 weeks postinoculation (p.i.) a considerable number of mac 1- and asialo gm1-positive cells were accumulated in the affected liver and spleen. there were also some thy-1-positive cells. later than 2 weeks p.i., serum igg and igm antibodies were detected in parallel with virus-neutralizing activity, while the igg level ...19892550746
muramyl peptides confer hepatoprotection against murine viral hepatitis.the hepatoprotection induced by synthetic muramyl peptides was investigated using a model of lethal murine mouse hepatitis mhv-3 virus infection. mdp and a nonpyrogenic analog, murametide, inhibited the steep elevation of serum transaminases induced by mhv-3 irrespective of whether the immunomodulators were administered before or after the infection. a significant proportion of mdp or murametide-treated animals, in contrast to controls, survived the mhv-3 infection. the histopathological examina ...19892559041
a major role of macrophage activation by interferon-gamma during mouse hepatitis virus type 3 infection. i. genetically dependent resistance.resistance of mice to mouse hepatitis virus type 3 (mhv3) infection is genetically determined. normal adult a/j mice are resistant, and balb/c mice are susceptible. higher titers of virus and interferon (ifn) in vivo were found in mhv3-infected balb/c mice compared with a/j mice. in vitro activation of macrophages (m phi) by lipopolysaccharide (lps) delayed mhv3 replication only in cells that originated from a/j mice, although cell populations from both a/j and balb/c mice were able to synthesiz ...19892560461
a general method for the induction and screening of antisera for cdna-encoded polypeptides: antibodies specific for a coronavirus putative polymerase-encoding gene.a prokaryotic vector, pge374, containing the reca and lacz genes, out-of-frame, was used for the expression of cdna derived from the putative polymerase-encoding gene of the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus strain a59 (mhv-a59). the pge374/viral recombinant vector generates a tripartite bacterial/viral protein composed of a segment of the reca protein at the n terminus, the coronaviral sequences in the middle, and an enzymatically active beta-galactosidase at the c terminus. rabbits immunized w ...19892560756
influence of viral infections on body weight, survival, and tumor prevalence of b6c3f1 (c57bl/6n x c3h/hen) mice in carcinogenicity studies.sendai virus (sv), mouse hepatitis virus (mhv), and pneumonia virus of mice (pvm) are common viral infections of mice. influence of these viral infections on the prevalence of liver tumors, lung tumors, and lymphoma is of concern in chemical carcinogenicity studies. body weight, survival, and tumor prevalence of b6c3f1 mice with and without viral infections in 33 male and 34 female untreated control groups and 32 male and 32 female low- and high-dose groups of 2-year chemical carcinogenicity stu ...19892767355
an immunological analysis of natural resistance to mouse hepatitis virus (jhmv strain) infection in c3h mice.1. since the development of resistance against mouse hepatitis virus (jhmv strain) coincides with the maturation of the immune system, we studied the possible role of distinct immunological components in the resistance of adult mice during jhmv infection. 2. adult c3h mice naturally resistant to jhmv were rendered susceptible to infection by lethal 60co-irradiation and were subsequently reconstituted with limiting numbers of syngeneic bone marrow cells or spleen cells. 3. resistance or susceptib ...19872825892
detection of a murine coronavirus nonstructural protein encoded in a downstream open reading frame.mouse hepatitis virus (mhv) gene 5 contains two open reading frames. we have expressed the second open reading frame of this gene (gene 5 orf 2) in an escherichia coli expression system. this system utilized a plasmid which contained the promoter and the first 36 codons of the reca gene fused in frame with the mhv gene 5 orf 2, which is fused in turn to the beta-galactosidase gene. the protein product of this gene fusion was used to raise antibody to gene 5 orf 2. the specificity of the antibody ...19882834866
reactivities of 4 murine coronavirus antigens with immunized or naturally infected rat sera by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.four murine coronavirus antigens, sialodacryoadenitis virus (sdav) strain tg, parker's rat coronavirus (pcv) strain 8190, mouse hepatitis virus (mhv) strains s and nuu, were examined for their reactivities to hyperimmunized and naturally infected rat sera by elisa. with the immunized sera, sdav and pcv antigens reacted best with respective homologous sera. mhv antigens reacted with all antisera, anti-sdav, anti-pcv, and anti-mhv-s at approximately the same level, and mhv-s showed a slightly high ...19882843391
difference in sensitivity to interferon among mouse hepatitis viruses with high and low virulence for mice.mouse hepatitis viruses (mhv) of different virulence for mice were studied with respect to interferon (ifn) sensitivity. the growth of low-virulent mhv-s and intermediately virulent mhv-jhm was significantly suppressed in ifn-treated l cells compared with untreated cells. however, a comparable suppression of the growth of highly virulent mhv-2 was not observed in ifn-treated cells. this differential effect of ifn treatment could also be demonstrated at the level of viral mrna and viral proteins. ...19852998070
virus-induced central positional nystagmus in mice.geotropic direction-changing nystagmus in lateral body positions was observed in 4-week-old balb/c mice after intracerebral injection with a temperature-sensitive mutant of mouse hepatitis virus. the positional nystagmus was detected already 2 days after infection and it lasted half a year at least. the nystagmic responses of the semicircular canals were also evaluated before and after infection. they were unaltered during the disease, which was clinically manifested by general weakness, ataxia ...19852998148
effect of exogenous mouse interferon on murine fulminant hepatitis induced by mouse hepatitis virus type 2.we investigated the effect of exogenous mouse alpha- + beta-interferon produced by mouse l cells on the growth of mouse hepatitis virus type 2 (mhv-2) in the liver, the development of liver cell necrosis, and survival in murine fulminant hepatitis induced by mhv-2. murine fulminant hepatitis was induced in 4-week-old male icr mice by intraperitoneal inoculation of mhv-2. mouse interferon (10(3) iu/mouse/day) was intraperitoneally injected every day. exogenous mouse interferon suppressed both the ...19863002736
[a comparison of two antigen strains of each of mouse hepatitis virus and mouse adenovirus for detection of complement fixation antibody in mouse and rat sera].detection rates of complement fixation antibodies in mice and rats were compared between two antigen strains of each of mouse hepatitis virus (mhv) and mouse adenovirus (mav). among 66 and 47 naturally infected mhv-positive sera of mice (18 facilities) and rats (16 facilities) respectively, 17 mouse and 21 rat sera reacted with both nu-67 and mhv-2 strains, but 49 mouse and 25 rat sera were positive to nu-67 strain alone. only one rat serum reacted with mhv-2 strain alone. in comparison with k87 ...19863026815
accumulation and chemotaxis of natural killer/large granular lymphocytes at sites of virus replication.a model for monitoring the accumulation of natural killer cell/large granular lymphocytes (nk/lgl) at a site of virus replication was studied by using mice infected i.p. with either lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (lcmv), murine cytomegalovirus (mcmv), mouse hepatitis virus (mhv), pichinde virus, or vaccinia virus. an i.p. but not i.v. infection resulted in a localized increase in nk/lgl cell number (a fourfold to greater than 20-fold increase) and augmentation (a 10- to 20-fold increase) of ...19873027167
[histochemical studies of the nucleic acids of the hepatic tissue of the mouse during a mhv-3 virus hepatitis. (study by using fluorescent staining with acridine orange)]. 19664173062
deoxyribonuclease i and ii activities in liver and spleen of mice experimentally infected by mouse hepatitis virus. 19654285647
[changes in the atp content in liver tissue of the mouse in experimental virus mhv-3-hepatitis]. 19664288710
studies on the pancreatitis in a mouse hepatitis virus (mhv-3) infection. 19674296949
[preliminary observations on the influence of acute ccl-4 poisoning on experimental mouse hepatitis caused by mhv-3 virus]. 19674297834
enhancing effect of the murine sarcoma virus (msv) on the replication of the mouse hepatitis virus (mhv) in vitro. 19694306053
presence of particles other than the australia-sh antigen in a case of chronic active hepatitis with cirrhosis.examination of serum specimens from a patient with chronic active hepatitis proved negative to the australia-sh antigen by immunodiffusion and by complement fixation. because the sera were anticomplementary they were examined with the electron microscope, and virus-like structures similar to members of the coronavirus group were identified. the possible significance of this finding in human serum and its relation to mouse hepatitis virus are discussed.a sample of the serum pool containing the ms ...19704313591
isolation of a latent murine hepatitis virus from cultured mouse liver cells. 19724344757
effect of cyclophosphamide on the genetic resistance of c 3 h mice to mouse hepatitis virus. 19734348090
replication and plaque formation of mouse hepatitis virus (mhv-2) in mouse cell line dbt culture. 19744365902
[sero-epidemiological observation on mouse hepatitis virus in a mouse breeder colony (author's transl)]. 19734366446
detection of alpha-fetoprotein in mice infected with mouse hepatitis virus. 19744373603
ten years-long survey on pathogen status of mouse and rat breeding colonies.eleven pathogens including p. aeruginosa, salmonella spp., e. coli o115a, c: k(b), p. pneumotropica, b. bronchiseptica, c. kutscheri, tyzzer's organism, m. pulmonis, sendai virus, mhv and syphacia spp. were surveyed in 217 mouse and rat breeding colonies during 1972-1981. in conventional animals, p. pneumotropica and/or syphacia spp. were detected in nearly 90% of 89 mouse and 64 rat colonies. sendai virus, m. pulmonis, p. aeruginosa and mhv were positive in 51.7 to 23.6% of the colonies, and ty ...19846088258
delayed-type hypersensitivity in mouse hepatitis virus infection in mice.delayed-type hypersensitivity in mouse hepatitis virus infection was studied with intraperitoneally infected mice. twenty-four hours after eliciting injection with virus-infected cell lysate on day 8 postinfection, specific footpad swelling response was observed with infiltration of mononuclear cells. the response was not enhanced by cyclophosphamide treatment made 2 days before infection. the adoptive transfer of the response from infected mice to h-2 compatible recipients was successful with s ...19846088859
in vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating disease x. a schwannoma-l-2 somatic cell hybrid persistently yielding high titres of mouse hepatitis virus strain jhm.following infection of rn2 rat schwannoma cells with unfiltered jhmv inocula, a cell line with an altered phenotype evolved, which was shown to be a somatic cell hybrid of rn2 and mouse l-2 cells. this cell line, ej, persistently yields jhmv at titres greater than 10(6) pfu/ml and does not show the suppression of virus production at 39.5 degrees c that is characteristic of a persistently infected rn2 line. intracellular viral nucleocapsids are demonstrated. cloning of ej hybrids yields cell line ...19846099665
role of macrophages and interferon in natural resistance to mouse hepatitis virus infection. 19816171386
prevalence of indigenous viruses in laboratory animal colonies in the united kingdom 1978-1979.compared with the results of the previous serological survey of 1976-1977, it can be seen that mouse hepatitis virus is still prevalent in the mouse colonies and that corona viruses of rats are also common. the prevalence of sendai virus has increased considerably. however, the prevalence of reo 3 virus appeared to have decreased, although this may be the results of the different test used.19806257967
prostaglandins as probable mediators of the suppression of antibody production by mouse hepatitis virus infection. 19816266331
inhibition of the mitotic response in regenerating mouse liver during viral hepatitis.viral hepatitis caused by infection with murine hepatitis virus strain a59 has been shown to affect the mitotic response after partial hepatectomy in mice. normal mice showed a delayed response, whereas nude mice did not show any response, even 5 days after partial hepatectomy.19816268550
ribonucleoprotein of avian infectious bronchitis virus.the ribonucleoprotein (rnp) of avian infectious bronchitis virus (ibv) was examined by electron microscopy after shadowing with carbon/platinum. linear rnp strands up to 6.7 microns in length, from three ivb strains, were sensitive to both pancreatic rnase and to proteases. these strands were obtained from spontaneously disrupted complete particles but not from disrupted incomplete particles that lacked rnp. they were also released from nonidet p40-disrupted particles and could be isolated on su ...19816268741
early interaction between mouse hepatitis virus 3 and cells.the interaction between mouse hepatitis virus 3 (mhv3) and cells was studied in order to investigate whether or not early events occurring after infection could be involved in the difference in virus replication seen between mouse strains with different genetic sensitivities to mhv3 infection. kinetic data showed that mhv3 uptake by both macrophages and l cells was time- and temperature-dependent. in addition, treatment of cells with cytochalasin b or prostaglandin e1, prior to virus infection, ...19816275022
the pathogenesis of chronic viral hepatitis in the nude mouse and its influence on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy.the pathogenesis of chronic viral hepatitis due to infection with mouse hepatitis virus type 1 has been followed over a period of 30 days in the nu/nu mouse. the initial histopathology is that of a focal hepatic necrosis which evolves into a chronic hepatitis with cirrhosis. the histopathology of the experimentally induced hepatitis with mouse hepatitis type 1 is indistinguishable from that produced by the disease in nude mouse colonies due to the natural infection in the united kingdom and also ...19816275875
assembly of mouse hepatitis virus strain jhm. 19816278874
messenger rnas of mouse hepatitis virus a59: isolation and characterization, translation in xenopus laevis oocytes of rnas 3, 6 and 7, uv target sizes of the transcription templates. 19816278883
genome structure of mouse hepatitis virus: comparative analysis by oligonucleotide mapping.several natural variants of mouse hepatitis viruses have been compared by the t1-oligonucleotide fingerprinting technique. in general, they have diverged quite extensively. however, mhv-3, a hepatotropic strain, and a59, a nonpathogenic strain, were found to be extremely related. yet, each of them contains 2-4 specific oligonucleotides. one of the mhv-3-specific oligonucleotides was mapped in 30s poly(a)-containing rna or 6-7 kb from the 3-end and the other near the 5'-end of the genome. these t ...19816278897
mouse hepatitis virus immunofluorescence in formalin- or bouin's-fixed tissues using trypsin digestion.mouse hepatitis viral antigens were demonstrated by immunofluorescence in formalin- and bouin's-fixed tissues processed routinely for histopathology followed by partial digestion with trypsin. staining was superior in tissues fixed in formalin and was not diminished in tissue sections from paraffin blocks stored at room temperature as long as 2 years. the relative ease of this procedure and the commercial availability of reagents makes this a useful technique for the definitive diagnosis of mous ...19826281569
sequence relationships between the genome and the intracellular rna species 1, 3, 6, and 7 of mouse hepatitis virus strain a59.we have shown by t(1) oligonucleotide fingerprinting that the genome of mouse hepatitis virus strain a59 and its intracellular rna 1 have identical fingerprints and that rna 1 and the subgenomic rnas 3, 6, and 7 contain common sequences. to localize the homologous region between the rnas, we compared fingerprints of the 3' terminus of the genome with those of rna 7. the genome was partially degraded with alkali, and polyadenylate-containing fragments were purified by oligodeoxythymidylate-cellul ...19826283166
effects of experimental infection of the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) with mouse hepatitis virus.three deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) given 10(4) tcid50 of mouse hepatitis virus -s intranasally all had significant serum neutralization titers to mouse hepatitis virus -s 3 weeks later. ten other deer mice were given 10(3) tcid50 of mouse hepatitis virus -3 intranasally and placed with sentinel laboratory mice (cf1, c3h/rv, and nu/nu) and uninoculated deer mice. one inoculated deer mouse died, but mouse hepatitis virus was not isolated. no other inoculated or uninoculated animals exhibited ...19826285078
translation and processing of mouse hepatitis virus virion rna in a cell-free system.the first event after infection with mouse hepatitis virus strain a59 (mhv-a59) is presumed to be the synthesis of an rna-dependent rna polymerase from the input genomic rna. the synthesis and processing of this putative polymerase protein was studied in a cell-free translation system utilizing 60s rna from mhv-a59 virions. the polypeptide products of this reaction included two major species of 220 and 28 kilodaltons. kinetics experiments indicated that both p220 and p28 appeared after 60 min of ...19863018279
murine coronaviruses: isolation and characterization of two plaque morphology variants of the jhm neurotropic strain.two plaque-size variants of the neurotropic jhm strain of mouse hepatitis virus have been isolated from the virus stock after eight serial passages in suckling mouse brain. one variant, jhm-dl, produces large plaques, while the other, jhm-ds, produces small plaques in tissue culture. ds replicates more slowly, has a lower virus yield in vitro, and is less virulent for mice than dl. they also differ in their pathogenicity for mice: jhm-dl infection results in acute encephalomyelitis while jhm-ds ...19826296277
proteolytic cleavage of the e2 glycoprotein of murine coronavirus: host-dependent differences in proteolytic cleavage and cell fusion.cell fusion induced by infection with mouse hepatitis virus strain a59 (mhv-a59) varied markedly in extent and time course in four different murine cell lines. when inoculated at a multiplicity of 3 to 5 pfu per cell, the sac-, l2, and dbt cell lines began to fuse by 7 h, were fused into confluent syncytia by 9 to 12 h, and peeled from the substrate by 10 to 14 h. these virulent virus-cell interactions were in striking contrast to the moderate interaction of mhv-a59 with the 17 cl 1 cell line, i ...19852999444
heterologous response of antiserum-treated cell clones from a persistently infected dbt cell line to mouse hepatitis virus.from dbt cells persistently infected with mouse hepatitis virus jhm strain (jhm-cc), a cell line producing neither infectious virus nor intracellular viral antigen was obtained after two passages in the presence of antiserum. in addition, 11 cell clones were manipulated from jhm-cc and found to be also free from the virus. these newly obtained cell line and 4 of 11 cell clones were shown to be resistant to jhm and the virus recovered from jhm-cc (jhm-ccv), while the other 7 cell clones were susc ...19826302351
fusion resistance and decreased infectability as major host cell determinants of coronavirus persistence.mouse hepatitis virus persists in cultures of a subline (designated lm-k) of mouse lm cells but produces a lytic infection in l-2 cells. persistence in the lm-k cells was not accompanied by production of ts mutants or of soluble anti-mhv factors. infectious center assay demonstrated an approximately 500-fold lower level of infectibility by mhv of the lm-k cells as compared to l-2 cells. on an infected cell basis, production levels of infectious progeny and viral rna were comparable between the t ...19836310865
antigenic characterization of tettnang virus: complications caused by passage of the virus in mice from a colony enzootically infected with mouse hepatitis virus.neutralization assays were undertaken for the purpose of antigenically characterizing three strains of tettnang virus from two geographic regions. the previously reported relationship of tettnang virus strains to mouse hepatitis virus (mhv) was confirmed. however, the precise relationship of the tettnang strains to prototype mhv strains was obscured in our study by the finding that the isolates had been passaged in mice from a colony subclinically infected with mhv. an egyptian strain of tettnan ...19836312821
signal recognition particle-dependent insertion of coronavirus e1, an intracellular membrane glycoprotein.the membrane insertion of the e1 protein of a coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus a59, was studied in a wheat germ cell-free translation system. e1 is a transmembrane protein spanning the lipid bilayer several times. it is synthesized without a cleavable signal sequence, localized intracellularly, and not transported to the cell surface. it thus represents a model intracellular protein. we found that the synthesis of e1 is specifically and stably blocked by the addition of signal recognition part ...19852985561
histopathological characterization of the naturally occurring hepatotropic virus infections of nude mice.in the last ten years the mutant athymic nude mouse has been used by many researchers as a model for studying pathological conditions in an immunodeficient host. a major problem with such mice is their susceptibility to viral infections indigenous to murine stocks, such as the hepatotropic mouse coronaviruses. in an effort to define the hepatotropic virus diseases indigenous to nude mice this paper details the pathogenesis and associated comparative histopathology of three common strains of mous ...19846321712
assembly in vitro of a spanning membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum: the e1 glycoprotein of coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus a59.the e1 glycoprotein of coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus a59 was synthesized in vitro by translation of viral mrna in the presence of dog pancreatic microsomes. its disposition in the membrane was investigated by digestion with proteases and by selective nh2-terminal labeling. the protein spans the membrane, but only small portions from the nh2 and cooh terminus are exposed respectively in the lumenal and cytoplasmic domains; the bulk of the molecule is apparently buried in the membrane. the pro ...19846324191
the carbohydrates of mouse hepatitis virus (mhv) a59: structures of the o-glycosidically linked oligosaccharides of glycoprotein e1.two size classes of o-glycosidically linked oligosaccharides were liberated from glycoprotein e1 of mouse hepatitis virus (mhv) a59 by reductive beta-elimination and separated by h.p.l.c. the structures of the reduced oligosaccharides were determined by successive exoglycosidase digestions and by methylation analyses involving combined capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and mass fragmentography after chemical ionization with ammonia. oligosaccharide a (neu5ac alpha 2----3 gal beta 1- ...19846325180
pathogenicity of mouse hepatitis virus for preimplantation mouse embryos.mouse embryos which were hatched from the zona pellucida in vitro in the presence of mouse hepatitis virus (mhv) or outgrown on coverslips and then exposed to mhv were shown by immunohistochemical staining to have virally infected trophoblast cells. zona-intact embryos incubated with mhv for 48 h (2-cell embryos) or 1.5 h (blastocysts) were resistant to infection. morulae and early blastocysts collected from donor mice experimentally infected with mhv were not infected, but the medium in which t ...19852982018
glucan-induced modification of murine viral hepatitis.glucan, a macrophage stimulant, was evaluated for its ability to alter survival and phagocytic dysfunction in mice challenged with mouse hepatitis virus strain mhv-a59. administration of glucan before the mice were challenged with the virus significantly prolonged median survival time but did not modify overall mortality compared with control mice given dextrose. maximal effectiveness was achieved when glucan was administered both before and after the viral challenge. in contrast to the marked h ...19807361108
induction of macrophage procoagulant activity by murine hepatitis virus strain 3: role of tyrosine phosphorylation.the induction of a unique macrophage procoagulant molecule by murine hepatitis virus strain 3 correlates with the severity of viral hepatitis. the role of tyrosine phosphorylation in the signalling pathway leading to procoagulant expression was studied. murine hepatitis virus strain 3 initiated a rapid increase in phosphotyrosine accumulation. tyrosine kinase inhibition precluded this increase and abrogated expression of the virus-induced procoagulant mouse fibrinogen-like protein (musfiblp) gen ...19957543590
inhibition of viral multiplication in cells chronically infected with mouse hepatitis virus by antisense rna against the polymerase gene.recently, we showed that the antisense rna containing a hammerhead ribozyme sequence against the polymerase gene of mouse hepatitis virus (mhv) inhibited viral multiplication in acute infection [10]. in the present study, we examined the inhibitory effects of an antisense rna on viral multiplication in chronic mhv infection. in cell line lr-2, in which the 926-nucleotide (nt) antisense rna containing a ribozyme sequence against the polymerase gene was expressed constitutively at a high level, ch ...19957548422
differential activation of mouse hepatitis virus-specific cd4+ cytotoxic t cells is defined by peptide length.in this study we have characterized the core epitope recognized by the mhv-a59-specific cd4+ cytotoxic t lymphocyte (ctl) clones hs1 and b6.1, derived from balb/c and c57/bl6 mice, respectively. these cd4+ clones respond to the promiscuous peptide fragment s-329-343 of the glycoprotein s of mhv-a59. the results indicate that the core peptides of both clones overlap but are not identical. the core region of the hs1 clone is an 8-mer, and comprises the amino acid residues s-332-339, whereas the mi ...19957558143
pattern of disease after murine hepatitis virus strain 3 infection correlates with macrophage activation and not viral replication.murine hepatitis virus strain (mhv-3) produces a strain-dependent pattern of disease which has been used as a model for fulminant viral hepatitis. this study was undertaken to examine whether there was a correlation between macrophage activation and susceptibility or resistance to mhv-3 infection. peritoneal macrophages were isolated from resistant a/j and susceptible balb/cj mice and, following stimulation with mhv-3 or lipopolysaccharide (lps), analyzed for transcription of mrna and production ...19957636967
membrane integration and intracellular transport of the coronavirus glycoprotein e1, a class iii membrane glycoprotein.the e1-glycoprotein (mr = 26,014; 228 amino acids) of mouse hepatitis virus a59 is a class iii membrane glycoprotein which has been used in this study as a model system in the study of membrane integration and protein transport. the protein lacks an nh2-terminal cleavable signal sequence and spans the viral membrane three times. hydrophobic domains i and iii could serve as signal sequences for cotranslational membrane integration. domain i alone was sufficient to translocate the hydrophilic nh2 ...19882844793
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