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etiology and treatment of nongonococcal urethritis.the significant progress of the last decade in determining the etiology of nongonococcal urethritis is reviewed, and current treatments are assessed. convincing evidence that chlamydia trachomatis is the cause of 30-50% of cases of nongonococcal urethritis has been developed by many groups from isolation data, serologic studies, urethral inoculation of monkeys, and studies of postgonococcal urethritis. other evidence that c. trachomatis is a urethral pathogen is that its selective eradication ...1978644417
experimental infection with chlamydia pneumoniae in nonhuman primates.to serially examine the immunopathogenesis and histopathology of infection with chlamydia pneumoniae, we inoculated two cynomolgus monkeys in the conjunctival sac, nose, and nasopharynx with c. pneumoniae twar. after inoculation, c. pneumoniae was isolated from the inoculation sites and the rectums of both monkeys for a period of 5 weeks. after a second inoculation, c. pneumoniae was recovered from the inoculation sites and the rectums of both monkeys for 20 weeks. a third inoculation with c. pn ...19902407650
detection of viral and chlamydial antigens in open-lung biopsy specimens.the recovery of viruses and chlamydia trachomatis from cell cultures and the detection of their antigens in impression smears prepared from open-lung biopsy (olb) specimens from immunocompromised adults were compared. touch impression smears were prepared on three slides, each containing eight wells. olb tissue was homogenized (stomacher) and inoculated into mrc-5, primary monkey kidney, and mccoy cell cultures. the direct and indirect immunofluorescence (if) tests were used to detect antigens t ...19852983526
the histopathology of experimental trachoma: ultrastructural changes in the conjunctival epithelium.experimental acute conjunctivitis was produced in cynomolgus monkeys by ocular inoculation with serovar b of chlamydia trachomatis. the cellular responses to chlamydial conjunctivitis infection were examined by light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. a self-limited, acute conjunctivitis resulted from a single primary inoculation. a moderate lymphocytic infiltrate was present in the conjunctiva. after repeated inoculation, a chronic conjunctivitis (trachoma) developed. prominent ly ...19863009637
attempted oral immunization with chlamydial lipopolysaccharide subunit vaccine.the effects of oral immunization with a recombinant vaccine expressing chlamydial lipopolysaccharide (lps) on subsequent ocular challenge with chlamydia trachomatis were studied in cynomolgus monkeys. groups of four or five monkeys were given an oral vaccine containing 5 x 10(8) parent or recombinant escherichia coli on days 0, 14, and 35 and were challenged with either 2 x 10(3) or 5 x 10(3) inclusion forming units of viable purified elementary bodies on day 42. on clinical and microbiologic gr ...19873308760
immunohistochemical study of the local inflammatory response to chlamydial ocular infection.immunohistochemical staining of conjunctival biopsies from cynomolgus monkeys (macaca fascicularis) was performed after they received a single primary ocular infection, a single secondary challenge infection, or repeated ocular inoculations with chlamydia trachomatis. t cells of the suppressor/cytotoxic (okt8f) phenotype predominated regardless of the infection protocol, and perifollicular t lymphocytes of both the suppressor/cytotoxic and helper (okt4a) phenotypes appeared in large numbers duri ...19863484473
detection of experimental chlamydia trachomatis eye infection in conjunctival smears and in tissue culture by use of fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody.the immunofluorescent staining of conjunctival cytology smears with an antichlamydial monoclonal antibody is a new method for the detection of chlamydial eye infection. using a monkey model of chlamydial eye infection, we compared the monoclonal antibody staining cytology with the established methods of giemsa-stained cytology and chlamydial culture with cycloheximide-treated mccoy cells. compared with either culture or monoclonal antibody-stained cytology, giemsa cytology had a low sensitivity ...19846386856
in vivo evaluation of ocular inserts of hydrogel impregnated with antibiotics for trachoma therapy.sustained release of antibiotics from hydrogel matrices in the eye was studied for the purpose of developing a new method for trachoma therapy. copolymers of n-vinylpyrrolidone were moulded into an ocular insert and impregnated with erythromycin or erythromycin estolate. the antibiotic-hydrogel inserts completely suppressed the chlamydia trachomatis infection in the owl monkey eyes. the drug elution rates were a little lower in vivo than in vitro. by comparison of the drug elution rate in the hu ...19836640048
comparison of giemsa and fluorescent monoclonal antibody staining of inoculated cell cultures for diagnosis of chlamydia trachomatis.three methods of isolation and identification of chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in cell monolayers were compared: giemsa staining followed by darkfield microscopy of cycloheximide treated buffalo green monkey kidney monolayers (bgm), fluorescent monoclonal antibody staining of cycloheximide treated bgm and of hela 229 monolayers. in an unselected group of 895 patients with suspected chlamydial infections including contacts of symptomatic patients, significantly more positive chlamydia isolates ...19948090593
chlamydia trachomatis inca is localized to the inclusion membrane and is recognized by antisera from infected humans and primates.chlamydia psittaci produces a collection of proteins, termed inca, incb, and incc, that are localized to the chlamydial inclusion membrane. in this report we demonstrate that inca is also produced by chlamydia trachomatis. c. trachomatis inca is structurally similar to c. psittaci inca and is also localized to the inclusion membrane. immunoblot analysis demonstrated that sera from c. trachomatis-infected patients and from experimentally infected monkeys both recognized c. trachomatis inca.19989826388
effect of 3-hydroxyphthaloyl-beta-lactoglobulin on vaginal transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus in rhesus monkeys.heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) is the major cause of the ongoing aids epidemic. application of chemical barrier methods is expected to contribute to the worldwide control of this epidemic. bovine beta-lactoglobulin modified by 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride (3-hydroxyphthalovyl-beta-lactoglobulin [3hp-beta-lg]) was shown to inhibit hiv-1, hiv-2, simian immunodeficiency virus (siv), herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, and chlamydia trachomatis infection in vi ...199910103216
antibody response to the chlamydial heat-shock protein 60 in an experimental model of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease in monkeys (macaca nemestrina).a primate model of chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease was used to characterize serum antibody responses to the 60 kda chlamydial heat shock protein (chsp60). forty monkeys were infected in the fallopian tubes with chlamydia trachomatis and then were treated. twenty-three (58%) monkeys developed antibodies against chsp60, of whom 6 (15%) had chsp60 responses that persisted throughout the study and 17 (42.5%) had a transient response. a persistent chsp60 antibody response was correlated with b ...199910438366
effect of a cellulose acetate phthalate topical cream on vaginal transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus in rhesus monkeys.human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) infection continues to spread in developing countries, mostly through heterosexual transmission. the development of a safe and cost-effective topical microbicide, effective against a range of stds including hiv-1, would greatly impact the ongoing epidemic. when formulated in a vehicle, a micronized form of cellulose acetate phthalate (cap), which is an inactive pharmaceutical excipient, has been shown to inactivate hiv-1, herpes simplex virus types 1 a ...200011036053
chlamydia trachomatis native major outer membrane protein induces partial protection in nonhuman primates: implication for a trachoma transmission-blocking vaccine.a vaccine is likely the most effective strategy for controlling human chlamydial infections. recent studies have shown immunization with chlamydia muridarum major outer membrane protein (momp) can induce significant protection against infection and disease in mice if its native trimeric structure is preserved (nmomp). the objective of this study was to investigate the immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy of chlamydia trachomatis nmomp in a nonhuman primate trachoma model. cynomolgus monkeys (maca ...200919494332
identification of phylogenetic position in the chlamydiaceae family for chlamydia strains released from monkeys and humans with chlamydial pathology.based on the results of the comparative analysis concerning relatedness and evolutional difference of the 16s-23s nucleotide sequences of the middle ribosomal cluster and 23s rrna i domain, and based on identification of phylogenetic position for chlamydophila pneumoniae and chlamydia trichomatis strains released from monkeys, relatedness of the above stated isolates with similar strains released from humans and with strains having nucleotide sequences presented in the genbank electronic databas ...201020671971
chlamydial salpingitis.the frequency of isolation of chlamydia trachomatis from the cervix of patients with acute salpingitis has varied between 5% and 40%. a significant change in the titer of antibodies to c. trachomatis, as studied by microimmunofluorescence tests, has been found in 18% to 46% of patients with acute salpingitis. in salpingitis patients in whom c. trachomatis is isolated from the cervix, such a change in titer has been found in 31% to 54%. patients with chlamydia-associated salpingitis are generally ...19826958023
an animal model of trachoma: iv. the failure of local immunosuppression to reveal inapparent infection.repeated inoculation with live chlamydia trachomatis is necessary to develop a model of trachoma in monkeys. however, it is not possible to reisolate chlamydia from the monkey's eye after the first 1 or 2 months of weekly reinoculation. the effect of subconjunctival steroid injections in monkeys that had received weekly inoculations with live chlamydia is reported. despite a profound suppression of local inflammation, steroid treatment did not produce a reactivation of identifiable chlamydial in ...19836841015
experimental salpingitis in grivet monkeys by chlamydia trachomatis. modes of spread of infection to the fallopian tubes. 19806769296
acute upper genital-tract disease in female monkeys provoked experimentally by mycoplasma genitalium.the oviducts of two grivet monkeys and three marmosets, all sexually mature animals, were inoculated with mycoplasma genitalium at laparotomy. the mycoplasma was not recovered from the grivet monkeys, nor from the oviducts of the marmosets although it was isolated intermittently from the vagina of two of the latter animals up to 4-6 weeks after inoculation. in contrast, all of the animals developed antibody to m. genitalium measured by a micro-immunofluorescence technique. it developed rapidly i ...19854027175
changes in conjunctival lymphocyte populations induced by oral immunization with chlamydia trachomatis.the populations of lymphocyte subsets in the conjunctiva were assessed in monkeys enterically immunized with different preparations of chlamydia trachomatis prior to ocular challenge. subsets were identified in immunohistochemical studies employing cross-reactive anti-human monoclonal and polyclonal reagents. ocular challenge of orally immunized animals resulted in more equal numbers of t-helper and t suppressor/cytotoxic cells, compared to the higher proportion of ts seen in naive monkeys. th:t ...19863492335
chlamydia trachomatis oculogenital infection in the subcutaneous autotransplant model of conjunctiva, salpinx and endometrium.the subcutaneous pocket model of salpingeal, endometrial, and conjunctival autografts for studying chlamydia trachomatis infection in monkeys is described. portions of the salpinx that were transplanted included fimbria, ampulla, and isthmus. the model is an extension of the original model which consists of either salpingeal fimbria or conjunctive autografts. transplantation of the ampulla portion of the fallopian tube enabled us to increase the number of pockets or test sites. salpingeal and co ...19892765392
histopathology of chlamydia trachomatis salpingitis after primary and repeated reinfections in the monkey subcutaneous pocket model.monkeys with subcutaneously autotransplanted salpingeal fimbrial tissues were subjected to primary and repeated infections with chlamydia trachomatis. the inflammatory response after primary inoculation was characterized by infiltration with polymorphonuclear leucocytes in the acute phase and mononuclear cells in the chronic phase. however, the inflammatory response after repeated infections was dominated by a mononuclear cell infiltration with a conspicuous absence of the initial phase of polym ...19892704001
comparison of an enzyme immunoassay (ideia) with tissue culture isolation for detection of chlamydia trachomatis using a single swab.we directly compared a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassay (ideia) with isolation of chlamydia trachomatis in cell culture (buffalo green monkey cells) by changing the transport medium used for the ideia test so as to allow use of a single swab for both tests of the two techniques. we also modified the ideia test to exclude any possibility of false positive results caused by non-specific interference by staphylococcus aureus. the observed sensitivity of the ideia compared to cell cultur ...19892664432
experimental acute salpingitis in grivet monkeys provoked by chlamydia trachomatis.chlamydia trachomatis is a common cause of sexually transmitted diseases. recently it has been shown that chlamydiae are also responsible for complications to such lower genital tract infections. in this study, isolates of c. trachomatis from the fallopian tubes of patients with acute salpingitis were inoculated direct into the fallopian tubes of two, and through the cervical canal into the uterine cavity of one grivet monkey. the experimental infections resulted in a self-limited acute salpingi ...1979107723
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