a method for serological differentation of closely related poxviruses.a two-step gel precipitation reaction with antiserum to vaccinia virus, based on sequential addition of two test viruses was elaborated for differentiation of closely related orthopoxviruses. the appearance of an additional precipitation line indicated differences in the antigenic structure of the viruses compared. differences in the antigenic structure of vaccinia, variola and monkey pox viruses as well as the antigenic identity with cow pox virus of poxviruses isolated from carnivora, elephant ...197661718
[global program for the elimination of smallpox. iii. the problem of monkey pox as a threat to the global program for the elimination of smallpox]. 1977203146
[monkeys as a source of human viral diseases]. 19852988206
methisazone and monkey pox virus: studies in cell cultures, chick embryos, mice and monkeys. 19704317162
isolation and properties of the causal agent of a new variola-like disease (monkeypox) in man.the causal agent of a case of disease in man occurring in the democratic republic of the congo with a similar clinical picture to smallpox was isolated and studied. the agent was identified as monkeypox virus. a comparative study of the isolated strain (congo-8) and of viruses isolated from similar cases of illness in liberia (liberia-1 and liberia-2 strains) and sierra leone (v-70 1 266 strain) showed that they were identical. a number of local species of monkeys and apes were examined serologi ...19724340219
[viruses and civilization].a few million years ago, when primates moved from the east african forest to the savannah, they were already infected with endogenous viruses and occultly transmitted them to the prime homo species. however it was much later with the building of the first large cities in mesopotamia that interhuman viral transmission began in earnest. spreading was further enhanced with the organization of the egyptian, greek, roman, and arab empires around the mediterranean. discovery of the new world in 1492 l ...199910901842
antiviral treatment is more effective than smallpox vaccination upon lethal monkeypox virus infection.there is concern that variola virus, the aetiological agent of smallpox, may be used as a biological weapon. for this reason several countries are now stockpiling (vaccinia virus-based) smallpox vaccine. although the preventive use of smallpox vaccination has been well documented, little is known about its efficacy when used after exposure to the virus. here we compare the effectiveness of (1) post-exposure smallpox vaccination and (2) antiviral treatment with either cidofovir (also called hpmpc ...200616341204
clonal vaccinia virus grown in cell culture fully protects monkeys from lethal monkeypox challenge.the potential use of smallpox as an agent of bioterrorism has renewed interest in the development of a modern vaccine capable of replacing the standard dryvax vaccine. vaccinia virus (acam2000), clonally isolated from dryvax and manufactured in cell culture, was tested for immunogenicity and protective activity in a non-human primate model. cynomolgus monkeys vaccinated with acam2000, dryvax, or acam2000 diluent (control) were challenged 2 months post-vaccination with a lethal, intravenous dose ...200818077063
[anti-vaccinia monoclonal antibodies cross-reactive with monkey pox virus and their application]. 200818546853
a poxvirus of primates. i. growth of the virus in vitro and comparison with other poxviruses.a primate poxvirus (orteca) isolated from a skin lesion in a rhesus monkey (macaca mulatta) was studied along with four known poxviruses: vaccinia, monkeypox, swinepox, and yaba. it grows in established lines of monkey kidney cells at a rate intermediate between that of vaccinia and monkeypox and that of swinepox and yaba. the cytopathic effects produced by orteca virus resemble those produced by swinepox virus, although, unlike swinepox, it cannot be propagated in porcine cells. neither can ort ...197018605415
coadministration of cidofovir and smallpox vaccine reduced vaccination side effects but interfered with vaccine-elicited immune responses and immunity to monkeypox.while the smallpox vaccine, dryvax or dryvax-derived acam2000, holds potential for public immunization against the spread of smallpox by bioterror, there is serious concern about dryvax-mediated side effects. here, we report that a single-dose vaccination regimen comprised of dryvax and an antiviral agent, cidofovir, could reduce vaccinia viral loads after vaccination and significantly control dryvax vaccination side effects. however, coadministration of cidofovir and dryvax also reduced vaccine ...200919004937
a novel highly reproducible and lethal nonhuman primate model for orthopox virus infection.the intentional re-introduction of variola virus (varv), the agent of smallpox, into the human population is of great concern due its bio-terroristic potential. moreover, zoonotic infections with cowpox (cpxv) and monkeypox virus (mpxv) cause severe diseases in humans. smallpox vaccines presently available can have severe adverse effects that are no longer acceptable. the efficacy and safety of new vaccines and antiviral drugs for use in humans can only be demonstrated in animal models. the exis ...201020454688
loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based diagnostic assay for monkeypox virus infections.monkeypox virus (mpxv) causes a smallpox-like disease in non-human primates and humans. this infection is endemic to central and western africa. mpxv is divided into two genetically different groups, congo basin and west african mpxv, with the former being the more virulent. a real-time quantitative mpxv genome amplification system was developed for the diagnosis of mpxv infections using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) technology. primers used for genome amplification of congo basi ...200919382264
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