[studies of the purification of the exotoxin of bacillus cereus (author's transl)].the exotoxins of bacillus cereus show haemolytic, lethal, phospholipase-c- and enterotoxigenic activities. the enterotoxigenic activity is regarded to be the factor which causes food poisoning in man. efforts to purify the b. cereus exotoxins by precipitation with ammonium sulphate and subsequent chromatography on sephadex-g-75 and biogel-p-60 columns were partially successfull. haemolysin and phospholipase-c could be separated by gel-chromatography, they demonstrated partial identity on gel-dif ...197944788
binding of exogenous dna by human lymphocytes and by their isolated plasma membranes.the binding of labeled bacterial dna to human tonsil lymphocytes and to plasma membranes isolated from these cells involved macromolecules mainly located at the cell surface, since plasma membrane preparations showed properties in common with those of viable cells. dna binding to lymphocytes was a dissociable, saturable, time, temperature, ph and concentration dependent process. a double reciprocal plot of the data obtained from dna saturation curves gave an apparent dissociation constant of abo ...197994969
properties and production characteristics of vomiting, diarrheal, and necrotizing toxins of bacillus cereus.evidence is provided that the enterotoxin of bacillus cereus variously described in the literature as diarrheagenic toxin, diarrheal agent, fluid accumulation factor, vascular permeability factor, dermonecrotic toxin, and intestinonecrotic toxin is a single relatively unstable protein of molecular weight approximately 50,000 and isoelectric point of the order of 4.9. it is presumed to be the enterotoxin responsible for the diarrheal-type b. cereus food poisoning syndrome and it may also be the p ...1979104614
bacillus cereus panophthalmitis after intravenous heroin.two healthy young black men developed panophthalmitis after intravenous heroin injections. bacillus cereus, considered to be a relatively noncommon pathogen for man, was found to be the causative agent as it was recovered from the anterior chamber and viterous cavity of both cases. the ocular findings were unilateral in each case, and neither patient had any sistemic involvement from the bacteremia. the onset of visual symptoms varied from 24 to 36 hours after the last intravenous injection with ...1979110208
bacillus cereus septic arthritis following arthrography.organisms of bacillus species usually are common laboratory contaminants and nonpathogenic in humans. recently, however, it has been suggested that cultures growing common bacillus species may indeed represent significant infections and should not always be disregarded. a 24-year-old man developed bacillus cereus septic arthritis following routine arthrography, which is an example of a serious orthopedic infection that can be caused by this supposedly nonpathogenic organism.1979119603
the lipid requirement of the (ca2+ + mg2+)-atpase in the human erythrocyte membrane, as studied by various highly purified phospholipases.1. when complete hydrolysis of glycerophosphlipids and sphingomyelin in the outer membrane leaflet is brought about by treatment of intact red blood cells with phospholipase a2 and sphingomyelinase c, the (ca2+ + mg2+)-atpase activity is not affected. 2. complete hydrolysis of sphingomyelin, by treatment of leaky ghosts with spingomyelinase c, does not lead to an inactivation of the (ca2+ + mg2+)-atpase. 3. treatment of ghosts with phospholipase a2 (from either procine pancreas of naja naja veno ...1977137746
organization of phospholipids in human red cell membranes as detected by the action of various purified phospholipases.1. the action of eight purified phospholipases on intact human erythrocytes has been investigated. four enzymes, e.g. phospholipases a2 from pancreas and crotalus adamanteus, phospholipase c from bacillus cereus, and phospholipase d from cabbage produce neither haemolysis nor hydrolysis of phospholipids in intact cells. on the other hand, both phospholipases a2 from bee venom and naja naja cause a non-haemolytic breakdown of more than 50% of the lecithin, while sphingomyelinase c from staphyloco ...1975169915
effect of hydrolytic enzymes and protein-modifying reagents on gonadotropin receptors in bovine corpus luteum cell membranes.preincubation of membranes with various concentrations of pronase, trypsin, lipase, phospholipase a from vipera russelli and from crotalus durissus terrificus, phospholipase c from bacillus cereus and from clostridium welchii, acetic anhydride, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene and tetranitromethane resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of 125i-labeled human choriogonadotropin binding. at the submaximal concentrations of enzymes and at both submaximal and maximal concentrations of protein-modifying rea ...1978202334
foodborne hazards of microbial origin.foods can serve as vehicles of many pathogenic and toxigenic agents of disease. bacterial agents comprise three groups: 1) those that grow in the food and produce an active toxin before consumption (e.g., clostridium botulinium); 2) those that merely exist as contaminants in the food but are able to initiate infection when swallowed (e.g., salmonella spp.); and 3) those that multiply and produce large numbers of vegetative cells in the food, then release an active enterotoxin when they sporulate ...1978212326
the use of phospholipase c to detect structural changes in the membranes of human erythrocytes aged by storage. 1978213113
membrane ultrastructural changes during calcium phosphate-induced fusion of human erythrocyte ghosts.nascent calcium phosphate promotes the agglutination and fusion of human erythrocyte ghosts. membrane phospholipids of erythrocyte ghosts treated with ca2+ and phosphate ions become exposed to attack by phospholipase c (phosphatidylcholine cholinephosphohydrolase, ec (bacillus cereus). freeze-fracture pictures of fused erythrocyte ghosts show the presence of regions deficient in intramemebrane particles in the protoplasmic face which we believe to be regions of fusion. discontinuous reg ...1977329283
the variable response of bacteria to excess ferric iron in host tissues.the enhancement by exogenous ferric iron, both systemic and local, of the infectivity of 120 strains of bacteria, representing 17 genera, was measured in the skin of guinea-pigs. systemic iron enhanced only 23% of 115 strains, and local iron 49% of 71 strains. systemic iron, by an apparently anti-inflammatory action, depressed the size of lesions produced by 27 of the non-enhanced strains from nine of the genera tested. for most strains, the degree of enhancement was small, ranging from 2- to 8- ...1979372534
[a fatal food poisoning caused by bacillus cereus (author's transl)].the autopsy of a 37 year old man who had died under extraordinary circumstances showed a bromatoxism by bacillus cereus. the verification of the bacillus was possible although the man had already died 2-3 days before; and that in spite of the existence of early beginning rottenness. with the help of morphological findings the pathogenetic effect of the toxins (exotoxin and enterotoxin) of bacillus cereus is discussed. blood cultures of the heart alone are not sufficient to prove a causal connexi ...1977410193
fatty acids of gram-positive bacterial rods from human dental plaque. 1978416814
the effect of phospholipase c on human blood platelets.the effect of phospholipase c (ec on human blood platelets has been studied. phospholipase c from bacillus cereus was purified to homogeneity as judged by analytical and sodium dodecyl sulphate disc gel electrophoresis and by immunoelectrophoresis. human platelets isolated from platelet-rich plasma by gel filtration or by centrifugation and washing were incubated with phospholipase c. a loss of 20-45% of the total platelet phospholipid was observed, whereas 88% was hydrolyzed when plate ...1976819457
relation between various phospholipase actions on human red cell membranes and the interfacial phospholipid pressure in monolayers.the action of purified phospholipases on monomolecular films of various interfacial pressures is compared with the action on erythrocyte membranes. the phospholipases which cannot hyorolyse phospholipids of the intact erythrocyte membrane, phospholipase c from bacillus cereus, phospholipase a2 from pig pancreas and crotalus adamanteus and phospholipase d from cabbage, can hydrolyse phospholipid monolayers at pressure below 31 dynes/cm only. the phospholipases which can hydrolyse phospholipids of ...19751174576
early diagnosis of infectious keratitis with in vivo real time confocal microscopy.the tandem scanning confocal microscope (tsm) was adapted for in vivo examination of the cornea in rabbits with experimental bacterial and fungal keratitis. compared to slit lamp biomicroscopy, the tsm provides superior lateral and axial resolution and serial optical sectioning capability, which may be useful for identification of corneal pathogens in the early stages of infection. we used the tsm to examine normal rabbit eyes infected with bacteria (bacillus cereus) and a filamentous fungus (as ...19921499129
monoclonal antibody-beta-lactamase conjugates for the activation of a cephalosporin mustard prodrug.cephalosporin mustard (cm) was designed as an anticancer prodrug that could be activated in a site-specific manner by monoclonal antibody-beta-lactamase conjugates targeted to antigens present on tumor cell surfaces. purified beta-lactamases from bacillus cereus (bc beta l) and escherichia coli (ec beta l) catalyzed the release of phenylenediamine mustard (pdm) from cm through a fragmentation reaction which occurs after the beta-lactam ring of cm is hydrolyzed. the km and vmax values were 5.7 mi ...19921515470
adp-ribosylation of small gtp-binding proteins by bacillus cereus.a human pathogenic strain of bacillus cereus produces an exoenzyme which selectively adp-ribosylates 20-25 kda gtp-binding proteins in platelet membranes. pre-adp-ribosylation of rho proteins of human platelet membranes with clostridium botulinum exoenzyme c3 or clostridium limosum exoenzyme inhibits subsequent adp-ribosylation by the exoenzyme from b. cereus indicating similar substrate specificity of the transferases. the adp-ribosyltransferase from b. cereus reveals no immunological cross-rea ...19921567406
campylobacter jejuni non-culturable coccoid cells.the behaviour of campylobacter jejuni in the environment is poorly documented. rapid loss of viability on culture media is reported. this phenomenon is associated with the development of so-called coccoid cells. it has been suggested that these cells can be infective to animals and man. results obtained with atp-measurements of coccoid cells and direct viable count (dvc) support this hypothesis. introduction of coccoid cells into simulated gastric, ileal and colon environments did not result in ...19921622752
a surface antigen of giardia lamblia with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor.since giardia lamblia trophozoites are exposed to high concentrations of fatty acids in their human small intestinal milieu, we determined the pattern of incorporation of [3h]palmitic acid and myristic acid into g. lamblia proteins. the pattern of fatty acylation was unusually simple since greater than 90% of the giardia protein biosynthetically labeled with either [3h]palmitate or myristate migrated at approximately 49 kda (gp49) in reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophor ...19911657957
periodic acid-schiff-positive organisms in primary cutaneous bacillus cereus infection. case report and an investigation of the periodic acid-schiff staining properties of bacteria.primary cutaneous bacillus cereus infection frequently presents as a single necrotic bulla on the extremity of an immunocompromised patient. in lesional biopsy specimens and smears, the large gram-positive rods of b cereus may be mistaken for clostridium species. this is a potentially serious error, as bacillus species are resistant to penicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics. we studied a case in which large periodic acid-schiff-staining organisms were seen in the biopsy specimen from a nec ...19911900984
hemolytic and sphingomyelinase activities of clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin are dependent on a domain homologous to that of an enzyme from the human arachidonic acid pathway.the n-terminal domain of clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin, homologous with the nontoxic phospholipase c of bacillus cereus, was expressed in escherichia coli and shown to retain all of the phosphatidylcholine hydrolyzing activity of the alpha-toxin, but not the sphingomyelinase, hemolytic, or lethal activities. the c-terminal domain of alpha-toxin showed sequence and predicted structural homologies with the n-terminal region of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, an enzyme from the human arachidonic ...19911902199
purification and characterization of n-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase from human serum.purification to homogeneity of the n-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase (mucopeptide amidohydrolase, ec from human serum has been achieved with a high yield. by molecular sieving chromatography, a molecular weight of 120,000-130,000 has been found for the native enzyme. polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under native conditions gave a unique band of mr = 125,000. the same technique performed under denaturing conditions revealed that the protein is a dimer composed of one subunit of mr = ...19901974148
kinetic analysis of dehydropeptidase-i and comparative in vitro and in vivo stabilities of ps-5 derivatives modified at the c-3 side chain.with partially purified kidney dehydropeptidase-i (dhp-i) preparations, the hydrolysis kinetics of glycyldehydrophenylalanine (gly-dph) by dhp-i were found to be completely non-michaelian, whereas those of ps-5 and imipenem were composed of at least two-phase reactions which were also observed using bacillus cereus type ii beta-lactamase. thus the dhp-i stabilities of 34 ps-5 carbapenem derivatives which were synthesized by chemical modification at the c-3 side chain of ps-5 were examined in vit ...19912054858
effect of metabisulphite on sporulation and alkaline phosphatase in bacillus subtilis and bacillus cereus.the effect of metabisulphite on spore formation and alkaline phosphatase activity/production in bacillus subtilis and bacillus cereus was investigated both in liquid and semi-solid substrates. while supplementary nutrient broth (snb) and sporulation medium (sm) were used as the liquid growth media, two brands of powdered milk were used as the food (semi-solid) substrates. under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, b. subtilis was more resistant to metabisulphite than b. cereus while the level ...19902122190
degranulation of human neutrophils after exposure to bacterial phospholipase c.because an endogenous phospholipase c (plc) participates in neutrophil activation and because many bacterial pathogens produce plcs, these studies examined the effect of plc from bacillus cereus on the release of the granule enzyme lysozyme from human neutrophils. bacillus cereus plc caused dose-dependent lysozyme release, and combined stimulation of neutrophils with plc and fluoride led to increased secretion. stimulation of neutrophil degranulation is a potential contributing factor for tissue ...19902128277
in vitro activity of ly264826, a new glycopeptide antibiotic, against gram-positive bacteria isolated from patients with cancer.the in vitro activity of ly264826, a novel glycopeptide antibiotic produced by amycolatopsis orientalis, was compared with those of vancomycin, teicoplanin, and oxacillin against 311 gram-positive clinical isolates from patients with cancer, ly264826 had lower mics for 90% of isolates (mic90) than vancomycin for all species tested. it was active against oxacillin-resistant isolates including staphylococcus aureus (mic90, 0.5 micrograms/ml), staphylococcus haemolyticus (mic90, 2.0 micrograms/ml), ...19902149921
the membrane-anchoring systems of vertebrate acetylcholinesterase and variant surface glycoproteins of african trypanosomes share a common antigenic determinant.amphiphilic detergent-soluble acetylcholinesterase (ache) from torpedo is converted to a hydrophilic form by digestion with phospholipase c from trypanosoma brucei or from bacillus cereus. this lipase digestion uncovers an immunological determinant which crossreacts with a complex carbohydrate structure present in the hydrophilic form of all variant surface glycoproteins (vsg) of t. brucei. this crossreacting determinant is also detected in human erythrocyte ache after digestion with t. brucei l ...19862422055
microbiological quality and public health significance of ice-cream.fifty samples of ice-cream were subjected to microbiological examination. of these 72% had total viable count over 10(6)/g while 66% had coliform count between 10(2)-10(3)/g. the micro-organisms isolated were escherichia coli (46%), enterobacter aerogenes (34%), staphylococcus aureus (26%), proteus species (16%), streptococcus faecalis (12%), citrobacter species (10%) and bacillus cereus (4%). the results showed that commercially prepared ice-cream sold in the market was not satisfactory for hum ...19892501524
pseudomonas aeruginosa cytotoxin: the influence of sphingomyelin on binding and cation permeability increase in mammalian erythrocytes.a cytotoxic protein isolated from pseudomonas aeruginosa damages the plasma membranes of many mammalian cells by forming pores. we studied binding of the 125i-cytotoxin and the resulting increase of cation permeability in erythrocytes of various mammalian species. the sensitivity of red blood cells was inversely related to the relative sphingomyelin content in their external surface. thus, erythrocytes with a sphingomyelin to phosphatidylcholine ratio below 1 (dog, rat, rabbit and man) were sens ...19892501911
investigation of neutral endopeptidases (ec and of neutral proteinases (ec using a new sensitive two-stage enzymatic reaction.a sensitive two-stage enzymatic reaction for mammalian and bacterial metalloendopeptidases has been developed using the substrate 3-carboxypropanoyl-alanyl-alanyl-leucine-4-nitroanilide supplemented with streptomyces griseus amino-peptidase. neutral endopeptidase ec from bovine kidney hydrolyzes the substrate (ph 7.5, 25 degrees c) with a catalytic efficiency (kcat = 1.2 x 10(2) s-1, km = 0.15 mm) of the highest ever reported for the enzyme acting on synthetic chromophoric and fluoroge ...19892507355
toxin production by bacillus cereus dairy isolates in milk at low temperatures.a total of 136 strains of bacillus cereus isolated from milk and cream were evaluated for toxin production based on hela s3, vero, and human embryonic lung (hel) cell cytotoxicity in vitro. hel cell monolayers were more susceptible than the other two cell lines. the percentage of isolates exhibiting hel cytotoxicity was similar (43.0 and 48.4%) when the strains were grown in brain heart infusion broth containing 0.1% glucose (bhig) at 7 and 24 h, respectively, at 30 degrees c. in milk, only 21.8 ...19892513777
endovesiculation of human erythrocytes exposed to sphingomyelinase c: a possible explanation for the enzyme-resistant pool of sphingomyelin.when human erythrocytes are treated with staphylococcus aureus sphingomyelinase c at 37 degrees c they become susceptible to cold lysis and appear to endovesiculate. endovesiculation has been confirmed by showing that in parallel with sphingomyelin breakdown, the cells accumulate [3h]inulin or [14c]sucrose (without losing intracellular k+) and also experience a loss of cell-surface acetylcholinesterase activity into a latent intracellular pool which can be revealed by treatment with detergent. o ...19882831979
the solubilization of tetrameric alkaline phosphatase from human liver and its conversion into various forms by phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c or proteolysis.when membrane-bound human liver alkaline phosphatase was treated with a phosphatidylinositol (pi) phospholipase c obtained from bacillus cereus, or with the proteases ficin and bromelain, the enzyme released was dimeric. butanol extraction of the plasma membranes at ph 7.6 yielded a water-soluble, aggregated form that pi phospholipase c could also convert to dimers. when the membrane-bound enzyme was solubilized with a non-ionic detergent (nonidet p-40), it had the mr of a tetramer; this, too, w ...19882844768
antibacterial effect of lactoperoxidase and myeloperoxidase against bacillus oral periodontopathic bacterium, bacillus cereus, was inhibited both by lactoperoxidase (lp) and myeloperoxidase (mp) antimicrobial systems. with the lp-scn--h2o2 system, the growth inhibition was directly proportional to the amount of oscn- ions present. the oscn-, which is the principal oxidation product of the lp (or mp)-scn--h2o2 system at neutral ph, is a normal component of human saliva. the oxidation products of both peroxidase systems inhibited the growth of the bacteria. this inhibit ...19852984983
tetrameric alkaline phosphatase from human liver is converted to dimers by phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c.membrane-bound human liver alkaline phosphatase solubilized by a non-ionic detergent, nonidet p-40 (np-40), has the molecular mass of a tetramer. it can be converted to a dimeric form by treatment with a phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c (pi-plc) obtained from bacillus cereus. when human liver plasma membranes were directly treated with pi-plc, the released alkaline phosphatase was dimeric. thus, phosphatidylinositol may help maintain the tetrameric quaternary structure of alkaline phosphatas ...19873028865
purification and properties of an extracellular collagenolytic protease produced by the human oral bacterium bacillus cereus (strain soc 67).the major collagenolytic proteinase present in the culture filtrate of bacillus cereus (strain soc 67, isolated from the human oral cavity) has been purified to homogeneity by a procedure that comprised concentration of ultrafiltered growth medium on a millipore pttk00005 membrane, precipitation with ammonium sulfate, gel permeation chromatography, chromatofocusing, fast protein liquid chromatography on an anion-exchange column, and finally fast protein liquid chromatography on a gel column. the ...19873040751
an aspartic proteinase of erythrocyte membranes. proposed mechanism for activation and further molecular aspartic proteinase associated with human erythrocyte membranes was shown to be responsible for autodegradation of the membrane proteins at ph values below 5.0. when the membrane was treated with phospholipase c (bacillus cereus) or trypsin, and simply heated at 40 degrees c, the membrane-bound latent enzyme was activated, with this being accompanied by dissociation of the enzyme from the membrane. divalent cations such as ca2+ and mg2+ had an inhibitory effect on the dissociation of the memb ...19883060144
[post-traumatic endophthalmitis caused by bacillus cereus].a young man with severe endophthalmitis caused by b. cereus is described following a trauma with an intraocular foreign body. although this organism was isolated from the aqueous with 18 hours and specific antibiotic therapy instituted, the eye subsequently lost all function and had to be enucleated because of severe pain. an extremely rapidly developing corneal ring abscess seems to be the hallmark of an intraocular infection with b. cereus organisms.19863083151
antibodies prepared to bacillus cereus phospholipase c crossreact with a phosphatidylcholine preferring phospholipase c in mammalian cells.antibodies against bacillus cereus phospholipase c were prepared in rabbits and used to affinity purify a phosphatidylcholine-preferring phospholipase c from a human monocytic cell line. affinity chromatography resulted in an approximately 3000-fold, one-step enrichment of phospholipase c. the human enzyme had an apparent molecular mass of 40,000 daltons as determined by sds gel electrophoresis. western blotting analysis demonstrated that this protein interacted specifically with the rabbit anti ...19863096314
bactericidal action of carbon dioxide laser radiation in experimental dental root canals.the ability of a carbon dioxide laser to sterilize the root canal of human teeth has been investigated. three oral bacteria, streptococcus sanguis, streptococcus mutans, and actinomyces viscosus, and three other bacteria, bacillus cereus, staphylococcus aureus, and pseudomonas aeruginosa were used as experimental organisms. exposure of cells on glass slides to laser radiation showed there was little difference in the exposure required to kill these six organisms. complete recovery of bacteria fr ...19863102029
bacillus cereus endophthalmitis.the authors present a case of a young man with post-traumatic endophthalmitis caused by bacillus cereus. the clinical course was typical of the panophthalmitis caused by this toxin-producing organism: rapid onset of signs of systemic infection, a corneal ring abscess and eventual loss of the globe requiring enucleation. studies of experimental rabbit models of the infection have indicated that the most efficacious regimen consists of systemic and topical clindamycin and gentamicin. successful th ...19873102030
traumatic wound infection due to bacillus cereus in an immunocompromised patient: a case report.a young man recently responding to immunosuppressive therapy for acute myelocytic leukemia was admitted with fever and haemorrhagic blebs on both extremities after sustaining some scratch marks in a muddy pond. gram stains of the hemorrhagic fluid in the blebs revealed many gram positive bacilli. b. cereus was identified from culture of tissue fluid. he did not respond to therapy despite bacteriological cure. terminally, he developed pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia and generalized bleeding.19873116676
attachment of human placental-type alkaline phosphatase via phosphatidylinositol to syncytiotrophoblast and tumour cell plasma membranes.phosphatidylinositol anchors human placental-type alkaline phosphatase (plap) to both syncytiotrophoblast and tumour cell plasma membranes. plap activity was released from isolated human placental syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes and the surface of tumour cells with a phospholipase c from bacillus cereus. this was a specific event, not the result of proteolysis or membrane perturbation, but the action of a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase c in the preparation. soluble plap, releas ...19883127211
[the contamination of a hospital with bacillus cereus without an indication of cases of infection].a hygienic investigation of a hospital revealed b. cereus in 60.5% (66 out of 109) of swab specimens taken from walls, apparatuses, airing devices and bedclothes. these findings were not associated with evidence of human infection caused by the organism within the hospital. in a similar investigation three weeks later, only 22.5% of the environmental specimens were positive for b. cereus. the hospital contamination with b. cereus has thus been virtually temporary and epidemiologically silent. co ...19883146178
effects of phospholipase c, a tissue thromboplastin inhibitor, on pulmonary microembolism after missile injury of the limb.tissue thromboplastin probably plays an important role in the development of post-traumatic pulmonary microembolism. infusion of purified human tissue thromboplastin in animals resulted in an intravascular coagulation and respiratory insufficiency. this could be inhibited by previous infusion of phospholipase c (plc) from bacillus cereus. we have studied the effects of plc infusion on the course of post-traumatic pulmonary microembolism, induced by a high-energy (c. 700 j) missile trauma to the ...19883339692
a novel nontoxic alkyl-phospholipid with selective antitumor activity, plasmanyl-(n-acyl)-ethanolamine (pnae), isolated from degenerating chick embryonal tissues and from an anticancer biopreparation cacpl.a novel alkyl-phospholipid with selective antitumor activity was isolated from an anticancer biopreparation cacpl (crude anticancer phospholipids) and from tissues of degenerating chick embryos. the alkyl-phospholipid was isolated and purified by chromatographic methods using silicic acid column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. the chemical structure of the alkyl-phospholipid was characterized by thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the degradation products after enzymatic digesti ...19863713923
use of microbial beta-lactamase to destroy penicillin added to milk.a simple method is described for destruction of penicillin residues in bulk milk to an undetectable amount (less than .003 u/ml) with commercially available crude beta-lactamase enzyme. milk containing .1 or .5 u/ml penicillin g was treated with .01 to 1.0 mu/ml of beta-lactamase (bacillus cereus) for up to 96 h. the bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis assay was used to quantify penicillin in milk between .003 to 1.0 u/ml. the .5 u/ml of penicillin g was reduced to an undetectable amou ...19853930584
studies on the procoagulant activity of human amniotic fluid. ii. the role of factor vii.partially purified amniotic fluid factor (aff) is found to directly activate human factor x, with a km for factor x of 0.37 +/- 0.06 m. added phospholipid has only a slight effect on the activation at low concentrations, and inhibits the reaction at higher concentrations. both dipf and pmsf inhibit aff factor x activation. although added phospholipid is not required for aff-activity, phospholipase c rapidly destroys it, indicating the presence of intrinsic phospholipid. phospholipase c treated a ...19853936221
[evaluation of the incidence and toxicity of samples of bacillus cereus in various classes of foods sold and consumed in the state of rio de janeiro].one hundred and fourteen strains of bacillus cereus were isolated during presumptive plate-counts from 18 groups of industrialized, non-industrialized, crude or cooked food, belonging to 10 separate classes. specific presumptive counts ranged from 10(2) to 6 x 10(3)/g or ml. among these isolates, 13 strains were derived from 3 outbreaks of food poisoning (involving a minimum of 57 people), as determined by the assayed bacteriological quality of the ingested foods. as an adopted procedure to corr ...19853937011
[determination of the killing rate of bacillus spores by peracetic acid].the sporocidal properties of peracetic acid (paa) at defined concentrations were characterized by determination of decrease in paa after addition of d-glucose, human albumin and suspensions of spores; concentration of paa, which inactivates 10(6)-10(7) spores of bacillus cereus, b. subtilis, b. megaterium and b. licheniformis within 10-30 min; inactivation constant k, decimal reduction time d and the sporocidal index (mg paa x min x ml-1) at that concentration. in contrast to albumin, the spore ...19854050179
a preliminary survey of aerobic bacteria in breast milk of mothers from the low-income group in nigeria.the aerobic bacteria colonizing breast milk of the low-income group in nigeria were quantified to assess its suitability for use in milk banks. in parallel, the nutritional and health status of donating mothers and their infants were assessed by physicians. the aerobic bacteria contained in the specimens included streptococcus salivarius, bacillus cereus, klebsiella pneumoniae, enterobacter aerogenes, streptococcus pneumoniae, streptococcus pyogenes, pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus epi ...19854071647
enzymatic lysis in vitro of hyalin deposits in human kidney. 19724111563
pharmacokinetic studies on minocycline in man. 19734199710
[on the development of precipitating antibodies toward human serum protein in rabbits after application of bac. cereus spores]. 19674233275
the asymmetric distribution of phospholipids in the human red cell membrane. a combined study using phospholipases and freeze-etch electron microscopy. 19734356540
heterogenetic antigens of gram-positive bacteria.chorpenning, frank w. (the ohio state university, columbus), and matthew c. dodd. heterogenetic antigens of gram-positive bacteria. j. bacteriol. 91:1440-1445. 1966.-soluble antigens obtained by various methods from gram-positive bacteria were used to modify erythrocytes whose hemagglutinating reactions with immune rabbit sera and normal human sera were then studied. antigens from all gram-positive organisms studied except corynbacteria altered red cells, causing them to react with specific bact ...19664956340
bacterial variants in the human kidney. 19674964054
[the bacterial content of raw and freeze-dried women's milk]. 19664967146
a bacteiological assessment of meat, offal and other possible sources of human enteric infections in a bantu township. 19684971025
[the importance of bac. cereus in human pathology (review of material from the foreign press)]. 19674979151
[b. cereus and its role in human diseases]. 19694985353
microbioassay of antimicrobial agents.a previously described agar-diffusion technique for microbioassay of antimicrobial agents has been modified to increase sensitivity of the technique and to extend the range of antimicrobial agents to which it is applicable. this microtechnique requires only 0.02 ml of an unknown test sample for assay, and is capable of measuring minute concentrations of antibiotics in buffer, serum, and urine. in some cases, up to a 20-fold increase in sensitivity is gained relative to other published standardiz ...19704986725
[study of the inhibition by normal human blood of a b. cereus hemolysin]. 19684988381
[experiments on the enteropathogenic effect of bacillus]. 19694989406
[bac. cereus as an agent of human food poisoning]. 19704989573
action of pure phospholipase a 2 and phospholipase c on human erythrocytes and ghosts. 19715003696
determination of cefmenoxime in human body fluids by high-performance liquid chromatography.a rapid and reliable method for the quantitative determination of cefmenoxime in serum and urine by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography is described. serum was deproteinized with acetonitrile. urine was diluted with dilute acetic acid (17.5 mmol/l). separations were performed in isocratic mode using a c18 type column and a precolumn packed with perisorb rp/8. the eluant consisted of a mixture of acetonitrile and 25.0 mmol/l acetic acid in a ratio of 32/69 (vol/vol). in normal s ...19836301809
survival of cultured cells after functional and structural disorganization of plasma membrane by bacterial haemolysins and phospholipases.lesions were induced in the plasma membranes of cultured human fibroblasts by membrane damaging toxins of bacterial origin (haemolysins). structural disorganization of the membrane was measured as leakage of a radiolabelled small cytoplasmic marker and functional membrane damage was measured as decreased uptake of aminoisobutyrate. cell survival was scored 24 and 48 hr later by measuring uptake of trypan blue and by light microscopical evaluation of cell morphology and proliferation. the membran ...19836318394
studies on the penetration of lymecycline into the paranasal sinus in man.concentration of lymecycline, a lipophilic tetracycline, in the human sinusal mucosa tissue, as measured by the "punch method" technique are fairly high. the median value of all examined pieces of mucosa amounts to 1.2 mcg/g.19836417972
toxigenic bacillus cereus var. fluorescens in human milk.human milk with high bacterial load of b. cereus var. fluorescens is reported. the organism was identified by morphological, cultural, and biochemical characteristics. lecithinase and haemolysin were produced in rabbit and bovine blood. the toxigenic nature of the organism was confirmed by production of necrosis on rabbit skin and fluid accumulation in rabbit ileal loop. an antibiotic resistogram also has been included.19846425376
effect of phospholipase c (bacillus cereus) on freshly isolated and 4-day-stored human platelets.phospholipase c (from bacillus cereus) was used to study fresh and stored human platelets. provided that the enzyme was inactivated before lipid extraction, no significant degradation of phospholipid in fresh cells was noted, even when platelets were activated or induced to change shape by adp, collagen or thrombin. with platelets isolated from concentrates stored for transfusion for 4 days at 22 degrees c, membrane phospholipids were degraded by the enzyme to an extent depending on the ph in th ...19846433899
selective medium for isolation of clostridium butyricum from human feces.a selective medium, clostridium butyricum isolation medium (bim), is described for the isolation of c. butyricum from human feces. the bim is a synthetic minimal medium and contains trimethoprim (16 micrograms/ml), d-cycloserine (10 micrograms/ml), and polymyxin b sulfate (20 micrograms/ml) as selective inhibitory agents. qualitative tests indicated that c. butyricum and other butyric acid-producing clostridia grew on bim, clostridium sphenoides and bacillus cereus produced small colonies, and o ...19846490827
lysis of erythrocytes from stored human blood by phospholipase c (bacillus cereus).the ability of phospholipase c (bacillus cereus) to lyse erythrocytes from human blood that had been stored under transfusion service conditions for up to 16 weeks has been examined. when incubated at 20 degrees c with enzyme (0.03 mg/ml, 55 units/ml) for up to 1 h fresh erythrocytes were not lysed. after about 4 weeks of storage a population of very readily lysed erythrocytes appeared. the morphological changes in erythrocytes from blood stored up to 16 weeks were examined by scanning electron ...19806773524
bacillus cereus endocarditis involving a prosthetic valve.a rare case of "late onset' endocarditis due to bacillus cereus occurred in a 55-year-old man who had a carpentier-edwards heterograft valve. combination therapy with gentamicin and clindamycin was administered as suggested by testing of minimal bactericidal concentrations for these antibiotics. valve replacement was necessary because of a paravalvular leak. there was no recurrence after six weeks of therapy.19826803367
[epidemiological situation of human carbuncle in upper volta (author's transl)].after the statistical statement concerning human carbuncle in upper volta in 1976, 1977 and 1978, the authors report their clinical and epidemiological ascertainments observed during the opportunity of four surveys. among the cutaneous forms, cephalic localization is the most frequently observed. visceral forms are essentially digestive, sometimes respiratory, never neurological. in its voltaic foci (grounds made of clayey alluvium, regulatory flooded), carbuncle stretches to endemic-sporadic fo ...19826809350
effect of co2+-substitution on the substrate specificity of phospholipase c from bacillus cereus during attack on two membrane systems.phospholipid degradation by native phospholipase c from bacillus cereus and enzyme forms where one or both of the zn2+ prosthetic groups had been replaced with co2+ was studied in human erythrocyte membranes (ghosts) and resuspended freeze-dried bovine brain myelin. the rate of total phospholipid degradation was 2-9-fold more rapid with erythrocytes than with myelin. with both membrane systems the activity decreased in the order znzn-enzyme greater than znco-enzyme greater than coco-enzyme. for ...19826817748
in vitro effect of phospholipase c from bacillus cereus on tissue thromboplastin from different species.purified phospholipase c from bacillus cereus caused a significant loss in the procoagulant activity of thromboplastin preparations from man, rabbit, sheep, cow, rat and mouse. however, marked differences were observed with respect to the degree of inactivation. rat, mouse, bovine and one type of rabbit preparations (prepared from acetone powdered brain) were markedly more sensitive to attack by phospholipase c than were preparations of human, sheep and standard rabbit preparations. the relative ...19826818711
in vitro evaluation of pyridine-2-azo-p-dimethylaniline cephalosporin, a new diagnostic chromogenic reagent, and comparison with nitrocefin, cephacetrile, and other beta-lactam compounds.pyridine-2-azo-p-dimethylanaline cephalosporin (padac), a chromogenic reagent which is purple and changes to yellow upon cleavage of its beta-lactam ring, was evaluated in comparison with other chromogenic cephalosporins. padac exhibited little antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacteria, but did have good activity (minimum inhibitory concentration, 0.12 to 0.5 microgram/ml) against staphylococcus aureus, a quality comparable to nitrocefin. nitrocefin, however, demonstrated an unexpect ...19826978350
anti-bacterial antibodies in epstein-barr virus (ebv)-transformed oligoclonal b-cell lines established from normal persons and autoimmune disease patients.we have established 950 and 430 oligoclonal b-lymphoblastoid cell lines (lcl) from two normal persons and eight autoimmune disease patients, respectively by using epstein-barr virus (ebv)-induced transformation. to re-evaluate the ebv technique for production of human monoclonal antibodies (mab) related to infectious disease, we screened these oligoclonal lcls for antibodies against 31 bacterial strains systematically. a total of 74 cultures out of 1380 were reactive to a total of 18 strains out ...19947765395
glycan requirements of glycosylphosphatidylinositol phospholipase c from trypanosoma brucei. glucosaminylinositol derivatives inhibit phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c.glycosylphosphatidylinositol phospholipase c (gpi-plc) from trypanosoma brucei and phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c (pi-plc) from bacillus sp. both cleave glycosylphosphatidylinositols (gpis). however, phosphatidylinositol, which is efficiently cleaved by pi-plc, is a very poor substrate for gpi-plc. we examined gpi-plc substrate requirements using glycoinositol analogs of gpi components as potential inhibitors. glucosaminyl (alpha 1-->6)-d-myo-inositol (glcn(alpha 1-->6)ins), glcn(alpha 1-- ...19957852313
glutamine synthetase of mycobacterium tuberculosis: extracellular release and characterization of its enzymatic activity.we have investigated the activity and extracellular release of glutamine synthetase [l-glutamate:ammonia ligase (adp-forming), ec] of mycobacterium tuberculosis. the purified, homogeneous m. tuberculosis glutamine synthetase appears to consist of 12 most likely identical subunits of m(r) 58,000, arranged in two superimpose hexagons. in the catalysis of l-glutamine, the enzyme has an apparent km for l-glutamate of approximately 3 mm at the ph optimum of 7.5. m. tuberculosis releases a lar ...19947937767
[a case of bacillus cereus prosthetic valve endocarditis].a rare case of prosthetic valve endocarditis by bacillus cereus was reported. the patient was 43-year-old japanese man, who had mitral valve replacement 5 months prior to this admission. remitral valve replacement was immediately done successfully. his postoperative course was uneventful for 8 months.19948114394
release of carcinoembryonic antigen from human tumor cells by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase c: highly effective extraction and upregulation from ls-174t colonic adenocarcinoma cells.carcinoembryonic antigen (cea), produced by gastrointestinal tumor cells, is anchored to cell membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol moiety which can be cleaved with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase c (pi-plc). we studied the extraction of cea from living human colon carcinoma (ls-174t, ht-29, colo-205, and hrt-18) and pancreatic carcinoma (capan) cells by pi-plc from bacillus cereus. the total cea content of ls-174t cells, quantitated by triton x-114 extraction followed by radio ...19938215392
nonspecific phospholipase c of listeria monocytogenes: activity on phospholipids in triton x-100-mixed micelles and in biological membranes.listeria monocytogenes secretes a phospholipase c (plc) which has 39% amino acid sequence identity with the broad-specificity plc from bacillus cereus. recent work indicates that the l. monocytogenes enzyme plays a role during infections of mammalian cells (j.-a. vazquez-boland, c. kocks, s. dramsi, h. ohayon, c. geoffroy, j. mengaud, and p. cossart, infect. immun. 60:219-230, 1992). the homogeneous enzyme has a specific activity of 230 mumol/min/mg when phosphatidylcholine (pc) is dispersed in ...19938331063
human erythrocyte sialidase is linked to the plasma membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor and partly located on the outer surface.treatment of human erythrocyte ghosts with phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase c (piplc) from bacillus cereus liberated the ghost-linked sialidase. maximal release of sialidase (about 70% of total) was achieved by incubating ghosts at 37 degrees c for 60 min, at ph 6.0, with piplc (piplc total units/ghost protein ratio, 4.5 each time) added at the beginning of incubation and every 15 min (four subsequent additions). liberated sialidase was fully resistant to at least four cycles of rapid freezing ...19938395269
degradation of plasma membrane phosphatidylcholine appears not to affect the cellular cholesterol clarify the role of possible cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine interactions in cellular cholesterol distribution, we have used a phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase c from bacillus cereus to degrade the cell surface phosphatidylcholine of cultured human fibroblasts. of cellular phosphatidylcholine, approximately 15% was susceptible to degradation by the phospholipase. in spite of the dramatic redistribution of cellular cholesterol that can be observed after sphingomyelin depletion, the d ...19938409769
phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis activates nf-kappa b and increases human immunodeficiency virus replication in human monocytes and t lymphocytes.we have tested whether breakdown of phosphatidylcholine (pc) initiated by exogenous addition of a pc-specific phospholipase c (pc-plc) from bacillus cereus or by endogenous overexpression of pc-plc induces functional activation of nf-kappa b and increases human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) enhancer activity. pc-plc-activated hydrolysis of pc was found to induce bona fide p50/p65 nf-kappa b binding activity in three different cell lines of human or murine origin. no significant changes in the tur ...19938411362
a complete physical map of a bacillus thuringiensis chromosome.bacillus thuringiensis is the source of the most widely used biological pesticide, through its production of insecticidal toxins. the toxin genes are often localized on plasmids. we have constructed a physical map of a bacillus thuringiensis chromosome by aligning 16 fragments obtained by digestion with the restriction enzyme noti. the fragments ranged from 15 to 1,350 kb. the size of the chromosome was 5.4 mb. the noti dna fingerprint patterns of 12 different b. thuringiensis strains showed mar ...19938432698
prokaryotic members of a new family of putative helicases with similarity to transcription activator snf2.cloning and sequence analysis of a new open reading frame from bacillus cereus reveals the relationship to a recently identified family of putative eukaryotic transcription activators similar to the yeast snf2 gene product. as a result of comparative analysis of sequence features conserved in all members of this family, a gene from a chilo iridescent virus, as well as a putative helicase from escherichia coli (hepa), can also be grouped into this family. the unexpected presence of prokaryotic an ...19938464078
genetic construction, expression, and characterization of a single chain anti-carcinoma antibody fused to beta-lactamase.we report the genetic construction and expression of a fusion protein between an antibody single chain-linked variable domain fragment specific for human carcinomas and beta-lactamase ii from bacillus cereus. sequences encoding the variable regions of the l6 monoclonal antibody were assembled so as to be separated from each other by an 18-amino acid linker and from the mature form of beta-lactamase by a 6-amino acid linker. the construct was placed under the transcriptional regulation of the lac ...19938481914
ionophore properties of monensin derivatives studied on human erythrocytes by 23na nmr and k+ and h+ potentiometry: relationship with antimicrobial and antimalarial activities.eight derivatives of monensin with a modified c25-c26 moiety were synthesized. their ionophore properties were studied on human erythrocytes by measuring na+ influx with 23na nmr and concomitant k+ and h+ efflux by potentiometry. modification of oh-26 led to inversion of selectivity of transport in favor of k+/na+ in comparison with monensin. this selectivity disappeared by suppression of the c26-oh moiety. finally the ionophore ability was lost if the head-to-tail chelation of the monensin skel ...19968558531
isolation, and virulence profiles, of aeromonas hydrophila implicated in an outbreak of food poisoning in sweden.a case of food poisoning outbreak involving aeromonas hydrophila is reported in this study. a group of 27 people consumed a typical swedish food "landgång" which is a type of smörgåsbord containing shrimps with mayonnaise, liver paté, ham, sausage, and legume salad which was purchased from a food store. twenty-two of the 27 persons became ill within 20-34 hr of consumption of the food and reported the symptoms ranging from severe acute diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, fever and vomiting. one ...19958577278
microbiological quality & incidence of organisms of public health importance in food & water in ludhiana.bacteriological analysis of 713 samples of various types of foods and related articles and potable water samples from different places in ludhiana, punjab was carried out. the highest counts ranging from 2.5 x 10(6)-7.5 x 10(8) organisms/g were observed in raw vegetables and fruits, followed by 3 x 10(6)-9.8 x 10(7)/ml, 8.3 x 10(4)-8.9 x 10(7)/g and 1 x 10(3)-6.7 x 10(7)/g in fruit juice, milk and its products, and salty/non milk snacks respectively. fresh chapati, dal, rice, cooked vegetables a ...19968707360
selective killing of human monocytes and cytokine release provoked by sphingomyelinase (beta-toxin) of staphylococcus aureus.the best-known activity of staphylococcus aureus sphingomyelinase c, alias beta-toxin, is as a hemolysin that provokes hot-cold lysis of erythrocytes which contain substantial amounts of sphingomyelin in the plasma membrane. sheep erythrocytes are most susceptible, and we found that one hemolytic unit, representing the toxin concentration that elicits 50% hemolysis of 2.5 x 10(8) erythrocytes per ml, corresponds to 0.05 enzyme units or to approximately 0.25 microg of sphingomyelinase per ml. the ...19968757823
[bacillus cereus meningitis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection]. 19958787298
experimental bacillus cereus post-traumatic endophthalmitis and treatment with ciprofloxacin.bacillus species remain an important cause of post-traumatic endophthalmitis, often causing permanent visual loss.19968949723
cloning of the glutamine synthetase gene from group b streptococci.the glna gene from the human pathogen streptococcus agalactiae was cloned from a genomic library prepared with the lambda phage vector lambdadashii. a 4.6-kb dna fragment of one of the recombinant phages was subcloned in puc18. this escherichia coli clone expressed a 52-kda protein encoded by a 1,341-bp open reading frame. the nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame and the deduced amino acid sequence shared a significant degree of homology with the sequences of other glutamine synthetases ...19978975911
role of hemolytic and nonhemolytic phospholipase c from pseudomonas aeruginosa for inflammatory mediator release from human granulocytes.pseudomonas aeruginosa phospholipase c (plc) is a critical component in the pathogenesis of severe p. aeruginosa infections. however, p. aeruginosa can produce a hemolytic (plc-h) as well as a nonhemolytic (plc-n) variant, both having a mw of about 77 kd. in the past, studies did not distinguish between both types of plc with regard to the induction of inflammatory mediators from human cells.19979030090
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