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in vivo antiviral activity of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea.a prolongation in the lives of swiss mice inoculated intracerebrally with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (lcm) was observed after treatment with 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (bcnu). a variety of treatment schedules, including therapy once or twice daily up to 17 days and single treatments at various times after virus inoculation, were employed. virus titers ranging to greater than 10(4) were detected in the blood and brains of surviving drug-treated animals. in three comparative stud ...196514339266
inhibition of virus multiplication by some derivatives of pyridine- and pyrazinecarboxylic acid. 19714398086
[studies on the effect of pyrazine derivatives on some dna and rna viruses. i. effect of pyrazine amidrazone and products of its condensation with aldehydes and ketones on adsorption and replication of polio, wee and vaccinia viruses]. 19724338513
growth of venezuelan encephalitis virus and disapperance of coxsackie a, rous sarcoma, herpes simplex and vaccinia viruses following inoculation of aedes aegypti and other mosquitoes. 19744152894
vaccinia-like pox virus identified in a horse with a skin disease. 19744839144
the effect of tilorone hydrochloride on the growth of several animal viruses in tissue cultures.tilorone hydrochloride, at a concentration of 10 mug/ml inhibits the growth of herpes simplex virus type 1 in bs-c-1 cells. the growth of vaccinia virus in bs-c-1 cells is partially inhibited; however, six viruses containing rna, including four members of the togavirus group grown in chick fibroblasts, are not affected by the drug. the inhibition of the growth of herpes virus by tilorone hydrochloride is greater when the multiplicity of infection is lower than 1 p.f.u/cell and when the drug is a ...1976177724
antiviral activity of benzothiazole and benzothiazolinethione derivatives in cell cultures.the virus inhibitory activity of benzothiazole, benzothiazolinethione and naphthothiazole derivatives was tested with vaccinia virus, newcastle disease virus (ndv) and western equine encephalomyelitis (wee) virus in the agar-diffusion plaque-inhibition test. among 58 compounds examined, 5 showed medium activity and selectivity with vaccinia virus. the highest selective effect was found with 3-(2-ethylthio-6-benzothiazolylaminomethyl)-2-benzothiazolinethione. a much lower inhibitory effect was ob ...197941432
[hybridoma cloning by the end-point dilution method].hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies to tick-borne encephalitis, venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, and vaccinia viruses were cloned and recloned by the end-point dilution method in 96-well linbro plates on a cell feeder layer. with decreasing of the cell seed dose the average number of clones per well decreased and the effectiveness of clone production increased. when an average of one cell per well was introduced, the portion of vells with single clones for hybridomas of various origin ...19853907143
expression in recombinant vaccinia virus of the equine herpesvirus 1 gene encoding glycoprotein gp13 and protection of immunized animals.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) gene encoding glycoprotein 13 (gp13) was cloned into the hemagglutinin (ha) locus of vaccinia virus (copenhagen strain). expression of the gp13 gene was driven by the early/late vaccinia virus h6 promoter. metabolically radiolabeled polypeptides of approximately 47 and 44 kilodaltons and 90 kilodaltons (glycosylated form) were precipitated with both polyclonal and gp13-specific monoclonal antibodies. presentation of gp13 on the cytoplasmic membrane of cells infec ...19892550665
experimental vaccinia virus infection of horses. 19892735900
coexpression by vaccinia virus recombinants of equine herpesvirus 1 glycoproteins gp13 and gp14 results in potentiated immunity.the equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein 14 (ehv-1 gp14) gene was cloned, sequenced, and expressed by vaccinia virus recombinants. recombinant virus vp613 elicited the production of ehv-1-neutralizing antibodies in guinea pigs and was effective in protecting hamsters from subsequent lethal ehv-1 challenge. coexpression of ehv-1 gp14 in vaccinia virus recombinant vp634 along with ehv-1 gp13 (p. guo, s. goebel, s. davis, m. e. perkus, b. languet, p. desmettre, g. allen, and e. paoletti, j. virol. 63: ...19902157895
[the immunogenic properties of a recombinant vaccinia virus with an incorporated dna copy of the 26s rna of the venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus].a recombinant strain of vaccinia virus (vr26) containing a dna-copy of the subgenomic 26s rna of venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (vee) inserted into the coding region of thymidine kinase (tk) gene was produced. this subgenomic rna contained the genes for all structural proteins of the vee virus, the strain trinidad donkey (trd). vr26 effectively expressed vee virus glycoproteins on the membranes of the infected cells. blood sera of vr26-immunized animals were found to contain vee virus ...19938284922
safety and immunogenicity of recombinants based on the genetically-engineered vaccinia strain, nyvac.nyvac-based recombinants expressing pertinent immunogens from equine influenza virus (eiv), pseudorabies virus (prv), japanese encephalitis virus (jev) and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) were used to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of this vector. administration of either nyvac recombinants or parenteral virus to mice, horses and swine was well tolerated with no notable local or systemic reactivities. further, despite a highly attenuated phenotype, nyvac was found to function effectiv ...19947958466
major histocompatibility complex-restricted cd8+ cytotoxic t lymphocytes from horses with equine infectious anemia virus recognize env and gag/pr proteins.cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl) can control some viral infections and may be important in the control of lentiviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1. since there is limited evidence for an in vivo role of ctl in control of lentiviruses, dissection of immune mechanisms in animal lentiviral infections may provide needed information. horses infected with equine infectious anemia virus (eiav) a lentivirus, have acute plasma viremia which is terminated in immunocompetent horses. viremic ...19948107209
molecular evolution of herpesviruses: genomic and protein sequence comparisons.phylogenetic reconstruction of herpesvirus evolution is generally founded on amino acid sequence comparisons of specific proteins. these are relevant to the evolution of the specific gene (or set of genes), but the resulting phylogeny may vary depending on the particular sequence chosen for analysis (or comparison). in the first part of this report, we compare 13 herpesvirus genomes by using a new multidimensional methodology based on distance measures and partial orderings of dinucleotide relat ...19948107249
expression of functional protease and subviral particles by vaccinia virus containing equine infectious anaemia virus gag and 5' pol genes.cells infected with vaccinia viruses expressing the equine infectious anaemia virus (eiav) gag gene (vgag) or gag plus the 5' pol encoding protease (vgag/pr) were evaluated with monoclonal antibody to a p26 capsid protein linear epitope (qeiskfltd). both recombinant viruses expressed gag precursor protein (55k) whereas only vgag/pr expressed a detectable gag-pol fusion protein (82k) with a functional protease, shown by subviral particles containing processed p26. horses inoculated with vgag/pr p ...19948151302
applications of pox virus vectors to vaccination: an update.recombinant pox viruses have been generated for vaccination against heterologous pathogens. amongst these, the following are notable examples. (i) the engineering of the copenhagen strain of vaccinia virus to express the rabies virus glycoprotein. when applied in baits, this recombinant has been shown to vaccinate the red fox in europe and raccoons in the united states, stemming the spread of rabies virus infection in the wild. (ii) a fowlpox-based recombinant expressing the newcastle disease vi ...19968876138
inhibition of allergic encephalomyelitis in marmosets by vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus encoding for myelin basic protein.a primary demyelinating form of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (eae) resembling human multiple sclerosis (ms) occurs in callithrix jacchus marmosets following immunization with human white matter. participation of a t-cell immune response against myelin basic protein (mbp) in this disease model is supported by observations of increased reactivity against mbp in pbmc and of adoptive transfer of an inflammatory form of eae by mbp-reactive t-cells. to evaluate the effects of ectopic presen ...19979394784
the hemagglutinin-esterase of mouse hepatitis virus strain s is a sialate-4-o-acetylesterase.by comparative analysis of the hemagglutinin-esterase (he) protein of mouse hepatitis virus strain s (mhv-s) and the he protein of influenza c virus, we found major differences in substrate specificities. in striking contrast to the influenza c virus enzyme, the mhv-s esterase was unable to release acetate from bovine submandibulary gland mucin. furthermore, mhv-s could not remove influenza c virus receptors from erythrocytes. analysis with free sialic acid derivatives revealed that the mhv-s he ...199910233932
evaluation in nonhuman primates of vaccines against ebola virus.ebola virus (ebov) causes acute hemorrhagic fever that is fatal in up to 90% of cases in both humans and nonhuman primates. no vaccines or treatments are available for human use. we evaluated the effects in nonhuman primates of vaccine strategies that had protected mice or guinea pigs from lethal ebov infection. the following immunogens were used: rna replicon particles derived from an attenuated strain of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (veev) expressing ebov glycoprotein and nucleoprotein ...200211996686
vaccine research efforts for filoviruses.ebola and marburg viruses belong to the family filoviridae, and cause acute, frequently fatal, haemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. no vaccines are available for human use. this review describes the status of research efforts to develop vaccines for these viruses and to identify the immune mechanisms of protection. the vaccine approaches discussed include dna-based vaccines, and subunit vaccines vectored by adenovirus, alphavirus replicons, and vaccinia virus.200312782057
transfection-independent production of alphavirus replicon particles based on poxvirus expression vectors.this report describes a transfection-independent system for packaging alphavirus replicon vectors using modified vaccinia virus ankara (mva) vectors to express all of the rna components necessary for the production of venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) virus replicon particles (vrp). infection of mammalian cells with these recombinant mva vectors resulted in robust expression of vee structural genes, replication of the alphavirus vector and high titers of vrp. in addition, vrp packaging was ac ...200312845329
vaccination with venezuelan equine encephalitis replicons encoding cowpox virus structural proteins protects mice from intranasal cowpox virus challenge.an anti-poxvirus vaccine based on replicon particles of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (vrp) is being developed. the cowpox virus genes encoding structural proteins corresponding to vaccinia virus proteins a33, b5, and a27 were each expressed from vrp. high serum igg titers against these proteins were generated in balb/c mice vaccinated with each of these vrp. vrp induced both igg1 and igg2a with a strong predominance of igg2a production. the response is long-lasting, as evidenced by the r ...200717292434
comparison of multiple vaccine vectors in a single heterologous prime-boost trial.the prevention of infectious disease via prophylactic immunization is a mainstay of global public health efforts. vaccine design would be facilitated by a better understanding of the type and durability of immune responses generated by different vaccine vectors. we report here the results of a comparative immunogenicity trial of six different vaccine vectors expressing the same insert antigen, cowpox virus b5 (cpxv-b5). of those vectors tested, recombinant adenovirus (rad5) was the most immunoge ...200818809447
viral load and clinical disease enhancement associated with a lentivirus cytotoxic t lymphocyte vaccine regimen.effective dna-based vaccines against lentiviruses will likely induce ctl against conserved viral proteins. equine infectious anemia virus (eiav) infects horses worldwide, and serves as a useful model for lentiviral immune control. although attenuated live eiav vaccines have induced protective immune responses, dna-based vaccines have not. in particular, dna-based vaccines have had limited success in inducing ctl responses against intracellular pathogens in the horse. we hypothesized that priming ...200919368787
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