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pathogenicity of a caprine herpesvirus.a herpesvirus isolated from neonatal angora kids (capra hircus) with a relatively severe generalized infection was shown to be infective for adult goats as well as for kids. however, the virus lacked pathogenicity for either lambs or calves. although a nonreciprocating serologic overlap exists between the caprine virus and the antibody to bovine herpesvirus (bhv-1), results of cross immunity tests in calves indicated that the 2 viruses are immunologically distinct. on the basis of these findings ...1975173212
reactivity of monoclonal antibodies to proteins of a neurotropic bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) strain and to proteins of representative bhv-1 strains.15 monoclonal antibodies (mcabs) were induced with the neuropathogenic strain n 569 of bovine herpesvirus 1 type 3 (bhv-1.3). nine of them could be shown by radioimmunoprecipitation assay to react with viral glycoproteins and two of these mcabs were able to neutralize strain n 569. the reactivity of these 15 monoclonals was compared with 11 monoclonal antibodies induced with a bhv-1.1 strain. the available monoclonal antibodies made it possible to characterize bhv-1.3 and to classify bhv-1 into ...19873034198
herpesviral abortion in domestic animals.abortion or neonatal disease may follow infection with several alpha, beta and gamma-herpesviruses. the alpha-herpesvirus, equid herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), causes single or epizootic abortions or neonatal deaths in equids, and the closely related virus ehv-4 causes sporadic equine abortions. in cattle, the alpha-herpesviruses, bovine herpesvirus-1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus) and bovine herpesvirus-5 (bovine encephalitis virus), and a gamma-herpesvirus, bovine herpesvirus-4, have all be ...19979232116
detection and multigenic characterization of a novel gammaherpesvirus in goats.evidence for the existence of a caprine gammaherpesvirus was obtained by analysis of peripheral blood leucocytes of goats with pcr assays that target the herpesvirus genes encoding the glycoprotein b (gb), the dna polymerase (dpol) and the terminase (term) with degenerate and deoxyinosine-substituted primers. a contiguous 3.6 kbp sequence extending from the gb to the dpol gene was then determined with specific primers. all sequences (gb, dpol and term) showed a close relationship with the corres ...200111311431
virological and histological findings in goats infected by caprine herpesvirus 1.two adult goats seropositive to caprine herpesvirus 1 were treated with dexamethasone for 6 days to reactivate the virus. the goats shed the virus by the nasal and the vaginal routes. after necropsy, the histologic examinations on vaginal and nasal mucosa and ganglia showed general degenerative and flogistic lesions of the tissues. the findings confirm the respiratory and especially genital tropism of the virus.200212173768
caprine herpesvirus-1 (caphv-1) induces apoptosis in goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells.programmed cell death (pcd), or apoptosis, is initiated in response to various stimuli, including virus infection. a number of studies have shown that deregulation of apoptosis is an important feature of virus-induced immunosuppression for various viral diseases. in the present study, caphv-1 was found to cause apoptosis in mitogen-stimulated as well as nonstimulated caprine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc). apoptotic index, as quantified by fluorescent dyes, revealed a significant incr ...200515621313
abortion and ulcerative posthitis associated with caprine herpesvirus-1 infection in goats in california.three outbreaks of late-gestation abortions in does and ulcerative posthitis in bucks, associated with caprine herpes virus-1 (chv-1), in california are described. in herd a, 10 of 17 does aborted in a 7-day period, whereas in herd b, 4 of 130 does aborted in a 45-day period and in herd c, 100 of 300 does aborted in a 3-week period. most fetuses had multifocal pinpoint depressed foci with a zone of hyperemia on external and cut surfaces of the kidneys, liver, lungs, and adrenal glands. histologi ...200415460339
isolation of caprine herpesvirus type 1 in spain.two strains of caprine herpesvirus type 1 (cphv-1) were isolated after the experimental reactivation of two seropositive goats in spain. viral dna from these isolates was compared with dna from bovine herpesvirus type 1 and cphv-1 reference strains by restriction endonuclease analysis. the two spanish isolates were closely related but could easily be distinguished from each other and from the reference strains.200415083973
caprine herpesvirus- 1 abortion storm in a goat herd in quebec.numerous abortions were reported on a quebec goat farm, and caprine herpesvirus-1 (caphv-1) was confirmed by pcr in several tissues from 3 aborted fetuses. this is the first report of caphv-1 in canada. practitioners and diagnosticians must consider this disease when making a differential diagnosis for caprine abortion.200415072197
ruminant alphaherpesviruses related to bovine herpesvirus 1.herpesviruses have mainly co-evolved with their hosts for millions of years. consequently, different related host species may have been infected by various genetically related herpesviruses. illustrating this concept, several ruminant alphaherpesviruses have been shown to form a cluster of viruses closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (bohv-1): namely bovine herpesvirus 5, bubaline herpesvirus 1, caprine herpesvirus 1, cervid herpesviruses 1 and 2 and elk herpesvirus 1. these viruses share com ...200616472518
improved antigenic methods for differential diagnosis of bovine, caprine, and cervine alphaherpesviruses related to bovine herpesvirus 1.the control of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis induced by bovine herpesvirus 1 (bohv-1) requires sensitive and specific diagnostic assays. as bohv-1 is antigenically and genetically related to four other alphaherpesviruses of ruminants-namely, bohv-5, caprine herpesvirus 1 (cphv-1), cervine herpesvirus 1 (cvhv-1) and cvhv-2-diagnostic tests able to discriminate bohv-1 from these related viruses are needed to avoid misdiagnosis, especially because some of these viruses are able to cross the spe ...200415004081
cidofovir is effective against caprine herpesvirus 1 infection in goats.caprine herpesvirus 1 (cphv-1) is a virus able to cause genital infection leading to vulvovaginitis or balanoposthitis in adult goats. cphv-1 shares several biological similarities with herpes simplex type 2 (hsv-2) infection in man, such as genital tropism, type and site of typical lesions and it might provide an animal model for studies on antiviral drugs for hsv-2 infection in man. in this view the efficacy of cidofovir (cdv) drug was tested in six goats intravaginally infected with ba.1 stra ...200717161474
serological survey for potential disease agents of free-ranging cervids in six selected national parks from germany.a total of 164 blood samples, collected from free-ranging red deer (cervus elaphus), roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and fallow deer (dama dama) in six german national parks (np) between 2000 and 2002, were assayed for antibodies against nine viral disease agents. antibodies were only detected against the alpha-herpesviruses; specifically, bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1) (22 of 157, 14%), cervid herpesvirus-1 (17 of 157, 10.8%), and caprine herpesvirus-1 (11 of 159, 6.9%). titers ranged from 4 to 10 ...200617255452
experimental infection of goats at different stages of pregnancy with caprine herpesvirus 1.three goats from a group of five caprine herpesvirus 1 (cphv.1) seronegative pregnant goats were inoculated intranasally with a virulent ba.1 strain of cphv.1. goat n.1 was infected on day 45 of pregnancy, goat n.2 on day 92 and goat n.3 on day 127. each of the three goats produced a single foetus 10-60 days after infection. foetus n.1 was never found and so it could not be examined for virological findings. goat n.2 delivered at term of gestation and cphv.1 was detected by pcr and isolated from ...200414656539
demonstration of generalized infection with caprine herpesvirus 1 diagnosed in an aborted caprine fetus by pcr. 200212090293
latency and reactivation of bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) in goats and of caprine herpesvirus 1 (caphv-1) in calves.bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) and caprine herpesvirus 1 (caphv-1) are related members of the herpesvirus family. since their natural hosts are often kept in close contact with each other, concern was raised that a reservoir might be established in the heterologous host in addition to the homologous host. to investigate this possibility, cross-infection experiments with bhv-1 in goats and caphv-1 in calves were performed. bhv-1 infected goats developed mild disease signs during acute infection, wh ...200111556709
restriction endonuclease analysis of the genome of two italian caprine herpesvirus 1 strains.two caprine herpesvirus (cphv.1) strains isolated in two goat flocks in southern italy were compared with e/ch and mck/us reference cphv.1 strains by restriction endonuclease analysis. bamhi, kpni, noti and psti restriction enzymes were used. with these enzymes mck/us strain was clearly differentiated from the others. kpni and noti digestion resulted in unique patterns for all four strains. restriction enzyme analysis might be a useful method to distinguish cphv.1 isolated from animals and provi ...200010893162
experimental intravaginal infection of goats with caprine herpesvirus 1.three adult goats, seronegative to caprine herpesvirus 1 (cphv.1), were intravaginally inoculated with ba.1 strain of cphv.1. the animals were kept under observation for 1 month and daily both clinical examinations and white blood cell count were performed. ocular, nasal, rectal and vaginal swabs and heparinized blood samples were collected every day to attempt virus isolation on cell cultures and detect viral dna by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay. the virus was isolated and detected by p ...200010829574
improved detection of five closely related ruminant alphaherpesviruses by specific amplification of viral genomic sequences.the detection and discrimination of five closely related ruminant alphaherpesviruses, bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1), bovine herpesvirus 5 (bhv-5), caprine herpesvirus 1 (caphv-1), cervine herpesvirus 1 (cerhv-1), and rangiferine herpesvirus 1 (ranhv-1), were achieved by the development of specific pcr systems. the highly variable n-terminal of the glycoprotein c was chosen to select the diagnostic primers, except for the cerhv-1 primers, which targeted the glycoprotein d region. all the assays pr ...199910598083
detection of caprine herpesvirus 1 in sacral ganglia of latently infected goats by pcr.a study of the latency of caprine herpesvirus 1 (cphv.1) was carried out with four latently infected goats. three goats were treated with dexamethasone and euthanized after 4 and 6 days. pcr and virus isolation allowed us to detect cphv.1 only in the third and fourth sacral ganglia of the two animals euthanized 6 days after the start of treatment.199910203533
studies of genetic relationships between bovine, caprine, cervine, and rangiferine alphaherpesviruses and improved molecular methods for virus detection and identification.the glycoprotein b (gb) and d (gd) genes from five ruminant alphaherpesviruses, bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1), bovine herpesvirus 5 (bhv-5), caprine herpesvirus 1 (caphv-1), cervine herpesvirus 1, and rangiferine herpesvirus 1, were partially sequenced. the nucleotide sequence alignments revealed a highly conserved gb gene, with homologies ranging between 87.2 and 99.6%, and a more variable gd gene, with homologies ranging between 71.3 and 98.9%. the phylogenetic analysis of the gb and gd nucleot ...199910203465
a preliminary study on the pathogenicity of a strain of caprine herpesvirus-1.the strain ba-1 of caprine herpesvirus-1 (cphv-1), isolated from latently infected goats, was inoculated intranasally into three five-year-old goats. the animals developed fever and leukopenia. the signs began on post-inoculation day (pid) 4 and lasted 7 days. in one goat herpes-like lesions appeared on the vulvar area on pid 7. virus was consistently recovered from the nasal and the vaginal swabbings obtained from the three goats. virus was never recovered from the ocular and rectal swabbings n ...199910051183
natural reactivation of caprine herpesvirus 1 in latently infected goats. 19989762763
reactivation of caprine herpesvirus 1 in latently infected goats.the authors report caphv.1 reactivation in two latently infected adult goats treated with dexamethasone (dms) (4.40 mg/kg bw) for 6 days. virus was reisolated from vaginal swabs from the 3rd to the 12th day post-treatment with dms and from nasal swabs for 2 days (6th and 7th day post-treatment). the animals also showed an increase of neutralizing antibody (sn) titer to caphv.1 3 weeks after the end of treatment with dms.19968894377
cidofovir does not prevent caprine herpesvirus type-1 neural latency in goats.cidofovir (cdv) is an acyclic nucleoside phosphonate that exhibits a potent antiviral activity against several dna viruses. in previous studies, cdv has been shown to significantly reduce the clinical severity and the viral shedding in primary caprine herpesvirus type-1 (cphv-1) infection in goats. cphv-1 is an alpha-herpesvirus showing many biological similarities with human herpesvirus type-2 (hhv-2); therefore, studies conducted on the cphv-1 goat model could provide useful information on the ...201020710060
goat herpesviruses: biological and physicochemical properties.two herpesvirus isolates from goats are known which cause afflictions of the digestive tract in kids and, in some cases, abortion. an antigenic relationship of these goat herpesviruses with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvo-vaginitis virus (bovid herpesvirus 1, bhv-1) was reported and because of the species-specific pathogenicity, the goat isolates were named caprine herpesvirus 1. in this report the two isolates are further characterized and compared with bhv-1. althou ...19836311953
comparative genome mapping of bovine encephalitis herpesvirus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and buffalo herpesvirus.a clone library of 11 of 15 bamhi fragments representing 81% of the 140 kilobase dna genome of the prototype bovine encephalitis herpesvirus strain n569 (behv.n569) was constructed. the clones were used to verify the bamhi, bsteii, ecori, and hindiii genomic maps for behv.n569 published by engels et al. [virus res 6: 57-73 (1986)] for the same virus although some amendments/variations to the bamhi map were found in that 3 previously unidentified restriction sites were identified. restriction sit ...19902167057
a preliminary investigation on the latency of the goat herpesvirus bhv-6.an experiment was designed for a preliminary investigation of the caprine herpesvirus bhv-6 latency. the experiment was carried out in two steps. in the first, the virus inoculated six kids and the control, showed a mild infection and excreted the virus for 4-12 days. the second part started about one month after the cease of all symptoms and the virus isolations of the first part. no immunosuppression and therefore no virus reactivation could be achieved after eight daily administered injection ...19901964526
an experimental study on the pathogenicity of the caprine herpesvirus type 1 (chv-1).the pathogenicity of caprine herpesvirus type-1 (chv-1) in goat kids and lambs was studied. two experiments were carried out. in the first, two saanen goat kids and four lambs of a local breed were infected intravenously with the swiss strain e/ch of the virus. clinical reaction was severe in the kids, but it was very mild in the lambs. virus was excreted from the kids in higher titres and longer than in lambs. virus was also isolated from tissue specimens but only from a kid that died on post i ...19911647931
interactions of bovine and caprine herpesviruses with the natural and the foreign hosts.bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv1) and caprine herpesvirus 1 (caphv1) are useful models to study virus-host interactions, as well as pathogenicity and latency, when comparing the outcome of infection in the natural and the foreign hosts. molecular seroepidemiological analyses revealed that cross-reacting antibodies were mainly induced by glycoprotein gi (gb analogue), by the major capsid protein and by nonstructural proteins, whereas the most virus-specific antibodies were elicited by glycoproteins gii ...19921336252
immunosuppression in goats by dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide.the influence of dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide on the goat immune system was investigated. seven goats, with a previous contact with caprine herpesvirus type 1 (chv-1), were used. all had been vaccinated with live mycobacterium paratuberculosis vaccine. six goats were injected intravenously (i.v.) with dexamethasone daily for 5 days (2.5-4 mg/kg bw per day). three also received 25 mg/kg bw of cyclophosphamide on day 0. the seventh goat was not treated. dexamethasone alone caused depression, ...19921330422
a live attenuated glycoprotein e negative bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccine induces a partial cross-protection against caprine herpesvirus 1 infection in goats.taking into account the close antigenic relationship between bovine herpesvirus 1 (bohv-1) and caprine herpesvirus 1 (cphv-1), a live attenuated glycoprotein e (ge) negative bohv-1 vaccine was assessed in goats with the aim to protect against cphv-1 infection. vaccine safety was evaluated by intranasal inoculation of two groups of goats with either a ge-negative bohv-1 vaccine or a virulent bohv-1. the length of viral excretion and the peak viral titre were reduced with the ge-negative vaccine. ...200616330168
serologic and reproductive findings after a herpesvirus-1 abortion storm in goats.an abortion storm occurred in a goat herd, resulting in 75 aborted kids and 1 neonatal death from december 2004 to february 2005.200717937555
a classical inactivated vaccine induces protection against caprine herpesvirus 1 infection in goats.eight goats were inoculated with an inactivated caprine herpesvirus 1 (cphv-1) vaccine. four unvaccinated goats were kept as controls. after 30 days, four of the eight goats were revaccinated. fifty days after the first vaccination the animals were divided into two groups (a and b) of six goats each (two goats vaccinated twice, two goats vaccinated once and two goats unvaccinated). the two groups were challenged with cphv-1 intranasally (group a) or intravaginally (group b). after cphv-1 challen ...200111427258
natural caprine herpesvirus 1 (cphv-1) infection in kids.twenty-seven kids aged 5-7 days from a flock of 200 goats in which a high rate of abortion occurred died over a 2-month period. all showed hyperthermia, abdominal pain and anorexia. two of the kids were examined post mortem. ulcerative and necrotic lesions affected the whole intestine, and macroscopical changes were also observed in the lungs, urinary bladder and liver. histologically, a severe necrotizing enteritis as well as thickening of the alveolar septa and necrotic bronchiolo-alveolitis w ...200010805983
reactivation of caprine herpesvirus 1 in experimentally infected goats. 200211838996
characterization of caprine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein d gene and its translation product.caprine herpesvirus 1 (cphv-1) is responsible of systemic infection in neonatal kids as well as abortion and fertility disorders in adult goats. this virus is closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (bohv-1) which causes infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. glycoprotein d (gd) mediates important functions in alphaherpesviruses and is also a main immunogen. the sequence of cphv-1 gd gene and the biochemical properties of its translation product were analyzed and compared to those of bohv-1 and othe ...200616140410
analysis of antibody response in goats to caprine herpesvirus 1.serum samples of goats experiencing natural and experimental infections and/or reactivation of caprine herpesvirus 1 (cphv.1) were analysed with neutralization and western blotting (wb) tests. wb immunological patterns resulted differently and related to neutralizing titers. in serum samples having neutralizing titer 1:2-1:4, antibodies to two proteins of mw of 150 and 34 kda were present. antibodies against several proteins, two of those being characterized by monoclonal antibodies as gb and gc ...200516188455
intravaginal administration of an inactivated vaccine prevents lesions induced by caprine herpesvirus-1 in goats.to evaluate the efficacy of mucosal vaccination with a beta-propiolactone inactivated caprine herpesvirus-1 (cphv-1) vaccine, goats received vaginal administrations of two 7-day cycles at 2 weeks intervals. seven days after the end of the second cycle, goats were challenged intravaginally with 4 ml of virulent ba.1 strain of cphv-1. vaccinated goats shed challenge virus for 8 days but, in comparison with control unvaccinated-challenged goats, were significantly protected from the classical clini ...200717150288
caprine herpesvirus 1 vaccine with the ltk63 mutant as a mucosal adjuvant induces strong protection against genital infection in goats.caprine herpesvirus 1 provides a unique virus-animal model to investigate potential tools applicable for the therapy and prophylaxis of genital herpesvirus infections of humans. in order to evaluate the efficacy of mucosal immunization in the goat model, an inactivated cphv-1 vaccine was adjuvated with the enzymatically inactive mutant of the heat-labile enterotoxin of escherichia coli, ltk63, and used to immunize goats by the vaginal route, by administering two doses at a 3-week interval. the m ...200717920733
potent inhibition of genital herpesvirus infection in goats by cidofovir.like human herpesvirus 2 (hhv-2) in humans, infection by caprine herpesvirus 1 in goats is associated with genital lesions, and this provides a unique model to study the efficacy and effects of anti-herpetic drugs.200717926653
serological evidence of caprine herpesvirus 1 infection in mediterranean france.caprine herpesvirus 1 (cphv-1) is responsible of a systemic disease in kids and genital diseases inducing abortions in adult goats. in europe, cphv-1 is widespread in mediterranean countries such as greece, italy and spain. as france is geographically close to these countries, a survey was conducted to investigate the presence of cphv-1 in goats in a mediterranean department (corse-du-sud) and in continental departments (dordogne and vendée) of this country. taking into account the close antigen ...200818031957
clinical protection against caprine herpesvirus 1 genital infection by intranasal administration of a live attenuated glycoprotein e negative bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccine.caprine herpesvirus 1 (cphv-1) is responsible of systemic diseases in kids and genital diseases leading to abortions in goats. cphv-1 is widespread and especially in mediterranean countries as greece, italy and spain. cphv-1 is antigenically and genetically closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (bohv-1). taking into account the biological properties shared by these two viruses, we decided in the current study to assess the protection of a live attenuated glycoprotein e (ge) negative bohv-1 vac ...200718053233
development of a real-time pcr for the detection and quantitation of caprine herpesvirus 1 in goats.caprine herpesvirus 1 (cphv-1) is an alphaherpesvirus interfering with goat reproductive performances. the virus is associated with neonatal mortality in kids and reproductive failure in adults. a real-time pcr assay based on taqman technology and targeting the gene encoding for glycoprotein c (gc) was developed for detection and quantitation of cphv-1 in samples collected from infected goats. the detection limit of the assay was 1 x 10(2) standard dna copies, with a sensitivity of 1-2 logs high ...200818093667
isolation of caprine herpesvirus 1 from a major outbreak of infectious pustular vulvovaginitis in goats.we describe an outbreak of infectious pustular vulvovaginitis caused by caprine herpesvirus 1 (cphv1) in a group of approximately 200, 8 month old virgin does that were imported to victoria from new zealand. cphv1 was isolated in cell cultures from vaginal swabs from three of three affected does but not from two bucks that had been with the does. the identity of the virus as a herpesvirus was confirmed by negative stain electron microscopy. restriction endonuclease dna fingerprint analysis showe ...200818363987
detection of caprine herpesvirus 1-specific antibodies in goat sera using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and serum neutralization test.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to detect immunoglobulin g (igg) antibodies directed to whole caprine herpesvirus 1 (cphv-1). sera from 248 goats were obtained from cphv-1-free and cphv-1-infected flocks and were subjected to both igg elisa and serum neutralization (sn) assays, with the latter considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of cphv-1 infection. in flocks where cphv-1 infection was detected, 57 sera were negative by the sn and the elisa tests and 97 sera ...201020224085
Antigen-specific IFN-gamma and IL-4 production in caprine herpesvirus infected goats.The analysis of cytokines secreted by antigen-specific lymphocytes is hampered in goats by the paucity of species-specific reagents yet it is crucial to study immune responses to infections. To overcome this limit, two commercial kits designed to measure soluble bovine IL-4 (by ELISA) and frequencies of bovine IFN-gamma secreting cells (by ELISPOT) were tested for cross-reactivity in goats. In addition, an ELISA specific to bovine/ovine IL-4 and employing two monoclonal antibodies, clones CC313 ...201122063880
assessing the efficacy of cidofovir against herpesvirus-induced genital lesions in goats using different therapeutic regimens.caprine herpesvirus 1 (cphv-1) infection in goats induces genital vesicular-ulcerative lesions that strictly resemble those produced by human herpesvirus 2 in humans. in previous studies, the potent inhibition of cphv-1 by cidofovir was demonstrated. cidofovir antiherpetic activity was evaluated in goats infected experimentally by the vaginal route with cphv-1 and then treated locally at different times after infection. the administration of 1% cidofovir cream onto vaginal mucosa was able to pre ...200818765685
caprine herpesvirus-1-specific igg subclasses in naturally and experimentally infected goats.enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) were developed to detect caprine herpervirus-1 (cphv-1)-specific igg1 and igg2 in sera from 43 naturally infected goats. the analysis of the igg subclasses showed a dual pattern of distribution in seropositive goats with a major group of animals (36 out of 43) exhibiting significantly higher levels of igg2 over igg1 and a minor group (7 out of 43) possessing equal levels of igg1 and igg2. four goats were experimentally infected with a virulent cphv-1 b ...200919411146
glycoprotein c gene of caprine herpesvirus type 1 contains short sequence repeats (ssr).caprine herpesvirus 1 (cphv-1) is responsible for vaginal and respiratory disease in goats. infection by vaginal route is usually restricted to the genital tract whereas by nasal route the virus can spread throughout the body. in order to evaluate genomic diversity, nucleotide sequences of glycoprotein c (gc) of 13 (n.8 vaginal, n.5 nasal) cphv-1 strains were analyzed. amino acid (aa) sequences showed a variable number of short sequence repeats (ssr). nucleotide and amino acid sequences of ampli ...201020700396
serological evidence of lack of contact with caprine herpesvirus type 1 and bluetongue virus in goat population in poland.investigation into herd-level seroprevalence of caprine herpesvirus type 1 (cphv-1) and bluetongue virus (btv) was conducted in 2007 in poland. it involved the entire population of goats covered by a milk recording program in 2007, which included 49 goat herds. the number of goats examined in each herd was determined statistically in order to detect the presence of at least one seropositive animal in a herd with a 95% probability and simple random method of sampling was applied. no antibodies to ...201021370751
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