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[adpatibility of 2 rabies virus strains isolated in middle europe to a domestic and 2 wild species. a contribution to the epidemiology of rabies. 4. transmission studies in ferrets with a rodent isolate]. 1979442882
evaluation of an inactivated rabies virus vaccine in domestic ferrets.efficacy of an sc-administered commercial inactivated vaccine for prevention of rabies was evaluated in domestic ferrets. ferret immunity was challenged by the im inoculation of street rabies virus. all ferrets developed titers of rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies within 30 days of vaccination (geometric mean titer [gmt] = 154, n = 41) that were maintained for at least one year (gmt = 106, n = 36), compared with no seroconversion in controls (gmt less than 5, n = 39). following rabies virus c ...19902347753
serologic response of domestic ferrets (mustela putorius furo) to canine distemper and rabies virus vaccines.nine unrelated 12-week-old naive domestic ferrets (mustela putorius furo) were used to evaluate the serologic responses to commercial canine distemper virus (cdv) and rabies virus (rv) vaccines. five of the ferrets (group 1) were inoculated 3 times at 2-week intervals with a multivalent modified-live virus vaccine of canine cell-line origin, containing cdv and an inactivated rv vaccine. four of the ferrets (group 2) were inoculated once with the multivalent modified-live virus vaccine containing ...19892537273
[vaccination of ferrets (putorius furo) against rabies using a tissue vaccine].the use of live tissue rabies vaccine from vnukovo-32 strain produced by the bioveta national corporation at ivanovice na hané was tested on 15 ferrets (putorius furo l. 1758). the 21st day after subcutaneous application of 3 ml of vaccine, the average titre of virus-neutralizing antibodies was 1 : 71.4, and after subcutaneous and intramuscular application of 1 ml of vaccine the average titre was 1:20.6 and 1 : 15.6, respectively. the challenge test was performed 52 weeks after vaccination: a do ...19863083568
survey of virally mediated permeability changes.1. sendai virus causes permeability changes when added to freshly isolated brain cells (cerebellum or ependymal cells) or to a culture of forebrain cells. 2. sendai virus causes permeability changes when added to organ cultures of ferret lung or nasal turbinate. influenza virus causes no permeability changes under these conditions. 3. rabies virus and vesicular-stomatitis virus, in contrast with sendai virus, do not cause permeability changes in bhk cells or lettrée cells. 4. serum from patients ...19806258574
canine distemper virus (cdv) infection of ferrets as a model for testing morbillivirus vaccine strategies: nyvac- and alvac-based cdv recombinants protect against symptomatic infection.canine distemper virus (cdv) infection of ferrets causes an acute systemic disease involving multiple organ systems, including the respiratory tract, lymphoid system, and central nervous system (cns). we have tested candidate cdv vaccines incorporating the fusion (f) and hemagglutinin (ha) proteins in the highly attenuated nyvac strain of vaccinia virus and in the alvac strain of canarypox virus, which does not productively replicate in mammalian hosts. juvenile ferrets were vaccinated twice wit ...19978995676
safety study of the sag2 rabies virus mutant in several non-target species with a view to its future use for the immunization of foxes in europe.the safety of the sag2 virus, a low virulence mutant of the sad strain, was investigated in ten species of mammals and seven species of birds liable to consume vaccine baits. these species are the western hedgehog (erinaceus europaeus), the meadow vole (microtus arvalis), the bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus), the water vole (arvicola terrestris), the field mouse (apodemus flavicollis or a. sylvaticus), the norway rat (rattus norvegicus), the european badger (meles meles), the domestic ferret ...19969014291
pathogenesis of experimentally induced rabies in domestic ferrets.to determine susceptibility, incubation and morbidity periods, clinical signs, serologic response, and excretion of virus in domestic ferrets inoculated with rabies virus.19979361901
viral excretion in domestic ferrets (mustela putorius furo) inoculated with a raccoon rabies isolate.to determine susceptibility, incubation and morbidity periods, clinical signs of infection, serologic response, and excretion of virus in domestic ferrets inoculated with rabies virus of raccoon origin.19989858418
cats differ from mink and ferrets in their response to commercial vaccines: a histologic comparison of early vaccine reactions.early histologic changes in lesions at vaccine sites were compared in cats, mink, and ferrets. twenty-four 4-month-old cats, 20 4-month-old mink, and 20 12-month-old ferrets were vaccinated with three rabies virus vaccines, two feline leukemia virus vaccines, alum adjuvant, and saline. injection sites were excised at selected time points up to 21 days postvaccination. histologic examination of the tissue revealed significant differences among the cats, mink, and ferrets in the local response to ...200212009059
efficacy of rabies biologics against new lyssaviruses from eurasia.new causative agents of rabies continue to emerge as shown by the recent description of four novel lyssaviruses from bats in eurasia, aravan (arav), khujand (khuv), irkut (irkv), and west caucasian bat virus (wcbv). the effect of rabies vaccination prior to exposure to these new lyssaviruses was investigated in two animal models (i.e., syrian hamsters and ferrets). the hamsters were vaccinated intramuscularly with a commercial human or veterinary vaccine or with an experimental vaccinia-rabies g ...200515896401
characterization of a rabies virus isolate from a ferret badger (melogale moschata) with unique molecular differences in glycoprotein antigenic site iii.rabies virus was isolated from the brain of a chinese ferret badger (melogale moschata) and identified as having an r333q substitution within its glycoprotein antigenic site iii. additionally, compared with vaccine strains and other rabies virus isolates from dogs and ferret badgers in china, the isolate had five other amino acid substitutions in its glycoprotein: p(-17)l in the signal peptide, r88h, l225m, and d422e in the ectoplasmic region, and g478e in the cytoplasmic region. this isolate po ...201020109507
[sequencing and analysis of complete genome of rabies viruses isolated from chinese ferret-badger and dog in zhejiang province].based on sequencing the full-length genomes of four chinese ferret-badger and dog, we analyze the properties of rabies viruses genetic variation in molecular level, get the information about rabies viruses prevalence and variation in zhejiang, and enrich the genome database of rabies viruses street strains isolated from china. rabies viruses in suckling mice were isolated, overlapped fragments were amplified by rt-pcr and full-length genomes were assembled to analyze the nucleotide and deduced p ...201020329558
ferret badger rabies origin and its revisited importance as potential source of rabies transmission in southeast china.the frequent occurrence of ferret badger-associated human rabies cases in southeast china highlights the lack of laboratory-based surveillance and urges revisiting the potential importance of this animal in rabies transmission. to determine if the ferret badgers actually contribute to human and dog rabies cases, and the possible origin of the ferret badger-associated rabies in the region, an active rabies survey was conducted to determine the frequency of rabies infection and seroprevalence in d ...201020691095
[study on the status of infection and distribution of rabies virus in china.]objective: to investigate the status of infection and distribution of rabies virus (rv) in different epidemic areas in china. methods: brain specimens from animals and suspected patients were collected at the districts of high-, medium- and low incidence rates of human rabies and detected by both direct immunofluorescence assay (dfa) and rt-pcr. results: 254 of 3007 specimens of dog brains showed rv positive by dfa (positive rate of 8.4%). among these 254 samples, 78 showed positive (positive ra ...201021163029
recovery from and clearance of rabies virus in a domestic ferret.here we document the case of a domestic ferret (mustela putorius) that survived experimental inoculation with rabies virus of skunk origin. the ferret showed initial clinical signs of rabies (hindlimb paralysis) on day 81 after inoculation. the animal survived with paraplegia but otherwise was in an adequate nutritional state until the end of the observation period (pi day 181). at necropsy, no gross lesions were observed. microscopic lesions were found in sections of cerebrum and spinal cord. i ...201121439220
companion animals as a source of viruses for human beings and food production animals.companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viru ...201627522300
inactivated recombinant rabies viruses displaying canine distemper virus glycoproteins induce protective immunity against both pathogens.the development of multivalent vaccines is an attractive methodology for the simultaneous prevention of several infectious diseases in vulnerable populations. both canine distemper virus (cdv) and rabies virus (rabv) cause lethal disease in wild and domestic carnivores. while rabv vaccines are inactivated, the live-attenuated cdv vaccines retain residual virulence for highly susceptible wildlife species. in this study, we developed recombinant bivalent vaccine candidates based on recombinant vac ...201728148801
experimental oral immunization of ferret badgers (melogale moschata) with a recombinant canine adenovirus vaccine cav-2-e3δ-rgp and an attenuated rabies virus srv9.ferret badgers (melogale moschata) are a major reservoir of rabies virus in southeastern china. oral immunization has been shown to be a practical method for wildlife rabies management in europe and north america. two groups of 20 ferret badgers were given a single oral dose of a recombinant canine adenovirus-rabies vaccine, cav-2-e3δ-rgp, or an experimental attenuated rabies virus vaccine, srv9. at 21 days, all ferret badgers had seroconverted, with serum virus-neutralizing antibodies ranging f ...201424506428
rabies and rabies virus in wildlife in mainland china, 1990-2013.the number of wildlife rabies and wildlife-associated human and livestock rabies cases has increased in recent years, particularly in the southeast and northeast regions of mainland china. to better understand wildlife rabies and its role in human and livestock rabies, we reviewed what is known about wildlife rabies from the 1990s to 2013 in mainland china. in addition, the genetic diversity and phylogeny of available wildlife-originated rabies viruses (rabvs) were analyzed. several wildlife spe ...201424911887
lyssaviruses and rabies: current conundrums, concerns, contradictions and controversies.lyssaviruses are bullet-shaped, single-stranded, negative-sense rna viruses and the causative agents of the ancient zoonosis rabies. africa is the likely home to the ancestors of taxa residing within the genus lyssavirus, family rhabdoviridae. diverse lyssaviruses are envisioned as co-evolving with bats, as the ultimate reservoirs, over seemingly millions of years. in terms of relative distribution, overt abundance, and resulting progeny, rabies virus is the most successful lyssavirus species to ...201728299201
large-scale phylogenomic analysis reveals the complex evolutionary history of rabies virus in multiple carnivore hosts.the natural evolution of rabies virus (rabv) provides a potent example of multiple host shifts and an important opportunity to determine the mechanisms that underpin viral emergence. using 321 genome sequences spanning an unprecedented diversity of rabv, we compared evolutionary rates and selection pressures in viruses sampled from multiple primary host shifts that occurred on various continents. two major phylogenetic groups, bat-related rabv and dog-related rabv, experiencing markedly differen ...201627977811
spatial temporal dynamics and molecular evolution of re-emerging rabies virus in taiwan.taiwan has been recognized by the world organization for animal health as rabies-free since 1961. surprisingly, rabies virus (rabv) was identified in a dead formosan ferret badger in july 2013. later, more infected ferret badgers were reported from different geographic regions of taiwan. in order to know its evolutionary history and spatial temporal dynamics of this virus, phylogeny was reconstructed by maximum likelihood and bayesian methods based on the full-length of glycoprotein (g), matrix ...201626999115
pathology and molecular detection of rabies virus in ferret badgers associated with a rabies outbreak in taiwan.until rabies virus (rabv) infection in taiwan ferret badgers (twfb; melogale moschata subaurantiaca) was diagnosed in mid-june 2013, taiwan had been considered rabies free for >50 yr. although rabies has also been reported in ferret badgers in china, the pathologic changes and distribution of viral antigens of ferret badger-associated rabies have not been described. we performed a comprehensive pathologic study and molecular detection of rabies virus in three necropsied rabid twfbs and evaluated ...201626560756
government response to the discovery of a rabies virus reservoir species on a previously designated rabies-free island, taiwan, 1999-2014.taiwan had been considered rabies free since 1961. in 2013, taiwan confirmed the detection of rabies virus in wild taiwan ferret-badgers. up to december 2014, there have been 423 rabies-confirmed ferret-badgers and three cases of spillover infection into non-reservoir hosts. genetic analysis indicates that tfbv is distinct from all other known rabies virus variants. to date, ferret-badger rabies is known to occur only in china and taiwan. the temporal dynamics of rabid ferret-badgers in taiwan s ...201626542085
rabies virus infection in ferret badgers (melogale moschata subaurantiaca) in taiwan: a retrospective study.fifteen ferret badgers (melogale moschata subaurantiaca), collected 2010-13 and stored frozen, were submitted for rabies diagnosis by direct fluorescent antibody test and reverse transcription pcr. we detected seven positive animal samples, including some from 2010, which indicated that the ferret badger population in taiwan had been affected by rabies prior to 2010.201526267459
[sequencing and analysis of n gene of street rabies virus isolated from different hosts in zhejiang province].to elucidate the characteristics of genetic variability and its relationship with prevalence, through sequencing and analysis of n gene among street rabies virus isolated from different hosts (homo sapiens, ferret badger, dog) in zhejiang province.201425294078
molecular characterization of cryptically circulating rabies virus from ferret badgers, taiwan.after the last reported cases of rabies in a human in 1959 and a nonhuman animal in 1961, taiwan was considered free from rabies. however, during 2012-2013, an outbreak occurred among ferret badgers in taiwan. to examine the origin of this virus strain, we sequenced 3 complete genomes and acquired multiple rabies virus (rabv) nucleoprotein and glycoprotein sequences. phylogeographic analyses demonstrated that the rabv affecting the taiwan ferret badgers (rabv-twfb) is a distinct lineage within t ...201424751120
molecular characterization of three ferret badger (melogale moschata) rabies virus isolates from jiangxi province, china.ferret badger (fb) rabies viruses jx09-17(fb), jx09-18 and jx10-37 were isolated from three different regions in jiangxi province, china, in 2009 and 2010. the complete nucleotide sequence identity between these three isolates was 87-93 %. compared with the other chinese rabies virus isolates and vaccine strains, 101 substitutions (53 in jx10-37, 23 in jx09-17(fb) and 25 in jx09-18) in the five structural proteins were observed, and 47 of these substitutions (27 in jx10-37, 14 in jx09-17(fb) and ...201424643334
complete genome sequence of a rabies virus isolate from a ferret badger (melogale moschata) in jiangxi, china.the genome of ferret badger rabies virus jx09-17(fb), isolated in jiangxi province, china, in 2009 has been completely sequenced. the genomic length is 11, 923 nucleotides (nt) with an overall organization similar to that of other rabies virus isolates. jx09-17(fb) is closely related to chinese epidemic canine isolates in clade i.201323766399
epidemic and maintenance of rabies in chinese ferret badgers (melogale moschata) indicated by epidemiology and the molecular signatures of rabies viruses.an epidemic of chinese ferret badger-associated human rabies was investigated in wuyuan county, jiangxi province and rabies viruses isolates from ferret badgers in different districts in jiangxi and zhejiang provinces were sequenced with their nucleotides and amino acids and aligned for epidemiological analysis. the results showed that the human rabies in wuyuan are only associated with ferret badger bites; the rabies virus can be isolated in a high percentage of ferret badgers in the epidemic a ...201323689981
complete genome sequence of a rabies virus isolate from cattle in guangxi, southern china.a street rabies virus (rv) isolate, gxhxn, was obtained from brain tissue of rabid cattle in the guangxi zhuang autonomous region of china in 2009. gxhxn is the first isolate from cattle in china with its entire genome sequenced and is closely related to bj2011e from horse in beijing, wh11 from donkey in the hubei province, and isolates from dogs in the guangxi and fujian provinces, with homologies of 97.6% to 99.6%. it is more distantly related to isolates from domestic cat, pig, chinese ferret ...201323405368
adaptation of a chinese ferret badger strain of rabies virus to high-titered growth in bhk-21 cells for canine vaccine development.rabies virus strain jx08-45cc was derived from a chinese isolate (jx08-45) by serial passage in the bhk-21 cell line, reaching a titer of 10(8) tcid(50)/ml. jx08-45cc produced rabies in adult mice but was nonpathogenic in dogs after intramuscular injection. a comparison of the entire genomes of jx08-45 and jx08-45cc led to the identification of 17 nucleotide substitutions, resulting in seven amino acid changes in the mature g and l proteins. the immunogenicity of β-propiolactone-inactivated jx08 ...201222886183
indigenous wildlife rabies in taiwan: ferret badgers, a long term terrestrial reservoir.the emerging disease of rabies was confirmed in taiwan ferret badgers (fbs) and reported to the world organization for animal health (oie) on july 17, 2013. the spread of wildlife rabies can be related to neighborhood countries in asia. the phylogenetic analysis was conducted by maximum likelihood (ml) methods and the bayesian coalescent approach based on the glycoprotein (g) and nucleoprotein (n) genes. the phylogeographic and spatial temporal dynamics of viral transmission were determined by u ...201728497055
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