serological survey for bovine bacterial and viral pathogens in captive arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx pallas, 1776).tests for antibodies to bovine bacterial and viral pathogens were conducted on 239 sera from 128 arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) from seven locations (taif, riyadh and mahazat as said, saudi arabia; san diego, united states of america [usa]; shaumari, jordan; qatar; and bahrain). no antibodies to pasteurella multocida type e or epizootic haemorrhagic disease 1 virus were found. antibodies to brucella abortus, p. multocida type b, p. multocida type d, lumpy skin disease virus and akabane virus were ...19921305861
a capripoxvirus detection pcr and antibody elisa based on the major antigen p32, the homolog of the vaccinia virus h3l gene.sheeppoxvirus (spv), goatpoxvirus (gpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) of cattle belong to the capripoxvirus genus of the poxviridae family and can cause significant economic losses in countries where they are endemic. capripox diagnosis by classical virological methods dependent on live capripox virus is not suitable in countries such as australia where the virus is exotic and live virus is not available. to develop diagnostic tests based on recombinant material, we cloned and sequenced a ...199910485266
immunogenicity of a recombinant lumpy skin disease virus (neethling vaccine strain) expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein in cattle.rabies virus (rv) readily infects cattle and causes a fatal neurological disease. a stable vaccine, which does not require the maintenance of a cold chain and that is administered once to elicit lifelong immunity to rabies would be advantageous. the present study describes the construction of a live recombinant lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) vaccine, expressing the glycoprotein of rabies virus (rg) and assessment of its ability to generate a humoral and cellular immune response against rabies v ...200212034095
vaccines for lumpy skin disease, sheep pox and goat pox.sheep pox, goat pox and lumpy skin disease (neethling) are diseases of sheep, goats and cattle respectively, caused by strains of poxvirus, within the genus capripoxvirus. strains affecting sheep and goats are not totally host-specific; some cause disease in both sheep and goats while others may cause disease in only one species. those causing disease in cattle appear to be specific for cattle, and this is reflected in the different geographical distribution of lumpy skin disease (lsd) and sheep ...200314677686
attempted mechanical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus by biting insects.the mosquitoes anopheles stephensi liston and culex quinquefasciatus say (diptera: culicidae), the stable fly stomoxys calcitrans linnaeus (diptera: muscidae) and the biting midge culicoides nubeculosus meigen (diptera: ceratopogonidae) were allowed to feed on either lumpy skin disease (lsd) infected animals or through a membrane on a bloodmeal containing lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv). these arthropods were then allowed to refeed on susceptible cattle at various intervals after the infective f ...200312941014
comparative sequence analysis of the south african vaccine strain and two virulent field isolates of lumpy skin disease virus.the genomic sequences of 3 strains of lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) (neethling type) were compared to determine molecular differences, viz. the south african vaccine strain (lw), a virulent field-strain from a recent outbreak in south africa (ld), and the virulent kenyan 2490 strain (lk). a comparison between the virulent field isolates indicates that in 29 of the 156 putative genes, only 38 encoded amino acid differences were found, mostly in the variable terminal regions. when the attenuated ...200312827464
the genomes of sheeppox and goatpox viruses.sheeppox virus (sppv) and goatpox virus (gtpv), members of the capripoxvirus genus of the poxviridae, are etiologic agents of important diseases of sheep and goats in northern and central africa, southwest and central asia, and the indian subcontinent. here we report the genomic sequence and comparative analysis of five sppv and gtpv isolates, including three pathogenic field isolates and two attenuated vaccine viruses. sppv and gtpv genomes are approximately 150 kbp and are strikingly similar t ...200212021338
the detection of lumpy skin disease virus in samples of experimentally infected cattle using different diagnostic techniques.lumpy skin disease (lsd) is a disease of cattle, primarily in africa and madagascar and rarely in the middle east. it is caused by a capripoxvirus that belongs to the family poxviridae. the disease is of economic importance in endemic areas. effective control of lsd requires accurate and rapid laboratory techniques to confirm a tentative clinical diagnosis. comparative studies on different diagnostic tests used at different stages of the disease have not been done. the aim of this study was to c ...200516137133
long term immunity in african cattle vaccinated with a recombinant capripox-rinderpest virus vaccine.cattle were vaccinated with a recombinant capripox-rinderpest vaccine designed to protect cattle from infection with either rinderpest virus (rpv) or lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv). vaccination did not induce any adverse clinical responses or show evidence of transmission of the vaccine virus to in-contact control animals. approximately 50% of the cattle were solidly protected from challenge with a lethal dose of virulent rpv 2 years after vaccination while at 3 years approx. 30% were fully pro ...200212002554
importance of thymidine kinase activity for normal growth of lumpy skin disease virus (sa-neethling).in order to study the importance of an intact thymidine kinase (tk) gene for the vaccine strain of a southern african capripoxvirus, namely, lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) (type sa-neethling), a tk disruption recombinant was generated expressing the escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (lacz) reporter gene. a comparative growth study of the recombinant and wild-type (wt) lsdv in tk-positive primary and secondary cells and tk-negative secondary cells was performed. it was found that although reco ...200211958465
alternative cell lines for the propagation of lumpy skin disease our institute lumpy skin disease virus is grown on primary lamb testis cells for isolation, identification and vaccine production. however, the availability of lambs in kenya has been seriously reduced over the past few years. this has led to an increase in the cost of using primary lamb testis cells. this study was undertaken to investigate other primary cell lines, which are easily available and provide an equivalent or better yield of lumpy skin disease virus. foetal bovine muscle (fbm) ce ...200111585094
lumpy skin disease in southern africa: a review of the disease and aspects of control.this article reviews some of the important aspects of lumpy skin disease (lsd) that may impact on its successful control. a resurgence of the disease in the last decade has highlighted some constraints of the neethling strain vaccine, but there is no evidence of vaccine breakdowns owing to the presence of heterologous field strains. more research is needed on epidemiology and transmission of lsd in south africa to formulate control measures.200111513262
genome of lumpy skin disease virus.lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv), a member of the capripoxvirus genus of the poxviridae, is the etiologic agent of an important disease of cattle in africa. here we report the genomic sequence of lsdv. the 151-kbp lsdv genome consists of a central coding region bounded by identical 2.4 kbp-inverted terminal repeats and contains 156 putative genes. comparison of lsdv with chordopoxviruses of other genera reveals 146 conserved genes which encode proteins involved in transcription and mrna biogenesi ...200111435593
mechanical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus by aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).aedes aegypti female mosquitoes are capable of the mechanical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) from infected to susceptible cattle. mosquitoes that had fed upon lesions of lsdv-infected cattle were able to transmit virus to susceptible cattle over a period of 2-6 days post-infective feeding. virus was isolated from the recipient animals in 5 out of 7 cases. the clinical disease recorded in the animals exposed to infected mosquitoes was generally of a mild nature, with only one cas ...200111349983
identification and characterisation of an early/late bi-directional promoter of the capripoxvirus, lumpy skin disease virus.identification and characterisation of an early/late bi-directional promoter element of lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) is described. the 56 bp element shows substantial structural similarities with other poxvirus promoters, providing further evidence that transcriptional elements are conserved within the poxviridae. the relative strengths of the lsdv early and late promoters were compared to the vaccinia virus (vv) p7.5k and p11k promoters in transient expression assays. these transient assays ...199910446656
trial of a capripoxvirus-rinderpest recombinant vaccine in african cattle.cattle were vaccinated with differing doses of an equal mixture of capripox-rinderpest recombinant viruses expressing either the fusion protein (f) or the haemagglutinin protein (h) of rinderpest virus. animals vaccinated with 2 x 10(4) p.f.u. or greater of the combined viruses were completely protected against challenge, 1 month later, with both virulent rinderpest and lumpy skin disease viruses. vaccination with any of the doses did not induce any adverse clinical response in the animals or tr ...19979042036
spread of lumpy skin disease in israeli dairy herds.fourteen of the 17 dairy herds in peduyim, an israeli village, became infected with lumpy skin disease during a period of 37 days in august and september 1989. one cow in one neighbouring village and four cows in another neighbouring village also became infected, probably through being treated by a veterinarian who treated cows in peduyim. circumstantial evidence suggests that the original infection was brought to peduyim and spread by stable flies (stomoxys calcitrans) carried by the wind from ...19958533249
an investigation of possible routes of transmission of lumpy skin disease virus (neethling).british cattle were infected with the south african (neethling) strain of lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) and their clinical signs monitored over a 3-week period. different routes of infection were assessed for effect on the clinical characteristics of the disease by using a clinical scoring system. neither of 2 animals inoculated onto the conjunctival sac showed clinical signs of seroconverted. the intradermal route produced local lesions in 21 of 25 animals, and generalized infection in 4. in ...19957867740
the clinical response of cattle experimentally infected with lumpy skin disease (neethling) virus.british cattle were inoculated with lumpy skin disease (neethling) virus and their clinical signs observed over a three week period. elevation of body temperature following infection was not found to be a consistent feature, and even in severe cases was limited to a peak temperature of 41 degrees c. generalised lesions were seen 9-14 days post infection (p.i.), and the development of generalised infections did not appear to be dose related. following intradermal inoculation lesions were detected ...19957733823
real time pcr method for simultaneous detection, quantitation and differentiation of capripoxviruses.the genus capripoxvirus (capv) comprises three members namely, sheep poxvirus (sppv), goat poxvirus (gtpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) affecting sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. capv infections produce similar symptoms in sheep and goats, and the three viruses cannot be distinguished serologically. since there are conflicting opinions regarding the host specificity of capvs, particularly for goatpox and sheeppox viruses, the development of rapid genotyping tools will facilitate mor ...201021029751
early and late transcriptional phases in the replication of lumpy-skin-disease virus.approximately 71 of the estimated 145 kilobase pairs of the genome of the south african isolate of lumpy-skin-disease virus, neethling strain, was cloned into the plasmid vector pbluescribe. selected clones were used in northern blot analysis to investigate the replication cycle of the virus. the synthesis of early mrna was initiated immediately after infection, and continued for approximately 9 h. the transition to late-gene transcription occurred approximately 10 h post-infection and required ...19947596579
a study of the pathology of lumpy skin disease in cattle.microscopic lesions in cattle infected with the virus of the neethling form of lumpy skin disease comprised a granulomatous reaction in the dermis and hypodermis which extended to the surrounding tissue. during the early stages of the lesions a vasculitis and lymphangitis with concomitant thrombosis and infarction resulted in necrosis and oedema. a hallmark of the acute to subacute stages of the lesions was the presence of intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions in various cell types. the inclu ...19827177597
observations on the epidemiology of lumpy skin disease in kenya.lumpy skin disease virus strains isolated in kenya over a period of some 20 years have proved to be serologically identical. they were indistinguishable by indirect fluorescent antibody and serum neutralization test from the south african neethling and west african serotypes. these two serological methods proved of value in studying the antibody responses to infection. while epizootic spread of lsd has occurred in kenya, most cases are of a sporadic nature and are thought to be the result of acc ...19827057030
the characterization of african strains of capripoxvirus.isolates of capripoxvirus collected from sub-saharan africa were compared in sheep, goats and cattle and by restriction endonuclease digestion of their purified dna. biochemical techniques were used to precisely identify strains of capripoxvirus for epidemiological investigations. strains of capripoxvirus infecting cattle have remained very stable over a 30-year period and are closely related to strains recovered from sheep in africa.19892539299
antibodies to some pathogenic agents in free-living wild species in tanzania.a total of 535 sera from eight species of wildlife were collected from different game areas in tanzania between 1987 and 1989. these sera were tested for antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease, bovine herpes virus types 1 and 2, lumpy skin disease, bovine viral diarrhoea, akabane, bovine ephemeral fever, bluetongue, enzootic bovine leucosis, african horse sickness and african swine fever viruses and brucella abortus based on the expected species susceptibility. sera from buffalo syncerus caff ...19902123458
the isolation of lumpy skin disease virus and bovine herpesvirus-4 from cattle in egypt.lumpy skin disease (lsd) virus (lsdv) was isolated for the first time from cattle in egypt in 2 disease outbreaks. bovine herpesvirus-4 (bhv-4) and lsdv were detected in a pooled sample from the first outbreak (suez). only lsdv was isolated from the second outbreak (ismalia). the capripoxviruses were identified as lsdv by neutralization with specific antiserum and by their ability to produce generalized lsd in experimentally inoculated cattle.19901965577
[lumpy skin disease in cattle. ii. production of a lyophilized vaccine using live virus]. 1979554280
genome of deerpox virus.deerpox virus (dpv), an uncharacterized and unclassified member of the poxviridae, has been isolated from north american free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) exhibiting mucocutaneous disease. here we report the genomic sequence and comparative analysis of two pathogenic dpv isolates, w-848-83 (w83) and w-1170-84 (w84). the w83 and w84 genomes are 166 and 170 kbp, containing 169 and 170 putative genes, respectively. nucleotide identity between dpvs is 95% over the central 157 kbp. w83 and ...200515613325
evaluation of lumpy skin disease virus, a capripoxvirus, as a replication-deficient vaccine vector.lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv), a capripoxvirus with a host range limited to ruminants, was evaluated as a replication-deficient vaccine vector for use in non-ruminant hosts. by using the rabies virus glycoprotein (rg) as a model antigen, it was demonstrated that recombinant lsdv encoding the rabies glycoprotein (rlsdv-rg) was able to express rg in both permissive (ruminant) and non-permissive (non-ruminant) cells. the recombinant lsdv, however, replicated to maturity only in permissive but not ...200312867628
immune responses to recombinants of the south african vaccine strain of lumpy skin disease virus generated by using thymidine kinase gene insertion.the south african vaccine strain of lumpy skin disease virus (type sa-neethling) is currently being developed as a vector for recombinant vaccines of economically important livestock diseases throughout africa. in this study, the feasibility of using the viral thymidine kinase gene as the site of insertion was investigated and recombinant viruses were evaluated in animal trials. two separate recombinants were generated and selected for homogeneity expressing either the structural glycoprotein ge ...200515811653
absence of lumpy skin disease virus in semen of vaccinated bulls following vaccination and subsequent experimental infection.twelve serologically negative bulls were used, six were vaccinated with a modified live lsd vaccine and six unvaccinated. all were then experimentally infected with a virulent field strain of lsdv. no clinical abnormality was detected following vaccination, and mild clinical signs were seen in four vaccinated bulls following challenge. virus was not found in semen of vaccinated bulls. two of the unvaccinated bulls developed severe lsd and four showed mild symptoms, all excreted the virus in the ...200717250934
elimination of toxicity and enhanced detection of lumpy skin disease virus on cell culture from experimentally infected bovine semen samples.lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv), a poxvirus of the genus capripoxvirus, is shed in the semen of infected bulls. the screening of semen for infectious virus requires a sensitive diagnostic method. the isolation of the virus on cell cultures and/or the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) are sensitive diagnostic tests which may be used to screen semen for lsd viral dna prior to artificial insemination. although cell culture detects infectious virus and is a sensitive method, there are major difficulti ...200617283726
quantification of lumpy skin disease virus following experimental infection in cattle.lumpy skin disease along with sheep pox and goatpox are the most serious poxvirus diseases of livestock, and are caused by viruses that belong to the genus capripoxvirus within the subfamily chordopoxvirinae, family poxviridae. to facilitate the study of lumpy skin disease pathogenesis, we inoculated eight 4- to 6-month-old holstein calves intravenously with lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) and collected samples over a period of 42 days for analysis by virus isolation, real-time pcr and light mic ...200818503511
sites of persistence of lumpy skin disease virus in the genital tract of experimentally infected bulls.the objectives of this work were to determine the site of persistence of lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) in bulls shedding the virus in semen for a period longer than 28 days, to determine if the virus is present in all fractions of semen and to study lesions that developed in the genital tract. six serologically negative postpubertal bulls were experimentally infected with a virulent field isolate of lsdv. the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was performed on sheath washes, vesicular fluid, supe ...201019055553
serodiagnosis of sheeppox and goatpox using an indirect elisa based on synthetic peptide targeting for the major antigen p32.sheeppoxvirus (sppv), goatpoxvirus (gtpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) of cattle belong to the capripoxvirus genus of the poxviridae family and can cause significant economic losses in countries where they are endemic. despite the considerable threat that these viruses pose to livestock production and global trade in sheep, goats, cattle and their products, convenient and effective serodiagnostic tools are not readily available. toward this goal, two synthetic peptides corresponding to th ...201020854693
detection of lumpy skin disease virus antigen and genomic dna in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from an egyptian outbreak in outbreak of lumpy skin disease (lsd) was reported in 2006 in egypt affecting 16 provinces. biopsies and post-mortem tissue samples were collected from calves that showed typical clinical signs of lsd and fixed in formalin. these samples were collected from a private dairy farm in the damietta province of egypt. formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples were assessed using histology, and skin lesions were classified as either acute or subacute/chronic. both lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv ...201121699673
neutralising antibodies to lumpy skin disease virus in african wildlife.a total of 3445 sera from 44 different wild species collected between 1963 and 1982 in 11 african countries south of the sahara, were examined for neutralising antibodies to lumpy skin diseases (lsd) virus (prototype neethling). antibodies were demonstrated in six species but were of low prevalence. it was concluded from the generally negative results, that wildlife in africa probably does not play a very important part in he perpetuation and spread of lsd virus.19836627909
mathematical modelling and evaluation of the different routes of transmission of lumpy skin disease virus.abstract: lumpy skin disease (lsd) is a severe viral disease of cattle. circumstantial evidence suggests that the virus is transmitted mechanically by blood-feeding arthropods. we compared the importance of transmission via direct and indirect contact in field conditions by using mathematical tools. we analyzed a dataset collected during the lsd outbreak in 2006 in a large dairy herd, which included ten separated cattle groups. outbreak dynamics and risk factors for lsd were assessed by a transm ...201222236452
capripoxvirus disease in an arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) from saudi arabia.lumpy skin disease caused by a capripoxvirus was observed in a captive-bred female arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) at the national wildlife research center, taif, saudi arabia. clinical signs included severe general depression with fever, anorexia, greater than 1,000 nodular cutaneous lesions and gradual recovery over 2 mo. the virus was found by electron microscopy and paired sera showed an increasing virus neutralization antibody titer against capripoxvirus. a serologic survey of the herd of 90 o ...19921602585
excretion of lumpy skin disease virus in bull semen.this work was done to establish the incidence and duration of excretion of lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) in semen of experimentally infected susceptible bulls. six serologically negative bulls 11-20 months of age were experimentally infected with a virulent field isolate (strain v248/93) of lsdv. animals were observed for the development of clinical signs, blood was collected until day 90 after infection, and semen was collected every second day until day 18, then twice a week till day 63 and ...200515725437
improved method for the generation and selection of homogeneous lumpy skin disease virus (sa-neethling) recombinants.lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) is being developed as a vector for recombinant vaccines against diseases of veterinary importance. a strategy for generating viral thymidine kinase (tk) gene-disrupted recombinants which are stable and homogeneous using the south african neethling vaccine strain of lsdv as vector has been developed. to assist with the selection process, the escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (lacz) visual marker gene was incorporated into the constructs. however, the use of lacz ...200717644196
the use of lumpy skin disease virus genome termini for detection and phylogenetic analysis.during 2006 and 2007 there were two outbreaks of lumpy skin disease (lsd) in israel. an lsd virus (lsdv)-specific pcr assay was developed that can detected specifically lsdv even though the number of tested lsdv isolates were limited. full-length sheep pox and lsdv genome sequences were aligned to find non-homologous regions, which were then used for preparing specific primers, whose specificity was tested against several lsdv dna isolates and the system could detect all the different isolates. ...200818582954
evaluation of different diagnostic methods for diagnosis of lumpy skin disease in cows.viral isolation, polymerase chain reaction (pcr), dot blot hybridization (dbh), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ielisa) were used for the diagnosis of lumpy skin disease in clinically infected, fevered, and apparently normal dairy cows. lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) was isolated from skin biopsies and blood samples collected from clinically infected cows in percentages of 72% and 20%, respectively. the virus recovered from blood samples collected from fevered cows in percentage ...201019882228
use of the capripoxvirus homologue of vaccinia virus 30 kda rna polymerase subunit (rpo30) gene as a novel diagnostic and genotyping target: development of a classical pcr method to differentiate goat poxvirus from sheep poxvirus.sheep poxvirus (sppv), goat poxvirus (gtpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) are capripoxviruses (capvs) responsible for causing severe poxvirus disease in sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. serological differentiation of capvs is not possible and strain identification has relied on the implicitly accepted hypothesis that the viruses show well defined host specificity. however, it is now known that cross infections can occur and authentication of identity based on the host animal species ...201021115310
sequence analysis of attachment gene of lumpy skin disease and sheep egypt, protection of cattle against lumpy skin disease (lsd) was carried out using a sheep poxvirus (kenyan strain) vaccination strategy. in the present study 15 skin nodules from lsd suspected cows and 5 scab samples from sheep pox (sp) suspected sheep were collected. hyperimmune rabbit sera to lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv)/ismailyia88 strain and sheep pox virus (spv)/ kenyan vaccinal strain were prepared. the causative agent in the collected samples was identified using immunoflourescence ...201021221919
using synoptic systems' typical wind trajectories for the analysis of potential atmospheric long-distance dispersal of lumpy skin disease virus.lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) is an infectious, arthropod-borne virus that affects mostly cattle. solitary outbreaks have occurred in israel in 1989 and 2006. in both years, the outbreaks occurred parallel to a severe outbreak in egypt, and lsdv was hypothesized to be transmitted from egypt to israel via long-distance dispersal (ldd) of infected vectors by wind. the aim of this study was to identify possible events of such transport. at the first stage, we identified the relevant synoptic syst ...201726011073
adverse reactions to field vaccination against lumpy skin disease in jordan.lumpy skin disease (lsd) is an emerging disease in the middle east region and has been recently reported in jordan. the aim of this study was to investigate the adverse reactions that were reported after vaccine administration. geographical areas enrolled in the study were free of the disease and away from the outbreak governorate. sixty-three dairy cattle farms, with a total of 19,539 animals, were included in the study. of those, 56 farms reported adverse clinical signs after vaccine administr ...201625098267
capripoxvirus g-protein-coupled chemokine receptor: a host-range gene suitable for virus animal origin discrimination.the genus capripoxvirus within the family poxviridae comprises three closely related viruses, namely goat pox, sheep pox and lumpy skin disease viruses. this nomenclature is based on the animal species from which the virus was first isolated, respectively, goat, sheep and cattle. since capripoxviruses are serologically identical, their specific identification relies exclusively on the use of molecular tools. we describe here the suitability of the g-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (gpcr) gene ...200919339476
detection of capripoxvirus dna using a field-ready nucleic acid extraction and real-time pcr platform.capripoxviruses, comprising sheep pox virus, goat pox virus and lumpy skin disease virus cause serious diseases of domesticated ruminants, notifiable to the world organization for animal health. this report describes the evaluation of a mobile diagnostic system (enigma field laboratory) that performs automated sequential steps for nucleic acid extraction and real-time pcr to detect capripoxvirus dna within laboratory and endemic field settings. to prepare stable reagents that could be deployed i ...201526608662
a lumpy skin disease virus deficient of an il-10 gene homologue provides protective immunity against virulent capripoxvirus challenge in sheep and goats.sheep and goat pox continue to be important livestock diseases that pose a major threat to the livestock industry in many regions in africa and asia. currently, several live attenuated vaccines are available and used in endemic countries to control these diseases. one of these is a partially attenuated strain of lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv), ks-1, which provides cross-protection against both sheep pox and goat pox. however, when used in highly stressed dairy cattle to protect against lumpy sk ...201526341190
common, emerging, vector-borne and infrequent abortogenic virus infections of cattle.this review deals with the aetiology and the diagnosis of bovine viral abortion. while the abortion rates on beef and dairy cattle farms usually do not exceed 10%, significant economic losses because of abortion storms may be encountered. determining the cause of abortions is usually a challenge, and it generally remains obscure in more than 50% of the necropsy submitted foetuses. bovine viral diarrhoea virus and bovine herpesvirus-1 are the most common viruses causally associated with bovine ab ...201121733134
evaluation of indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) for the diagnosis and screening of lumpy skin disease using bayesian method.the performance of indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat) for serological diagnosis and screening of lumpy skin disease (lsd) was evaluated using methods without gold standard. virus neutralization test (vnt) was used as the second test and the study sites were selected from two different geographical places in ethiopia to get different disease prevalence. the analysis of conditional dependent bayesian model for the accuracy of ifat showed that sensitivity, specificity, prevalence of the pop ...200818242888
appearance of skin lesions in cattle populations vaccinated against lumpy skin disease: statutory challenge.the ultimate goal of a vaccine is to protect vaccinated animals against re-exposure to the same pathogen and provide sterile immunity. however, a cutaneous clinical manifestation appeared, following re-exposure of cattle that had been vaccinated with the rm65 strain, to lsdv infection during an epidemic in 2006-2007. four thousand six hundred and seven vaccinated cows entered the study after being re-exposed to lsdv infection. of them, 513 (11%) presented lumps, and there was a marked difference ...200919186204
a potential role for ixodid (hard) tick vectors in the transmission of lumpy skin disease virus in cattle.lumpy skin disease (lsd) is an economically important cattle disease. the disease is endemic in many african countries, but outbreaks have also been reported in madagascar and the middle east. the aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of ixodid (hard) ticks in the transmission of the disease. cattle were infected with a virulent, south african field isolate of lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv). three common african tick species (genera rhipicephalus, amblyomma and rhipicephalus ( ...201021114790
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