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heterologous priming-boosting immunization of cattle with mycobacterium tuberculosis 85a induces antigen-specific t-cell responses.heterologous priming-boosting vaccination regimens involving priming with plasmid dna antigen constructs and inoculating (boosting) with the same recombinant antigen expressed in replication-attenuated poxviruses have recently been demonstrated to induce immunity, based on cd4(+)- and cd8(+)-t-cell responses, against several diseases in both rodents and primates. we show that similar priming-boosting vaccination strategies using the 85a antigen of mycobacterium tuberculosis are effective in indu ...200314638779
genomes of the parapoxviruses orf virus and bovine papular stomatitis virus.bovine papular stomatitis virus (bpsv) and orf virus (orfv), members of the genus parapoxvirus of the poxviridae, are etiologic agents of worldwide diseases affecting cattle and small ruminants, respectively. here we report the genomic sequences and comparative analysis of bpsv strain bv-ar02 and orfv strains ov-sa00, isolated from a goat, and ov-ia82, isolated from a sheep. parapoxvirus (ppv) bv-ar02, ov-sa00, and ov-ia82 genomes range in size from 134 to 139 kbp, with an average nucleotide com ...200414671098
inexpensive vaccines and rapid diagnostic kits tailor-made for the global eradication of rinderpest, and technology transfer to africa and asia.rinderpest is an acute and highly contagious viral disease of ruminants, often resulting in greater than 90% mortality. we previously reported the development of first- and second-generation recombinant vaccinia virus vaccines which provide complete protection against rinderpest virus (rpv) and peste-des-petits ruminants virus (pprv). these vaccines are safe even for immunodeficient mice and macaques with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. we developed a third-generation recombinant vaccinia vi ...200314677681
t cells from a high proportion of apparently naive cattle can be activated by modified vaccinia virus ankara (mva).modified vaccinia virus ankara (mva) was used as a vector to express genes from bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv). using these recombinant viruses as recall antigens for cells from brsv-immuned cattle proved to be problematic because non-recombinant mva itself frequently stimulated high levels of t lymphocyte activation. this phenomenon was observed in a high percentage of cattle from multiple herds. gamma delta tcr(+) t cells were more sensitive to activation by mva than other classes o ...200415018661
cellular immune responses induced in cattle by heterologous prime-boost vaccination using recombinant viruses and bacille calmette-guérin.the development of novel vaccine strategies to replace or supplement bacille calmette-guérin (bcg) is urgently required. here we study, in cattle, the use of heterologous prime-boost strategies based on vaccination with bcg and the mycobacterial mycolyl transferase ag85a (rv3804c) expressed either in recombinant modified vaccinia virus ankara (mva85a) or attenuated fowlpox strain fp9 (fp85a). five different vaccination schedules were tested in the first experiment: mva85a followed by bcg (group ...200415196215
appearance of the bona fide spiral tubule of orf virus is dependent on an intact 10-kilodalton viral protein.parapoxviruses can be morphologically distinguished from other poxviruses in conventional negative staining electron microscopy (em) by their ovoid appearance and the spiral tubule surrounding the virion's surface. however, this technique may introduce artifacts. we have examined orf virus (orfv; the prototype species of the parapoxvirus genus) by cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-em) and cryo-negative staining em. from these studies we suggest that the shape and unique spiral tubule are authentic f ...200415254180
inactivation of west nile virus, vaccinia virus and viral surrogates for relevant and emergent viral pathogens in plasma-derived products.human plasma is the source of a wide variety of therapeutic proteins, yet it is also a potential source of viral contamination. recent outbreaks of emergent viral pathogens, such as west nile virus, and the use of live vaccinia virus as a vaccine have prompted a reassessment of the viral safety of plasma-derived products. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of current viral inactivation methods for west nile and vaccinia viruses and to reassess the use of model viruses to pred ...200415260817
involvement of a bovine viral diarrhea virus ns5b locus in virion assembly.a novel mutant of bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) was found with a virion assembly phenotype attributable to an insertion into the ns5b polymerase locus. this mutant, termed 5b-741, was engineered by reverse genetics to express ns5b with a c-terminal peptide tag of 22 amino acids. electroporation of bovine cells with genomic rna from this mutant showed levels rna synthesis which were regarded as sufficient for infectivity, yet infectious virions were not produced. pseudorevertants of mutant 5 ...200415331694
genome of deerpox virus.deerpox virus (dpv), an uncharacterized and unclassified member of the poxviridae, has been isolated from north american free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) exhibiting mucocutaneous disease. here we report the genomic sequence and comparative analysis of two pathogenic dpv isolates, w-848-83 (w83) and w-1170-84 (w84). the w83 and w84 genomes are 166 and 170 kbp, containing 169 and 170 putative genes, respectively. nucleotide identity between dpvs is 95% over the central 157 kbp. w83 and ...200515613325
tb vaccines for the world.in september 2003, montreal hosted the first international conference on "tb vaccines for the world". the timing of the conference was prescient. two major contracts for screening tb vaccines, the nih vaccine screening contract and the european union fifth framework tb vaccine cluster were coming to an end as was a major 5 year international initiative to develop vaccines against bovine tuberculosis. for the first time the tb vaccine community was getting a glimpse of the most promising vaccine ...200515687020
immunization with a bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein b dna vaccine induces cytotoxic t-lymphocyte responses in mice and cattle.virus-specific cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctls) are considered to be important in protection against and recovery from viral infections. in this study, several approaches to induce cytotoxicity against bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) were evaluated. vaccination of c57bl/6 mice with bhv-1 induced a strong humoral, but no ctl, response, which may be due to downregulation of major histocompatibility complex class i molecules. in contrast, vaccinia virus expressing glycoprotein b (gb) elicited a weaker a ...200515784883
n-linked keratan sulfate in the aggrecan interglobular domain potentiates aggrecanase activity.keratan sulfate is thought to influence the cleavage of aggrecan by metalloenzymes. we have therefore produced a recombinant substrate, substituted with keratan sulfate, suitable for the study of aggrecanolysis in vitro. recombinant human g1-g2 was produced in primary bovine keratocytes using a vaccinia virus expression system. following purification and digestion with specific hydrolases, fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis was used to confirm the presence of the monosulfated gal- ...200515849197
contact inactivation of orthopoxviruses by household disinfectants.the aim of this study is to identify common household disinfectants that combine significant activity against the type orthopoxvirus, vaccinia virus with minimal impact in terms of potential toxicity and/or damage to household or personal items.200516033458
recent advances in the development of adenovirus- and poxvirus-vectored tuberculosis vaccines.tuberculosis vaccine research began with the search for a vaccine that might be better than, and thus could replace, the current bacillus calmette guérin (bcg) vaccine. over the last fifteen years or so, intense research effort has led to the identification of a number of novel tuberculosis (tb) vaccines which can be divided into 4 categories: genetically modified mycobacteria, protein, plasmid dna and viral. however, it is increasingly believed that the current bcg vaccine will continue to be u ...200516250889
vaccinia virus complement control protein ameliorates collagen-induced arthritic mice.the main objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficiency of recombinant vaccinia virus complement control protein (rvcp) on collagen-induced arthritis (cia) in dba-1/j mice. arthritis was induced in dba-1j mice by injecting bovine collagen emulsified in complete freunds adjuvant. we used rvcp to block complement activation and investigated its effect on different aspects of cia including osteoclast formation and bone destruction. the osteoclast-like cells were detected usin ...200516387677
herbal complement inhibitors in the treatment of neuroinflammation: future strategy for neuroprotection.the upregulated complement system plays a damaging role in disorders of the central nervous system (cns). the classical and alternate pathways are two major pathways activated in neuroinflammatory disorders such as alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, hiv-associated dementia, parkinson's disease, and mad cow disease. failure of currently available anti-inflammatory agents, especially cyclooxygenase inhibitors, in offering significant neuroprotectio ...200516387706
a real time pcr assay for the detection and quantification of orf virus.a real time quantitative pcr assay based on taqman technology was developed for orf virus (orfv) dna quantification in clinical samples, infected cells and organotypic cultures. this method was based on the amplification of a 70 bp fragment from the orfv b2l gene (orthologue of the vaccinia virus copenhagen f13l gene) that encodes the major envelope protein. both intra- and inter-assay variability were well within +/-0.25 log(10) s.d. showing the high efficiency and reproducibility of the assay. ...200616430972
dissection of a viral autoprotease elucidates a function of a cellular chaperone in proteolysis.replication of positive-strand rna viruses involves translation of polyproteins which are proteolytically processed into functional peptides. these maturation steps often involve virus-encoded autoproteases specialized in generating their own n or c termini. nonstructural protein 2 (ns2) of the pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus represents such an enzyme. bovine viral diarrhea virus ns2 creates in cis its own c terminus and thereby releases an essential viral replication factor. as a unique ...200616432213
passatempo virus, a vaccinia virus strain, brazil.passatempo virus was isolated during a zoonotic outbreak. biologic features and molecular characterization of hemagglutinin, thymidine kinase, and vaccinia growth factor genes suggested a vaccinia virus infection, which strengthens the idea of the reemergence and circulation of vaccinia virus in brazil. molecular polymorphisms indicated that passatempo virus is a different isolate.200516485483
a pcr-based assay for detection of emerging vaccinia-like viruses isolated in brazil.we report 2 strategies to identify brazilian vaccinia virus (vacv) isolates related to cantagalo virus (ctgv) based on the amplification of the hemagglutinin (ha) gene by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). one pcr protocol was combined with restriction analysis using the endonuclease snab i, generating a unique digestion pattern for ctgv amplicons. the restriction profile could identify 41 ctgv-related isolates in 43 clinical specimens and clearly differentiated them from other orthopoxviruses ...200716949244
short report: isolation of two vaccinia virus strains from a single bovine vaccinia outbreak in rural area from brazil: implications on the emergence of zoonotic orthopoxviruses.outbreaks of bovine vaccinia disease caused by circulation of vaccinia virus (vacv) strains have been a common occurrence in brazil in the recent years, being an important emergent zoonosis. during a single outbreak that took place in 2001, two genetically different vacv strains were isolated and named guarani p1 virus (gp1v) and guarani p2 virus (gp2v). molecular diagnosis was done through restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) of ati gene (a26l) and by sequence analysis of a group of ...200616968926
a pacs-1, gga3 and ck2 complex regulates ci-mpr trafficking.the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (ci-mpr) follows a highly regulated sorting itinerary to deliver hydrolases from the trans-golgi network (tgn) to lysosomes. cycling of ci-mpr between the tgn and early endosomes is mediated by gga3, which directs tgn export, and pacs-1, which directs endosome-to-tgn retrieval. despite executing opposing sorting steps, gga3 and pacs-1 bind to an overlapping ci-mpr trafficking motif and their sorting activity is controlled by the ck2 phosphoryla ...200616977309
coated microneedles for transdermal delivery.coated microneedles have been shown to deliver proteins and dna into the skin in a minimally invasive manner. however, detailed studies examining coating methods and their breadth of applicability are lacking. this study's goal was to develop a simple, versatile and controlled microneedle coating process to make uniform coatings on microneedles and establish the breadth of molecules and particles that can be coated onto microneedles. first, microneedles were fabricated from stainless steel sheet ...200717169459
use of atomic force microscopy as a diagnostic tool to identify orthopoxvirus.atomic force microscopy (afm) is a versatile technique that permits the imaging of surfaces and generates topographical images from a variety of materials. due to the fact that afm requires minimum sample manipulation, it is a valuable tool for studying biological materials such as cells, dna, bacteria and viruses. the aim of the present study was to standardize the afm technique as a diagnostic tool for detection of naturally occurring orthopoxviruses. the samples analyzed were collected during ...200717239966
mva e2 recombinant vaccine in the treatment of human papillomavirus infection in men presenting intraurethral flat condyloma: a phase i/ii study.human papillomavirus (hpv) is the etiologic agent for warts and cervical cancer. in mexico, the death rate from cervical cancer is extremely high, and statistical data show that since 1990 the number of deaths is increasing. condylomas and cancer of the penis are the most common lesions presented in men; bladder and prostate cancer in men are also associated with the presence of hpv. since hpv is transmitted by sexual intercourse, treating both partners is necessary in order to eliminate the vir ...200717263589
zoonotic vaccinia virus infection in brazil: clinical description and implications for health professionals.bovine vaccinia virus outbreaks have been occurring in different regions of brazil. we report here the time course of natural human infection by vaccinia virus and describe important clinical and epidemiological aspects of this zoonotic infection. the diagnosis of vaccinia virus infection was based on clinical, serological, and molecular procedures.200717287326
suitability of vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) for determining activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs against enveloped viruses.a procedure for including activity against enveloped viruses in the post-contamination treatment of hands has been recommended, but so far no european standard is available to implement it. in 2004, the german robert koch-institute (rki) and the german association for the control of virus disease (dvv) suggested that vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) should be used as test viruses in a quantitative suspension test to determine the activity of a disinfectant against all envelo ...200717291338
generation of linear expression constructs by one-step pcr with vaccinia dna topoisomerase i.linear expression constructs can facilitate gene function studies. we describe a method to generate linear expression constructs for mammalian cells by one-step polymerase chain reaction (pcr) with vaccinia dna topoisomerase i (topo). cytomegalovirus (cmv) 5\' promoter, the gene of interest, and v5 bovine growth hormone (bgh) polya 3\' terminator elements were pcr-amplified with target-specific primers containing vaccinia dna topo-specific sequence and complementary sequence to each other. we am ...200717401145
vaccination with recombinant modified vaccinia virus ankara expressing bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) proteins protects calves against rsv challenge.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is a major cause of severe respiratory disease in infants and calves. bovine rsv (brsv) is a natural pathogen for cattle, and brsv infection in calves shares many features with the human infection. thus, brsv infection in cattle provides the ideal setting to evaluate the safety and efficacy of novel rsv vaccine strategies. here, we have evaluated the efficacy and safety of modified vaccinia virus ankara (rmva)-based vaccine candidates, expressing the bovine rsv- ...200717499893
improved method for the generation and selection of homogeneous lumpy skin disease virus (sa-neethling) recombinants.lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) is being developed as a vector for recombinant vaccines against diseases of veterinary importance. a strategy for generating viral thymidine kinase (tk) gene-disrupted recombinants which are stable and homogeneous using the south african neethling vaccine strain of lsdv as vector has been developed. to assist with the selection process, the escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (lacz) visual marker gene was incorporated into the constructs. however, the use of lacz ...200717644196
an ectromelia virus profilin homolog interacts with cellular tropomyosin and viral a-type inclusion protein.profilins are critical to cytoskeletal dynamics in eukaryotes; however, little is known about their viral counterparts. in this study, a poxviral profilin homolog, ectromelia virus strain moscow gene 141 (ectv-ph), was investigated by a variety of experimental and bioinformatics techniques to characterize its interactions with cellular and viral proteins.200717650322
buffalopox: an emerging and re-emerging zoonosis.outbreaks of buffalopox or pox-like infections affecting buffaloes, cows and humans have been recorded in many parts of the world. since the first outbreak in india, a large number of epidemics have occurred. unlike in the previous years, generalized forms of the disease are now rare; however, there are severe local forms of the disease affecting the udder and teats, leading to mastitis thereby undermining the productivity of milk animals. the causative agent buffalopox virus (bpxv) is a member ...200717692147
evaluation of the recognition of theileria parva vaccine candidate antigens by cytotoxic t lymphocytes from zebu cattle.east coast fever (ecf) is a highly fatal lymphoproliferative disease of cattle caused by theileria parva, a tick-borne intracellular apicomplexan parasite. parasite antigens that are targets of protective cytotoxic t lymphocyte (ctl) responses are required to formulate a sub-unit vaccine against ecf. a number of ctl target antigens have recently been identified and initial evaluation has shown their vaccine potential. this study aimed to evaluate whether these antigens were recognised by ctl obt ...200817983665
brazilian vaccinia virus strains are genetically divergent and differ from the lister vaccine strain.vaccinia virus is responsible for an important zoonotic disease affecting dairy cattle and humans in brazil, but little is known about the origin, epidemiology and evolution of these brazilian vaccinia virus strains. in this work, seven brazilian vaccinia virus strains and the lister-derived brazilian vaccine strain, named lister-butantan, were compared based on the sequences of ten host range and virulence related genes. comparison of brazilian vaccinia virus strains with lister-butantan reveal ...200818248758
acam2000: a newly licensed cell culture-based live vaccinia smallpox vaccine.due to concern over i) expiration of currently available calf-lymph vaccine (dryvax); ii) calf lymph as a vaccine (bovine spongiform encephalopathy [bse], other possible contaminations and animal welfare); and iii) use of variola as a weapon for bioterrorism, a new and safer vaccinia-based smallpox vaccine derived from new cell culture-based technology was proposed. federally funded work by acambis, inc. resulted in fda approval for acam2000 in august 2007.200818363519
real-time pcr assay to identify variants of vaccinia virus: implications for the diagnosis of bovine vaccinia in brazil.naturally occurring infections of vaccinia virus (vacv) have been recognized in brazil during the past 10 years. human brazilian vaccinia virus (bvv) infections typically occur as a zoonosis transferred from affected dairy cows to their handlers. outbreaks have caused notable economic losses to the rural community in the region. the origins of bvv are unclear but previous analyses have shown that at least two distinct clades of bvv exist. the aim of this study was to develop a rapid and inexpens ...200818602170
antigenic characterization of bovine ephemeral fever rhabdovirus g and gns glycoproteins expressed from recombinant baculoviruses.recombinant baculoviruses expressing the befv envelope glycoprotein g and non-structural glycoprotein g(ns) were constructed. the g protein expressed in insect cells was located on the cell surface and induced spontaneous cell fusion at mildly acidic ph. the expressed g protein reacted with mabs to continuous and conformational neutralization sites (g1, g2, g3b and g4), but not to conformational site g3a. the expressed g(ns) protein was also located on the cell surface but did not exhibit fusoge ...200818626567
virulence in murine model shows the existence of two distinct populations of brazilian vaccinia virus strains.brazilian vaccinia virus had been isolated from sentinel mice, rodents and recently from humans, cows and calves during outbreaks on dairy farms in several rural areas in brazil, leading to high economic and social impact. some phylogenetic studies have demonstrated the existence of two different populations of brazilian vaccinia virus strains circulating in nature, but little is known about their biological characteristics. therefore, our goal was to study the virulence pattern of seven brazili ...200818725979
sequence analysis of c18l gene of buffalopox virus: pcr strategy for specific detection and differentiation of buffalopox from orthopoxviruses.the c18l gene of buffalopox virus (bpxv), a homologue of vaccinia virus (vacv), which encodes the ankyrin repeat protein was sequenced and analyzed to elucidate its genetic relationship with vacvs and also to devise a pcr strategy for the diagnosis of buffalopox. pcr amplification and sequencing of the c18l gene of bpxv-bp4 revealed the truncated ankyrin protein with a coding region consisting of only 50 amino acids (aa) as against a 150-aa-long peptide expressed by vacv (copenhagen strain). bpx ...200818790707
in vitro activity of cidofovir against the emerging cantagalo virus and the smallpox vaccine strain ioc.the antiviral effect of cidofovir was evaluated against two strains of vaccinia virus: the field strain cantagalo virus (ctgv) and the smallpox vaccine ioc. the drug severely inhibited virus replication, revealing an ec(50) (drug concentration required to inhibit 50% of virus replication) of 7.68 microm and 9.66 microm, respectively, for ctgv and vaccine strain ioc. similarly, other field isolates of cantagalo-like viruses recently collected in distinct outbreaks were equally sensitive to the dr ...200918804965
images in clinical tropical medicine: vaccinia virus in humans and cattle in southwest region of sao paulo state, brazil. 200818981496
vaccinia virus in humans and cattle in southwest region of sao paulo state, brazil.a new outbreak of vaccinia virus was observed in southwest region of são paulo state, brazil. the disease was observed in four small dairy farms with manual milking. lesions were detected in cattle and in humans previously vaccinated and not vaccinated against smallpox. although several reports of vaccinia virus outbreaks have been occurring in brazil, it was not yet reported in this region. this outbreak reinforces the viral circulation in our country. the disease in persons previously vaccinat ...200818981497
vaccinia virus: shedding and horizontal transmission in a murine model.vaccinia virus (vacv) has been associated with several bovine vaccinia outbreaks in brazil, affecting cattle and humans. there are no available data about vacv environmental circulation or the role of wildlife in the emergence of an outbreak. since vacv was isolated from rodents in brazil, we investigated shedding and transmission of vacv strains in mice. the vacv excretion profile was assessed by pcr and chicken chorioallantoic membrane infection, revealing viral dna and infectious virus in the ...200819008383
[human infection by the cowpox virus in the microregion of itajubá, state of minas gerais: case report].the authors report three human cases of cowpox infection, among farm workers who were manually milking infected cows, in the microregion of itajubá, minas gerais. the diagnostic techniques used were: isolation of samples similar to the vaccinia virus, from skin lesion secretions; polymerase chain reaction; electronic microscopy; and antibodies for orthopoxvirus in the patients' blood.200819009196
antiviral activity of benzimidazole derivatives. i. antiviral activity of 1-substituted-2-[(benzotriazol-1/2-yl)methyl]benzimidazoles.forty-three 2-[(benzotriazol-1/2-yl)methyl]benzimidazoles, bearing either linear (dialkylamino)alkyl- or bulkier (quinolizidin-1-yl)alkyl moieties at position 1, were evaluated in cell-based assays for cytotoxicity and antiviral activity against viruses representative of two of the three genera of the flaviviridae family, i.e. flaviviruses (yellow fever virus (yfv)) and pestiviruses (bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv)), as hepaciviruses can hardly be used in routine cell-based assays. compounds ...200819035566
testing thermal resistance of viruses.representative viral strains recommended for virucidal testing of biocides in human medicine were used for testing viral resistance to dry heat using the new keredusy hot instrument. the results demonstrate that poliovirus type 1 could be inactivated by treatment at 75 degrees c for 1 h. for inactivation of adenovirus type 5, 2 h at 85 degrees c was needed. the infectivity of polyomavirus sv40 could only be influenced significantly by a temperature of 95 degrees c over a period of 1 h, whereas v ...200919039515
zoonotic vaccinia virus: clinical and immunological characteristics in a naturally infected patient.vaccinia virus was used as vaccine to eradicate smallpox. we report a zoonotic case of vaccinia virus infection in a 30-year-old patient who became infected after handling sick dairy cattle. the patient had inflamed lesions and systemic symptoms. laboratory findings were indicative of down-modulated immune responses to the virus.200919115976
expression and characterization of bovine lactoperoxidase by recombinant vaccinia virus.lactoperoxidase (lpo) is a 78 kda heme-containing oxidation-reduction enzyme present in milk, found in physiological fluids of mammals. lpo has an antimicrobial activity, and presumably contribute to the protective functions of milk against infectious diseases. in this study, recombinant vaccinia virus expressing bovine lpo (vv/blpo) was constructed. in rabbit kidney (rk13) cells infected with vv/blpo, recombinant blpo was detected in both cell extracts and culture supernatants. tunicamycin trea ...200919214766
[examination of biocides for their effectiveness against animal viruses according to european union standards with emphasis on the selection of a suitable test virus].because of the changes to be expected in the methods for testing disinfectants deemed to be used in the veterinary field, candidate viral species were evaluated for their suitability as test virus. considered viral species included different non-enveloped viruses [bovine enterovirus type 1 (ecbo (enteric cytopathogenic bovine orphan) virus), mammalian reovirus type 1, feline calici virus (fcv), and bovine parvovirus (bpv)], as well as enveloped viruses, as equine arteritisvirus (eav), bovine her ...200919226936
natural human infections with vaccinia virus during bovine vaccinia outbreaks.bovine vaccinia is an exanthematic disease caused by vaccinia virus (vacv). this zoonosis has been associated with several cases of bovine infection, particularly in milk herds. farmers, milkers and their close contacts developed lesions on the hands, forearms, legs and face accompanied by fever, headache, malaise, myalgia and axillary, inguinal and cervical lymphadenopathy. vacv infections have a significant public health impact due to their occupational character, high frequency of transmissio ...200919243990
a replicon trans-packaging system reveals the requirement of nonstructural proteins for the assembly of bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) virion.a selective trans-packaging system was developed to produce and isolate bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) pseudo-particles with complementing reporter replicons and their packaging proteins expressed in trans with recombinant vaccinia virus. the encapsidation of replicon rns3-5b was dependent not only on the in trans expression of structural proteins c, e(rns), e1 and e2, but also the nonstructural proteins, p7 and contiguous precursor ns2-3-4a. nonstructural p7, ns4b, ns5a or ns5b could be exp ...200919327808
viral booster vaccines improve mycobacterium bovis bcg-induced protection against bovine tuberculosis.previous work with small-animal laboratory models of tuberculosis has shown that vaccination strategies based on heterologous prime-boost protocols using mycobacterium bovis bacillus calmette-guérin (bcg) to prime and modified vaccinia virus ankara strain (mva85a) or recombinant attenuated adenoviruses (ad85a) expressing the mycobacterial antigen ag85a to boost may increase the protective efficacy of bcg. here we report the first efficacy data on using these vaccines in cattle, a natural target ...200919487476
neospora caninum--how close are we to development of an efficacious vaccine that prevents abortion in cattle?neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes abortion in cattle around the world. although the clinical signs of disease in both dogs and cattle have now been recognised for over 20years, treatment and control options are still limited, despite the availability of a commercial vaccine in some countries of the world. the case for an efficacious vaccine has not been convincingly waged by farmers, veterinarians and other members of the agricultural and rural communities. in recent times, ho ...200919497326
spread of cantagalo virus to northern brazil. 200919624947
long-lasting stability of vaccinia virus strains in murine feces: implications for virus circulation and environmental maintenance.vaccinia virus (vacv) has been associated with several bovine vaccinia outbreaks in brazil, causing exanthematic lesions in dairy cattle and humans. the way that vacv circulates in the environment is unknown, as is the way that this virus is transferred from wildlife to farms. rodents are hypothetical vacv reservoirs, and murine feces has been identified as a potential source of viral shedding and transmission. in this work, we analyzed the stability of vacv infectious particles and dna in feces ...200919710997
when good vaccines go wild: feral orthopoxvirus in developing countries and beyond.the presence of zoonotic poxviruses in nature represents a potential human health risk that has to be re-evaluated by health authorities not only in developing countries, but also in many developed countries. for example, buffalopox virus infection remains to be a threat to humans and cattle in india, and monkeypox virus infection persists in several inhabited places in africa and, more recently, in the usa. there are also a great number of zoonotic transmissions of cowpox virus from cats to hum ...200819738346
one more piece in the vacv ecological puzzle: could peridomestic rodents be the link between wildlife and bovine vaccinia outbreaks in brazil?despite the fact that smallpox eradication was declared by the world health organization (who) in 1980, other poxviruses have emerged and re-emerged, with significant public health and economic impacts. vaccinia virus (vacv), a poxvirus used during the who smallpox vaccination campaign, has been involved in zoonotic infections in brazilian rural areas (bovine vaccinia outbreaks - bv), affecting dairy cattle and milkers. little is known about vacv's natural hosts and its epidemiological and ecolo ...200919838293
bovine vaccinia outbreaks: detection and isolation of vaccinia virus in milk samples.the vaccinia virus (vacv), which causes exanthemous lesions in dairy cattle and humans, has been associated with several bovine vaccinia outbreaks in brazil. currently, no data are available about the safety of milk produced in vacv-affected areas. in this study, 47 milk samples were collected during bovine vaccinia outbreaks and submitted to viral isolation, dna detection, and nucleotide sequencing of the conserved tk gene. the appearance of characteristic white pocks on the chorioallantoic mem ...200919888798
partial genetic characterization of viruses isolated from pox-like infection in cattle and buffaloes: evidence of buffalo pox virus circulation in indian cows.characterization of field isolates of viruses associated with pox-like outbreaks involving both cows (cattle) and buffaloes was carried out. pcr and electron microcopy of representative virus isolates from these animals, initially identified them as orthopoxviruses (opxvs). sequence and phylogenetic analyses of a-type inclusion and haemagglutinin (ha) genes of these isolates revealed a closer relationship with other opxvs. sequencing of the ha gene of these isolates revealed sequence identity of ...201019956986
vaccinia virus protein f1l is a caspase-9 inhibitor.apoptosis plays important roles in host defense, including the elimination of virus-infected cells. the executioners of apoptosis are caspase family proteases. we report that vaccinia virus-encoded f1l protein, previously recognized as anti-apoptotic viral bcl-2 family protein, is a caspase-9 inhibitor. f1l binds to and specifically inhibits caspase-9, the apical protease in the mitochondrial cell death pathway while failing to inhibit other caspases. in cells, f1l inhibits apoptosis and proteol ...201020022954
rapid detection of orthopoxvirus by semi-nested pcr directly from clinical specimens: a useful alternative for routine laboratories.orthopoxvirus (opv) has been associated with worldwide exanthematic outbreaks, which have resulted in serious economic losses as well as impact on public health. although the current classical and molecular methods are useful for the diagnosis of opv, they are largely inaccessible to unsophisticated clinical laboratories. the major reason for the inaccessibility is that they require both virus isolation and dna manipulation. in this report, a rapid, sensitive and low-cost semi-nested pcr method ...201020166167
testing virucidal activity in germany: an update.several chemical disinfectants have been tested in a quantitative suspension test for virucidal activity as per the test method devised by the german society for control of viral diseases (dvv) and the former german federal health office (bga, now the robert koch-institute, rki) drafted in 1982. the introduction of the term "limited virucidal activity" (effective against enveloped viruses) in addition to the existing term "virucidal activity" (effective against non-enveloped and enveloped viruse ...200720200665
human vaccinia virus and pseudocowpox virus co-infection: clinical description and phylogenetic characterization.occupational exanthematic diseases represent an important cause of public health impact and economical losses. among the viral exanthematic diseases, two caused by poxviruses are noteworthy: the bovine vaccinia (bv), caused by the vaccinia virus (vacv); and the milker's nodule, in which the agent is the pseudocowpox virus (pcpv). both agents are zoonotic and have been associated with several cases of bovine infection. in brazilian rural areas bv has been highly prevalent, particularly in milk he ...201020207192
vaccinia virus infection in monkeys, brazilian amazon.to detect orthopoxvirus in the brazilian amazon, we conducted a serosurvey of 344 wild animals. neutralizing antibodies against orthopoxvirus were detected by plaque-reduction neutralizing tests in 84 serum samples. amplicons from 6 monkey samples were sequenced. these amplicons identified vaccinia virus genetically similar to strains from bovine vaccinia outbreaks in brazil.201020507750
virucidal efficacy of povidone-iodine-containing disinfectants.the objective of this study was to evaluate virucidal efficacy of the commercially available povidone-iodine formulations betaisodona solution and betaseptic mundipharma (mundipharma).201020536707
clinical signs, diagnosis, and case reports of vaccinia virus infections.vaccinia virus is responsible for a zoonosis that usually affects cattle and human beings in brazil. the initial clinical signs of the infection are focal red skin areas, fever, and general symptoms similar to those of a cold. then, pustules and ulcerated lesions surrounded by edema and erythema follow, as well as local lymphadenopathy that can last for weeks. cure and healing of the lesions occur over several weeks, leaving a typical scar in the skin of people and animals affected. the infectio ...201020563437
vaccinia virus is not inactivated after thermal treatment and cheese production using experimentally contaminated milk.bovine vaccinia is an emergent zoonosis caused by the vaccinia virus (vacv). the disease is characterized by the appearance of exanthematic lesions that occur in humans and dairy cows. previous studies have revealed the presence of infectious viral particles in milk samples during an outbreak of bovine vaccinia in brazil, indicating the possibility of disease transmission through raw milk. to assess the viability of the virus in milk after thermal treatment and processing procedures, milk sample ...201020707725
assessing the variability of brazilian vaccinia virus isolates from a horse exanthematic lesion: coinfection with distinct viruses.during the last bovine vaccinia (bv) outbreaks, several vaccinia virus (vacv) strains were isolated and characterised, revealing significant polymorphisms between strains, even within conserved genes. although the epidemiology of vacv has been studied in bv outbreaks, there is little data about the circulation of the brazilian vacv isolates. this study describes the genetic and biological characterisation of two vacv isolates, pelotas 1 virus (p1v) and pelotas 2 virus (p2v), which were obtained ...201021080203
use of the capripoxvirus homologue of vaccinia virus 30 kda rna polymerase subunit (rpo30) gene as a novel diagnostic and genotyping target: development of a classical pcr method to differentiate goat poxvirus from sheep poxvirus.sheep poxvirus (sppv), goat poxvirus (gtpv) and lumpy skin disease virus (lsdv) are capripoxviruses (capvs) responsible for causing severe poxvirus disease in sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. serological differentiation of capvs is not possible and strain identification has relied on the implicitly accepted hypothesis that the viruses show well defined host specificity. however, it is now known that cross infections can occur and authentication of identity based on the host animal species ...201021115310
characterization of immunostimulatory components of orf virus (parapoxvirus ovis).inactivated orf virus (orfv, parapoxvirus ovis) induces antiviral activity in animal models of acute and chronic viral infections and exerts strong effects on human immune cells. orfv activates antigen presenting cells (apc) via cd14 and, probably, toll-like receptor signalling, and triggers the release of ifn-? that has been identified as the key mediator of the antiviral activity. after delineating virus proteins as being the most likely active constituent, we aimed to characterize the orfv pr ...201121346027
animal movement and establishment of vaccinia virus cantagalo strain in amazon biome, brazil.to understand the emergence of vaccinia virus cantagalo strain in the amazon biome of brazil, during 2008-2010 we conducted a molecular and epidemiologic survey of poxvirus outbreaks. data indicate that animal movement was the major cause of virus dissemination within rondonia state, leading to the establishment and spread of this pathogen.201121470472
the soluble serum protein gas6 bridges virion envelope phosphatidylserine to the tam receptor tyrosine kinase axl to mediate viral entry.virus entry into cells is typically initiated by binding of virally encoded envelope proteins to specific cell surface receptors. studying infectivity of lentivirus pseudotypes lacking envelope binding, we still observed high infectivity for some cell types. on further investigation, we discovered that this infectivity is conferred by the soluble bovine protein s in fetal calf serum, or gas6, its human homolog. gas6 enhances native infectivity of pseudotypes of multiple viral envelope proteins. ...201121501828
prime-boost immunisation against tropical theileriosis with two parasite surface antigens: evidence for protection and antigen synergy.current methods for control of tropical theileriosis in cattle suffer from several disadvantages that could be circumvented by development of an effective sub-unit vaccine. previous work has utilised two major surface antigens (spag-1 and tams1) and conventional adjuvants to provide partial protection against parasite challenge. in this study we have delivered these antigens using the prime-boost system and analysed whether a combination regime can enhance protection against lethal challenge. de ...201121762754
differential effects of viral vectors on migratory afferent lymph dendritic cells in vitro predicts enhanced immunogenicity in vivo.targeting dendritic cells (dc) is key to driving effective immune responses. lymphatic cannulation provides access to the heterogeneous populations of dc draining peripheral sites in rodents and ruminants. afferent lymph dec-205(+)cd11c(+)sirpa(+) dc were preferentially infected ex vivo with three vaccine viral vectors: replication defective human adenovirus-5 (rhuadv5); modified vaccinia virus ankara (rmva) and fowlpox virus (rfpv) all expressing green fluorescent protein (gfp). the rhuadv5 inf ...201121752909
the interplay between ara+ºatuba virus and host signaling pathways: role of pi3k/akt in viral replication.in this study, we describe the interaction between ara+ºatuba virus (arav), a naturally occurring brazilian vaccinia virus isolated from an outbreak at a dairy farm, and the host cell's signal transduction pathways. even though arav infection led to phosphorylation of mapks mek/erk, jnk, and p38mapk, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of these pathways had no impact on viral replication. we also provide evidence that arav stimulated the phosphorylation of akt (pkb) at serine 473 (s473-p), a s ...201121735213
susceptibility of vaccinia virus to chemical disinfectants.vaccinia virus (vacv) is the cause of bovine vaccinia (bv), an emerging zoonotic disease that affects dairy cows and milkers. some chemical disinfectants have been used on farms affected by bv to disinfect cow teats and milkers' hands. to date, there is no information about the efficacy of disinfectants against vacv. therefore, this study aimed to assess the virucidal activity of some active disinfectants commonly used in the field. sodium hypochlorite, quaternary ammonium combined with chlorhex ...201121734141
recombinant mva expressing secreted glycoprotein d of bohv-1 induces systemic and mucosal immunity in animal models.abstract bovine herpesvirus-1 (bohv-1) infection is distributed worldwide and the development of new tools to fight against this pathogen has become extremely important. in this work a recombinant modified vaccinia virus ankara (mva) vector expressing the secreted version of glycoprotein d, mva-gds, was obtained and evaluated as a candidate vaccine. first, the correct expression, antigenicity, and n-glycosylation of glycoprotein d were confirmed by molecular techniques. then mva-gds was used as ...201121830904
Filling One More Gap: Experimental Evidence of Horizontal Transmission of Vaccinia Virus Between Bovines and Rodents.Abstract Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been associated with several exanthematic outbreaks in bovine, human, and equine species in Brazilian rural areas. Little is known about VACV reservoirs, although it is believed that rodents could be associated with VACV outbreaks. With the goal of filling one more gap in the VACV ecological puzzle, the present work aimed at mimicking a potential transmission route of VACV between cows and rodents, both known as natural VACV hosts. Balb/c mice were exposed to f ...201121923268
Zoonotic Brazilian Vaccinia virus: from field to therapy.Vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototype species of the Orthopoxvirus (OPV) genus, causes an occupational zoonotic disease in Brazil that is primarily associated with the handling of infected dairy cattle. Cattle and human outbreaks have been described in southeastern Brazil since 1999 and have now occurred in almost half of the territory. Phylogenetic studies have shown high levels of polymorphisms among isolated VACVs, which indicate the existence of at least two genetically divergent clades; this ...201121896287
th1/th17 cell induction and corresponding reduction in atp consumption following vaccination with the novel mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine mva85a.vaccination with bacille calmette-guérin (bcg) has traditionally been used for protection against disease caused by the bacterium mycobacterium tuberculosis (m.tb). the efficacy of bcg, especially against pulmonary tuberculosis (tb) is variable. the best protection is conferred in temperate climates and there is close to zero protection in many tropical areas with a high prevalence of both tuberculous and non-tuberculous mycobacterial species. although interferon (ifn)-γ is known to be important ...201121887254
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