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a method for serological differentation of closely related poxviruses.a two-step gel precipitation reaction with antiserum to vaccinia virus, based on sequential addition of two test viruses was elaborated for differentiation of closely related orthopoxviruses. the appearance of an additional precipitation line indicated differences in the antigenic structure of the viruses compared. differences in the antigenic structure of vaccinia, variola and monkey pox viruses as well as the antigenic identity with cow pox virus of poxviruses isolated from carnivora, elephant ...197661718
letter: epidemiology of cowpox. 19751167474
[virucidal effectiveness of some commercial products for chemothermal disinfection methods for temperature resistant viruses and bacteriophages--evaluation of a test model].in the laboratory assay of chemothermal virus disinfection procedures a test system is required which allows to differentiate between the physical effects of the temperature and the chemical effects by the disinfectant used. from the four test viruses recommended by the german association for the control of virus diseases (deutsche vereinigung zur bekämpfung der viruskrankheiten) only sv 40 tumor virus showed a sufficient thermal stability at 55 degrees c to take it in consideration as test viru ...19921313238
fusogenic segments of bovine leukemia virus and simian immunodeficiency virus are interchangeable and mediate fusion by means of oblique insertion in the lipid bilayer of their target cells.modified bovine leukemia virus (blv) glycoproteins were expressed by using vaccinia virus recombinants, and their fusogenic capacities were examined by a syncytia-formation assay. this analysis indicates that (i) both blv envelope glycoproteins gp51 and gp30 are necessary for cell fusion; (ii) insertion of the n-terminal segment of gp30 (fusion peptide) into the lipid bilayer in an oblique orientation, as predicted by computer conformational analysis, results in fusogenic capacities higher than ...19921315040
augmentation of bovine leukemia virus (blv)-specific lymphocyte proliferation responses in ruminants by inoculation with blv env-recombinant vaccinia virus: their role in the suppression of blv replication.lymphocyte proliferation responses were investigated in sheep and cattle, in which the replication of bovine leukemia virus (blv) had been known to be suppressed by inoculation with recombinant vaccinia virus (rvv) expressing blv envelope glycoprotein (gp60). enhanced lymphocyte proliferation responses were observed in animals inoculated with rvv, regardless of whether they were naive or blv carriers. these responses were roughly inversely correlated to the growth of blv in the peripheral blood ...19921337572
expression of authentic vaccinia virus-specific and inserted viral and cellular genes under control of an early vaccinia virus promoter is regulated post-transcriptionally in interferon-treated chick embryo fibroblasts.the interferon sensitivity of the expression of an influenza-virus hemagglutinin (ha) gene cloned into the thymidine kinase (tk) gene of vaccinia virus was studied in chick embryo fibroblasts (cef) and madin-darby bovine kidney (mdbk) cells. in cef, the expression of the ha gene is inhibited by pretreatment of cells with homologous interferon. in mdbk cells, on the other hand, expression of the ha is not impaired by pretreatment with human interferon-alpha, and the synthesis of early vaccinia vi ...19921373550
polylactosaminoglycan modification of the respiratory syncytial virus small hydrophobic (sh) protein: a conserved feature among human and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses.we investigated the nature of the oligosaccharide modification of the glycosylated forms of the small hydrophobic integral membrane protein, sh (previously designated 1a), of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus. analysis of sh protein expressed in cells infected with rs virus or with a recombinant vaccinia virus revealed two glycosylated sh protein species, shg and shp, which contained n-linked carbohydrate residues. shp migrated diffusely on polyacrylamide gels, which suggested modification by pol ...19921413513
purification and characterization of dna ligase i from the trypanosomatid crithidia fasciculata.a dna ligase has been purified approximately 5000-fold, to near homogeneity, from the trypanosomatid crithidia fasciculata. the purified enzyme contains polypeptides with molecular masses of 84 and 80 kda as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. both polypeptides formed enzyme-adenylate complexes in the absence of dna, contained an epitope that is highly conserved between human and bovine dna ligase i and yeast and vaccinia virus dna ligases, and were identified ...19921508676
in vivo recognition of orf virus early transcriptional promoters in a vaccinia virus recombinant.the 4.4-kb bamhi-e fragment of the orf virus (ov) genome contains three discrete open reading frames designated orf-pp, orf-1, and orf-3, all of which are flanked by vaccinia virus-like early transcriptional control sequences. to determine whether the vaccinia transcriptional machinery would recognize these promoters and faithfully transcribe ov genes in vivo the bamhi-e fragment was inserted into the thymidine kinase (tk) locus of vaccinia virus and the recombinant used in transcription studies ...19921546449
influenza virus hemagglutinin with multibasic cleavage site is activated by furin, a subtilisin-like endoprotease.many viruses have membrane glycoproteins that are activated at cleavage sites containing multiple arginine and lysine residues by cellular proteases so far not identified. the proteases responsible for cleavage of the hemagglutinin of fowl plague virus, a prototype of these glycoproteins, has now been isolated from madin-darby bovine kidney cells. the enzyme has a mol. wt of 85,000, a ph optimum ranging from 6.5 to 7.5, is calcium dependent and recognizes the consensus sequence r-x-k/r-r at the ...19921628614
bovine respiratory syncytial virus nucleocapsid protein: mrna sequence analysis and expression from recombinant vaccinia virus vectors.the nucleotide sequence of the mrna encoding the nucleocapsid (n) protein of bovine respiratory syncytial (brs) virus, strain 391-2, was determined. recombinant vectors containing a cdna of the complete n gene were constructed, and expression of the n protein in eukaryotic cells was demonstrated using two different vector systems. the brs virus n mrna was 1197 nucleotides in length, exclusive of poly(a), and had a single major open reading frame that encoded a polypeptide of 391 amino acids with ...19921634882
cloning, sequencing, expression, and gq-independent activation of phospholipase c-beta 2.cdnas corresponding to a previously uncharacterized phospholipase c were isolated from an hl-60 cell cdna library. the cdnas encodes a putative polypeptide of 1181 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 133,700 daltons. comparison of the amino acid sequence of the predicted protein with those of five mammalian phospholipase c isoforms (plc-beta 1, plc-gamma 1, plc-gamma 2, plc-delta 1, and plc-delta 2) revealed that the new enzyme is most closely related to plc-beta 1 with an overall am ...19921644792
recombinant vaccinia virus expression of the bovine leukaemia virus envelope gene and protection of immunized sheep against infection.the bovine leukaemia virus (blv) envelope gene encoding extracellular glycoprotein gp51 and transmembrane glycoprotein gp30 was cloned into the ha locus of vaccinia virus (copenhagen strain), downstream of the vaccinia virus early-late promoter, h6, or a triple promoter element consisting of the promoter for the vaccinia virus h6 gene, the promoter for the cowpox virus a-type inclusion (ati) gene and the promoter for the vaccinia virus ha gene. inoculation of rabbits or sheep with the recombinan ...19911645899
metabolic activation of 4-ipomeanol by complementary dna-expressed human cytochromes p-450: evidence for species-specific metabolism.4-ipomeanol is a pulmonary toxin in cattle and rodents that is metabolically activated by cytochromes p-450 (p-450s). p-450-mediated activation of 4-ipomeanol to dna binding metabolites was evaluated using a vaccinia virus complementary dna expression system and an in situ dna-binding assay. twelve human p-450s and two rodent p-450s were expressed in human hepatoma hep g2 cells and examined for their abilities to metabolically activate this toxin. three forms, designated cyp1a2, cyp3a3, and cyp3 ...19911651809
protective immunity against bovine leukaemia virus (blv) induced in carrier sheep by inoculation with a vaccinia virus-blv env recombinant: association with cell-mediated immunity.the effects of vaccination of sheep with a recombinant vaccinia virus (rvv) expressing the bovine leukaemia virus (blv) envelope glycoprotein (gp60) were studied by determining blv titres in peripheral blood leukocytes after vaccination and challenge. the proliferation of blv was suppressed markedly, not only when rvv was inoculated prior to challenge with blv, but also when it was inoculated after challenge. these results indicate that vaccination with rvv induces protective immunity that can s ...19911651982
bovine dopamine beta-hydroxylase cdna. complete coding sequence and expression in mammalian cells with vaccinia virus vector.we have isolated cdna clones for bovine dopamine beta-hydroxylase from an adrenal medulla cdna library and have determined the complete coding sequence. the largest cdna clone isolated from the library is 2.4 kilobase pairs (kb) and contains an open reading frame of 1788 bases, coding for a protein of 597 amino acids and mr = 66,803. the predicted amino acid sequence of the bovine cdna contains 85% identity with human dopamine beta-hydroxylase (lamouroux, a., vingny, a., faucon biquet, n., darmo ...19901688549
mammalian dna ligases. catalytic domain and size of dna ligase i.dna ligase i is the major dna ligase activity in proliferating mammalian cells. the protein has been purified to apparent homogeneity from calf thymus. it has a monomeric structure and a blocked n-terminal residue. dna ligase i is a 125-kda polypeptide as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis and by gel chromatography under denaturing conditions, whereas hydrodynamic measurements indicate that the enzyme is an asymmetric 98-kda protein. immunoblotting with rabbit polyclonal ant ...19901695631
development of a specific serological test and an efficient subunit vaccine to control bovine leukemia virus infection.study of the antigenic structure of the bovine leukemia virus (blv) envelope glycoprotein gp51 with a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (mabs) has allowed the identification of biologically important determinants directly involved in the infectivity of blv. considering the various facts reported in this paper, it follows that diagnostic and vaccination procedures that make use of gp51 in a native configuration constitute a prerequisite for the design of an efficient blv eradication program. t ...19901704325
[synthesis of the e-antigen of the hepatitis b virus (hbeag) in eukaryotic cells by a recombinant strain of the vaccinia virus].the recombinant plasmids containing the gene for hepatitis b viral core-antigen with the pre-core-sequence controlled by the early-late promoter of the 7.5' k protein gene were constructed. the recombinant strains of vaccinia virus were obtained on their basis (vhbe42-1 and vhbe42-3) selectively expressing hbeag of hepatitis b virus. the kinetics of hbeag synthesis was studied in infected cells as well as secretion of the protein into culturing medium. three proteins were found by blotting techn ...19911745274
amino acid sequence determination of vaccinia virus immunodominant protein p35 and identification of the gene.a major immunodominant envelope protein of vaccinia virus (protein p35) was purified by extraction from virions with the nonionic detergent nonidet p-40. the protein was cleaved with cyanogen bromide. four homogeneous peptides were isolated and their n-terminal amino acid sequences determined. a computer search of a protein-sequence data bank revealed complete identity of the determined sequences with sequences 44-63, 144-149, 154-165, and 224-238 of orf h3 of the hindiii-h fragment of the vacci ...19911772969
expression and processing of mouse proopiomelanocortin in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. a model system to study tissue-specific prohormone processing.many neuroendocrine precursor proteins, such as proopiomelanocortin (pomc), are cleaved in a tissue specific manner at distinct pairs of basic amino acids. elucidating the specificity of the prohormone endoprotease(s) is essential to understanding cleavage specificity. however, isolation of these enzymes has been difficult, due to the inability to distinguish authentic maturation enzyme from the many other trypsin-like activities present in tissue homogenates. recently, a "signature" of the insu ...19911856197
a vaccinia virus double recombinant expressing the f and h genes of rinderpest virus protects cattle against rinderpest and causes no pock lesions.rinderpest is a highly contagious viral disease of ruminants with greater than 95% morbidity and mortality. we have constructed an infectious vaccinia virus recombinant that expresses both the fusion (f) gene and the hemagglutinin (h) gene of rinderpest virus. the wyeth strain of vaccinia virus was used for the construction of the recombinant. cattle vaccinated with the recombinant virus were 100% protected from challenge inoculation with greater than 1000 times the lethal dose of rinderpest vir ...19911896447
expression of bovine leukaemia virus envelope gene by recombinant vaccinia viruses.recombinant vaccinia viruses (vv) containing the envelope gene of bovine leukaemia virus (blv) were constructed. three virus constructs were designed: vv-blv1 which contained the open reading frame for envelope glycoprotein gp51 alone, under control of vvp7.5 promoter; vv-blv2 and vv-blv3 contained the entire gene (gp51 + gp30) coding sequence downstream of vp7.5 and the fowlpox virus early/late promoter (pfe/l) respectively. all three vv recombinants expressed envelope glycoproteins as determin ...19901963249
expression and processing of the activin-a/erythroid differentiation factor precursor: a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily.the biosynthesis and intracellular processing of the polypeptide precursor of the beta a-chain of the fertility hormone inhibin were assessed by infecting a wide spectrum of cell types with a recombinant vaccinia virus. most cell lines, including follicular granulosa cells, secrete both prohormone and mature hormone as homodimers (activin) composed of disulfide-linked subunits of 54 kda (proactivin-a) and 14 kda (activin-a), respectively, and a small amount of prohormone-mature hormone heterodim ...19901963471
host cell-dependent lateral mobility of viral glycoproteins.the lateral mobility of viral envelope proteins on the plasma membranes of infected cells is an important factor in both virus assembly and pathogenesis. the envelope glycoproteins of measles and human parainfluenza virus are mobile on the surfaces of infected hela cells and undergo lateral redistribution in the presence of specific antibody, forming unipolar caps. in contrast, no such redistribution was observed with influenza virus hemagglutinin (ha) or vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) g glyco ...19901965847
location of the active site for enzyme-adenylate formation in dna ligases.the enzyme-amp reaction intermediate of the 102-kda bovine dna ligase i was digested with trypsin, and the adenylylated peptide was isolated by chromatography under conditions that maintain the acid-labile phosphoramidate bond. microsequencing of the peptide showed that it contains an internal trypsin-resistant lysine residue, as expected for the site of adenylylation. inhibition of dna ligase i activity by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate also indicated the presence of a reactive lysine residue in the ca ...19911988940
nucleotide sequence analysis of the bovine respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein mrna and expression from a recombinant vaccinia virus.bovine respiratory syncytial (brs) virus is an important cause of serious respiratory illness in calves. the disease caused in calves is similar to that caused by human respiratory syncytial (hrs) virus in children. the two viruses, however, have distinct host ranges and the attachment glycoproteins, g, have no antigenic cross-reactivity. the fusion glycoproteins, f, of the hrs and brs viruses, however, have some antigenic cross-reactivity. to further compare the brs virus and hrs virus fusion p ...19911994571
conglutinin binds the hiv-1 envelope glycoprotein gp 160 and inhibits its interaction with cell membrane cd4.the highly glycosylated envelope glycoprotein (gp 160) of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) interacts with the cd4 molecule present on the membrane of cd4+ cells and is involved in the pathobiology of hiv infection. lectins bind glycoproteins through non-covalent interactions with specific hexose residues. the mammalian c-type lectin bovine conglutinin was examined for its ability to interact with recombinant gp160 (rgp160) produced in vaccinia virus-infected bhk21 cells. specific binding of co ...19911996409
immunological and virological characterization of improved construction of recombinant vaccinia virus expressing rinderpest virus hemagglutinin.we constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus (rvv) expressing rinderpest virus (rpv) hemagglutinin (h) by modifying the promoter region of the original rvv. the promotor region was modified at three points, i.e., an outframe atg was eliminated, the sequence between the promoter and initiation codon was shortened and the base sequence just upstream of the initiation codon was changed. as compared with the original rvv, the modified rvv was found to produce a remarkably large amount of h protein in ...19912001178
nucleotide sequence of 42 kbp of vaccinia virus strain wr from near the right inverted terminal repeat.the nucleotide sequence of 42090 bp of vaccinia virus strain wr is presented. the sequence includes the sali l, f, g and i fragments and starts near the centre of the hindiii a fragment and extends rightwards towards the genomic terminus, finishing approximately 0.5 kb internal of the inverted terminal repeat (itr). translation of this region has identified 65 open reading frames (orfs) of greater than 65 amino acids in length. fifty-one of these which do not extensively overlap other larger orf ...19912045793
development of recombinant antigen vaccines for the control of theileriosis.immunization against theileria parva involves infection with sporozoites and simultaneous treatment with a long-acting tetracycline. for t. annulata, immunization is achieved by inoculation of attenuated schizont-infected lymphocytes. the two methods are inadequate because of the use of live organisms and the methods are also bedevilled by the multiplicity of strains, particularly of t. parva. for these reasons, alternative methods of control are being sought. in this review an attempt is made t ...19902149448
vaccinia recombinants expressing early bovine papilloma virus (bpv1) proteins: retardation of bpv1 tumour development.papillomaviruses are aetiological agents of epithelial proliferative diseases in animals and in man. it was previously demonstrated that animals inoculated with live vaccinia recombinants expressing early proteins of polyoma virus resist challenge with polyoma-tumour cells, and this approach has been extended to the development of a vaccine against papillomavirus-transformed cells. bovine papillomavirus type 1 (bpv1), a virus responsible for dermal lesions in cattle, is a prototype virus of the ...19902163573
inhibition of antigen-induced and interleukin-2-induced proliferation of bovine peripheral blood leukocytes by inactivated bovine herpes virus 1.the mechanism by which bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) predisposes cattle to bacterial pneumonia was investigated by using an in vitro system to demonstrate immunosuppression. at a multiplicity of infection of 0.001, live or inactivated bhv-1 induced a 50% inhibition of the proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes to antigen (vaccinia virus in vaccinia virus-immunized cattle which were bhv-1 negative) or interleukin-2. at this same multiplicity of infection, the mitogen-ind ...19902166810
induction of neutralizing antibodies against bovine leukosis virus in rabbits by vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing bovine leukosis virus envelope glycoprotein.three kinds of recombinant vaccinia virus (rvv)--mo-ha/ati, lo1-ha/ati and mo-ha/7.5kd--expressing bovine leukosis virus (blv) envelope glycoprotein (gp60) were constructed. the blv envelope gene of rvv mo-ha/ati and lo1-ha/ati or of rvv mo-ha/7.5kd was expressed under control of the promoter of a-type inclusion body (ati) protein gene of cow-pox virus or vaccinia virus 7.5-kd protein gene, respectively. the vaccinia virus strain, lc16mo, was used as vector for rvv mo-ha/ati and mo-ha/7.5kd, and ...19902167028
complementation of a vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein g mutant with wild-type protein expressed from either a bovine papilloma virus or a vaccinia virus vector system.using a complementation assay, we have evaluated the potential of two eukaryotic expression systems to produce functional virus proteins. the first expression system was based on a bovine papilloma virus (bpv) eukaryotic expression vector which contained a copy of the gene for the membrane glycoprotein g of vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv). this vector was transfected into a mouse cell line, and transformed cell clones constitutively expressing vsv g protein were selected. these cell clones were ...19902171187
proteins encoded by the bovine papillomavirus e1 open reading frame: expression in heterologous systems and in virally transformed cells.the e1 open reading frame (orf) of bovine papillomavirus type 1 is required for the persistence of viral genomes as multicopy plasmid molecules in transformed rodent fibroblasts. e1 has been reported to contain two separate complementation groups (m and r, corresponding to n- and c-terminal domains, respectively) which regulate viral replication. however, e1 behaves as a single gene with respect to cell transformation and viral transcription. we examined the proteins translated from the entire o ...19902173778
nucleotide sequence analysis and expression from recombinant vectors demonstrate that the attachment protein g of bovine respiratory syncytial virus is distinct from that of human respiratory syncytial virus.bovine respiratory syncytial (brs) virus causes a severe lower respiratory tract disease in calves similar to the disease in children caused by human respiratory syncytial (hrs) virus. while there is antigenic cross-reactivity among the other major viral structural proteins, the major glycoprotein, g, of brs virus and that of hrs virus are antigenically distinct. the g glycoprotein has been implicated as the attachment protein for hrs virus. we have carried out a molecular comparison of the glyc ...19902214024
cleavage of proenkephalin by a chromaffin granule processing enzyme.human proenkephalin generated by means of a recombinant vaccinia virus expression vector was used as the substrate for a putative processing enzyme obtained from bovine adrenal chromaffin granules. the adrenal enzyme successfully cleaved proenkephalin to generate low mol wt enkephalins as well as other enkephalin-containing intermediates. radioactively labeled proenkephalin prepared with this system was also cleaved; however, under identical conditions bovine proinsulin was not cleaved. these re ...19902294000
new technology for prevention and control of infectious bovine respiratory diseases.recent advances in molecular biology, genetics, and immunochemistry have provided the basis for a new generation of vaccines, diagnostic tools, and prophylactic substances for the prevention of infectious diseases in cattle. this article describes how these new technologies are being applied to veterinary medicine and their potential in bovine respiratory diseases caused by infectious agents.19852416411
[viral vaccines produced by gene technology and synthesis].the gradual evolution of vaccine development from jenner's smallpox vaccine to recombinant genetechnology has provided the basis for prophylactic control of a lot of important infectious diseases of humans and animals. modern biotechnology has accomplished antigen identification and isolation of antigen determinants as well as the preparation of proteins and synthetic peptides. the application of such techniques has failed, however, to develop a better vaccine in case of fmd-virus. present effor ...19862424142
synthesis, cellular location, and immunogenicity of bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoproteins gi and giii expressed by recombinant vaccinia virus.two of the major glycoproteins of bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) are gi, a polypeptide complex with apparent molecular weights of 130,000, 74,000, and 55,000, and giii (a 91,000-molecular-weight [91k] glycoprotein), which also exists as a 180k dimer. vaccinia virus (vac) recombinants were constructed which carry full-length gi (vac-i) or giii (vac-iii) genes. the genes for gi and giii were each placed under the control of the early vac 7.5k gene promoter and inserted within the vac gene for thymid ...19892539509
production of pro-opiomelanocortin (pomc) by a vaccinia virus transient expression system and in vitro processing of the expressed prohormone by pomc-converting enzyme.pro-opiomelanocortin (pomc) was expressed in cv-1 (green monkey kidney) cells using a vaccinia virus transient expression system [(1986) proc. natl. acad. sci. usa 83, 8122]. the system involved infection of cells with a recombinant vaccinia virus carrying the t7 rna polymerase gene and transfection with a plasmid containing the mouse pomc sequence flanked by the t7 rna polymerase promoter at its 5'-end and the t7 rna polymerase terminator at its 3'-end. assay of the medium from transfected cell ...19892542089
syncytium formation by recombinant vaccinia viruses carrying bovine parainfluenza 3 virus envelope protein genes.the highly syncytium-inducing m strain and the weakly syncytium-inducing sc strain of bovine parainfluenza 3 virus differ by a single amino acid substitution in each of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) and membrane (m) proteins, while their fusion (f) proteins are identical (t. shioda, s. wakao, s. suzu, and h. shibuta, virology 162:388-396, 1988). we constructed recombinant vaccinia viruses which express separately the m virus hn (vac-mhn), sc virus hn (vac-schn), m virus m (vac-mm), sc vir ...19892547990
expression of the bovine leukemia virus transactivator protein p34 by a recombinant vaccinia virus.in order to characterize the bovine leukemia virus transactivator protein, a recombinant vaccinia virus (v-lor) containing the blv post-envelope long open reading frame was constructed. v-lor was shown to encode a functional protein able to transactivate the blv long terminal repeat-directed gene expression in the infected cells. the encountered level of transactivation was about one third of that measured in blv-infected fetal lamb kidney cell lysates.19892560852
prospects for the total eradication of rinderpest.rinderpest, a major economic problem of africa and asia, is a highly contagious viral disease of cattle and buffalo with greater than 90% mortality in susceptible herds. we have developed an effective vaccinia virus recombinant vaccine for rinderpest which protects cattle against challenge by more than 1000 times the lethal dose of the virus. the vaccine circumvents the major logistical problems of the plowright tissue culture vaccine that occasioned previous failures to eradicate rinderpest by ...19892609722
[rabies, a public health problem].in west-europe, rabies is mostly reported in foxes, and in less extend in different domestic animals including dogs, cats, cattle, sheep, goats and horses. the contamination to humans occurs through contact with rabid animals by bite, scratch and even contact with the wound. this paper reports upon the current situation of rabies disease in belgium and the prophylactic means routinely applied and those actually under experiment. in 1988, 514 animals were found positive, among which 366 foxes (71 ...19892610551
immune response and protection of cattle and pigs generated by a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the f protein of rinderpest virus.the immune response of cattle and pigs to a vaccinia recombinant virus containing the fusion (f) protein gene of rinderpest virus was examined. half the cattle and all the pigs gave humoral response to primary vaccination and all the cattle gave an anamnestic response to a second vaccination 28 days after the primary vaccination. all the cattle after a single or secondary vaccination were completely protected clinically after exposure to a lethal dose of the saudi 1/81 strain of virus. prior vac ...19892763430
protection of cattle from infection with vaccinia virus by bovine interferon alpha c.the efficacy of bovine interferon alpha c as an antiviral compound was evaluated in calves infected with vaccinia virus. calves treated with the interferon did not develop characteristic vaccinia lesions, demonstrating a clear protective effect of treatment. the only side effect observed was hyperthermia. after intramuscular injection, interferon appeared quickly in the blood and was cleared within 24 hours. the in vivo antiviral activity of bovine interferon alpha c was confirmed by its ability ...19892781688
analysis of the l1 gene product of human papillomavirus type 16 by expression in a vaccinia virus recombinant.the l1 open reading frame of human papillomavirus type 16 (hpv16) has been expressed in vaccinia virus under the control of both the 7.5k early and late promoter, and the 4b major late promoter. antibodies to a beta-galactosidase fusion protein containing a c-terminal portion of the hpv16 l1 gene product were used to compare the levels of l1 expression in the two recombinants, and showed that greater levels of expression were obtained when the gene was placed under the control of the 4b late pro ...19882838573
immunogenicity of a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing envelope a glycoprotein of bovine leukaemia virus.we constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus (rvv) expressing envelope (env) glycoprotein (gp51) of bovine leukaemia virus (blv): the expression of gp51 was detected by western blot of the lysates of rabbit kidney cells infected with the rvv. the rabbits inoculated intradermally with the rvv alone failed to induce detectable anti-gp51 antibodies even 10 weeks after immunization. however, when these animals were boosted with inactivated blv virion in saline, significant levels of anti-gp51 antibod ...19882848378
vaccinia virus recombinants: expression of vsv genes and protective immunization of mice and cattle.vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) causes a contagious disease of horses, cattle, and pigs. when dna copies of messenger rna's for the g or n proteins of vsv were linked to a vaccinia virus promoter and inserted into the vaccinia genome, the recombinants retained infectivity and synthesized vsv polypeptides. after intradermal vaccination with live recombinant virus expressing the g protein, mice produced vsv-neutralizing antibodies and were protected against lethal encephalitis upon intravenous ch ...19852981435
protection of cattle against rinderpest with vaccinia virus recombinants expressing the ha or f gene.rinderpest is a highly contagious ruminant viral disease manifested by a rapid course and greater than 90% mortality. infectious vaccinia virus recombinants were constructed that express either the hemagglutinin or the fusion gene of rinderpest virus. all cattle vaccinated with either recombinant or with the combined recombinants produced neutralizing antibodies against rinderpest virus and were protected against the disease when challenged with more than 1000 times the lethal dose of the virus.19883194758
immunogenicity, pathogenicity, and transmissibility of a recombinant vaccinia virus in calves.experiments concerned with the immunogenicity, pathogenicity, and transmissibility of a recombinant vaccinia:sindbis virus were conducted. the wr strain of the recombinant vaccinia:sindis virus was found to be infective for calves and mildly pathogenic, resulting in local tissue reaction. it was not transmissible to other calves. also, it was found to be immunogenic when inoculated intradermally into calves, and antibody was produced against the parent vector virus (vaccinia) and the sindbis ant ...19883239835
potential inhibitors of s-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases. 11. molecular dissections of neplanocin a as potential inhibitors of s-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase.a series of 9-(hydroxyalkenyl)purines (adenines and 3-deazaadenines), which are analogues of neplanocin a, were synthesized. the analogues were tested as inhibitors of bovine liver and murine l929 cell s-adenosyhomocysteine (adohcy) hydrolase (ec 3.3.1.1) and as inhibitors of vaccinia virus replication in murine l929 cells. compounds 1b, 2a, 2b, 4a, 4b, 7, 9a, and 9b showed the best inhibitory effects toward bovine liver adohcy hydrolase, with compound 4b being the most potent. the compounds tha ...19883411600
progress towards control of the acute respiratory viral diseases of childhood.many of the common respiratory illnesses of infancy and childhood are caused by viruses of the paramyxoviridae family, in particular measles virus, respiratory syncytial (rs) virus and parainfluenzavirus type 3 (pi3). effective measles vaccine was developed by classical methods, but these same methods have failed to provide vaccines to control rs and pi3 virus infections. the who programme for vaccine development was initiated in 1983 to encourage the application of the new biotechnologies to co ...19873496981
response of dairy calves to vaccinia viruses that express foreign genes.repeated intradermal inoculations of calves with wild-type vaccinia virus and recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing human hepatitis b virus surface antigen and herpes simplex virus, type 1, glycoprotein d produced characteristic pox lesions at each site of injection. in some instances, calves were inoculated as many as five times at intervals from 4 to 7 weeks. the lesions invariably were more severe after the second inoculation. subsequent inoculations produced a less severe area of redness, ...19863700615
responses of cattle, sheep and poultry to a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing a swine influenza haemagglutinin.groups of cattle, sheep and poultry were inoculated with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the haemagglutinin of the swine influenza virus a/nj/11/76. no adverse clinical responses were recorded and none of the animals developed a viraemia when inoculated with the recombinant or wild-type vaccinia virus. recombinant virus reisolated from lesions in cattle was stable, maintaining its thymidine kinase negative phenotype and ability to express the swine influenza haemagglutinin. antibodies to ...19863764100
immunisation of cattle with a recombinant togavirus-vaccinia virus strain.genetic engineering techniques have been used to construct a vaccinia virus recombinant which contains and expresses togavirus (sindbis) genetic information. intradermal inoculation of this recombinant strain into calves caused a transient pock-type lesion at the site of inoculation and elicited the production of substantial levels of anti-sindbis virus neutralising antibodies. these results suggest that recombinant vaccinia virus vaccines may have potential for use in veterinary medicine.19853862196
similarity between the vaccinia virus 19k early protein and epidermal growth factor.an analysis of the 1,217-amino acid residue sequence of the precursor of mouse epidermal growth factor (megf) revealed regions of considerable similarity with bovine factor x, a blood coagulation factor. similarities of megf itself with factor x, pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor and, most strikingly, transforming growth factor i (tgf-i) have been observed. on the basis of the comparisons described here, it seems that the presumptive 140-residue 19k early protein (relative molecular mass (m ...19853871916
recombinant vaccinia viruses as vaccines.the prospect of live vaccines consisting of genetically modified vaccinia virus expressing foreign genes is exciting, but important issues concerning safety and efficacy need to be resolved.19863945343
potential inhibitors of s-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases. 8. molecular dissections of carbocyclic 3-deazaadenosine as inhibitors of s-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase.a series of 9-(hydroxyalkyl)-3-deazaadenines, which are analogues of the carbocyclic derivative of 3-deazaadenosine (3-deaza-c-ado), were synthesized. the analogues were tested as inhibitors of bovine liver s-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (adohcy) hydrolase (ec 3.3.1.1) and as inhibitors of vaccinia virus (wr) replication in clone 929 mouse l cells and the results were compared to those observed for the parent compound, 3-deaza-c-ado. 4-amino-1-(2,3-dihydroxy-1-propyl)imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine (14), the ...19853981538
potential inhibitors of s-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases. 9. 2',3'-dialdehyde derivatives of carbocyclic purine nucleosides as inhibitors of s-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase.a series of purine (e.g., adenine, n6-methyladenine, 8-azaadenine, 3-deazaadenine) carbocyclic nucleosides, nucleoside 2',3'-dialdehydes, and nucleoside 2',3'-diols were synthesized as potential inhibitors of bovine liver s-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (adohcy) hydrolase (ec 3.3.1.1) and as potential inhibitors of vaccinia virus replication. the 2',3'-dialdehydes were prepared by periodate oxidation of the corresponding carbocyclic nucleosides. reduction of the intermediate dialdehydes with sodium bo ...19853981539
antiviral effect of bacterially produced human interferon (hu-ifn alpha 2) against experimental vaccinia infection in calves.the heterologous antiviral efficiency of bacterially produced human interferon (hu-ifn alpha 2) in the bovine species was studied, using vaccinia infection as experimental model. in a double blind experiment, young calves were intramuscularly injected daily for seven consecutive days with different doses of hu-ifn alpha 2 or placebo, the treatment starting 24 h before intradermal inoculation of vaccinia virus. a clear protection by interferon was observed in all the ifn treated animals, although ...19853989335
expression and regulation of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene in non-permissive cells.the expression and regulation of the vaccinia virus (vv) thymidine kinase (tk) gene was examined in two non-permissive cell lines, cho and mdbk, which restrict vv development at different stages of the viral replication cycle. the vv tk gene was expressed in these two cell lines with kinetics similar to a fully permissive cell line bsc40. these results are consistent with the hypothesis that inhibition of tk mrna translation by another viral early gene product is a normal component of the overal ...19854024727
the neutralization of pox viruses. ii. relationships between vaccinia, rabbitpox, cowpox and ectromelia. 19685250179
[isolation and characterization of cowpox virus]. 19705537837
isolation of a paravaccinia virus from a cow in japan. 19675624717
new outlook on the biology of cowpox virus.analysis of cowpox outbreaks revealed an extremely wide range of virus pathogenicity including 9 orders of mammals. recent serological and virological data support the hypothesis that wild rodents may be a natural reservoir of cowpox virus. cowpox infection of humans occurring without any contact with infected cattle (registered in the u. k. and poland) is especially interesting for medical and veterinary virology. surveillance seems justified of the possible virus dissemination beyond its natur ...19846151360
resistance of vaccinia virus to interferon is related to an interference phenomenon between the virus and the interferon system.in this investigation the sensitivity of vaccinia virus to interferon (ifn) has been examined in cultured cells. in a variety of mouse and human cells of different origins vaccinia virus functions (rna, protein, and virus yields) were found to be relatively resistant to ifn. in these systems, the levels of the ifn-mediated enzyme activities (2-5a synthetase and protein kinase) were severely impaired by the virus. this virus-mediated inhibitory effect developed with time after infection and was d ...19846324465
purification of mrna guanylyltransferase from calf thymus.mrna guanylyltransferase has been extensively purified from calf thymus. a gtp-binding assay was used based on the observations by shuman and hurwitz (1981) and venkatesan and moss (1982) that vaccinia virus and hela cell mrna guanylyltransferases bind the gmp moiety from gtp in the absence of an acceptor rna. the mol. wt. of the purified enzyme from calf thymus, estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sds, is 65 000. the major protein in the purified enzyme fraction c ...19826329686
structural and functional properties of dna polymerase delta from rabbit bone marrow.dna polymerase delta, the most recently described class of eukaryotic dna polymerase, has been purified to apparent homogeneity from rabbit bone marrow. unlike the previously known eukaryotic dna polymerases, delta has a 3' to 5' exonuclease as an integral component of its 122 000 molecular weight, single polypeptide structure. similar to the function with prokaryotic dna polymerases, the 3' to 5' exonuclease assists dna polymerase delta in maintaining the fidelity of dna synthesis by excising m ...19846330522
vaccinia virus 19-kilodalton protein: relationship to several mammalian proteins, including two growth factors.we observed two unusual patterns of cysteine and glycine residues in transforming growth factor type 1 (tgf1); our computer search found only one other protein, the 19-kilodalton early protein of vaccinia virus, having both patterns. the sequences of epidermal growth factor (egf) and of the light chains from several components of the blood coagulation system also have one of the patterns, but gaps are required to adjust conserved cysteine and glycine residues in the second pattern. we used sever ...19846334307
neplanocin a. a potent inhibitor of s-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and of vaccinia virus multiplication in mouse l929 cells.neplanocin a, a novel cyclopentenyl analog of adenosine, is a naturally occurring antibiotic which exhibits significant antitumor activity against l1210 leukemia in mice (yaginuma, s., muto, n., tsujino, m., sudate, y., hayashi, m., and otani, m. (1981) j. antibiot. 34, 359-366). in the present study we demonstrate that neplanocin a is also a potent inhibitor of s-adenosylhomocysteine (adohcy) hydrolase (ec 3.3.1.1) having a ki of 8.39 nm for the purified bovine liver enzyme. analysis of the app ...19846707008
natural and experimental pox virus infection in the domestic cat.three naturally occurring cases of cowpox virus infection in the domestic cat are described. isolate l97 was identified as cowpox virus on the basis of morphology, serology and characteristic cytopathic effect in tissue culture and on the chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated eggs. all three cases showed multiple skin lesions, slight conjunctivitis or purulent ocular discharge but there were no respiratory signs. two animals recovered, the third was put down as a stray. the disease was reprodu ...19836836897
carbocyclic analogue of 3-deazaadenosine: a novel antiviral agent using s-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase as a pharmacological target.the carbocyclic analogue of 3-deazaadenosine (3-deaza-c-ado) has been synthesized and found to have antiviral activity in cell culture against herpes simplex virus type 1, vaccinia virus, and hl-23 c-type virus. it is relatively noncytotoxic at effective antiviral concentrations and is not subject to deamination or phosphorylation. it acts as a competitive inhibitor of s-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase, is at best a poor substrate, and does not inactivate the enzyme significantly. 3-deaza-c-ad ...19827097716
pp60c-src enhances the acetylcholine receptor-dependent catecholamine release in vaccinia virus-infected bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.secretion of catecholamines by adrenal chromaffin cells is a highly regulated process that involves serine/threonine and tyrosine phosphorylations. the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase pp60c-src is expressed at high levels and localized to plasma membranes and secretory vesicle membranes in these cells, suggesting an interaction of this enzyme with components of the secretory process. to test the hypothesis that pp60c-src is involved in exocytosis, we transiently expressed exogenous c-src cdna using ...19947509377
identification of cytotoxic t cell epitopes on the vp3 and vp6 rotavirus proteins.it has been shown previously that the viral glycoprotein vp7 is a major target of cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctls) induced by bovine rotavirus rf in c57bl/6 mice. here we show that these rf-specific ctls recognize target cells infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus (rvv) expressing the sa11 (simian rotavirus) vp6 but not those infected with rvvs that express rf vp1, vp2 or vp3 core proteins. after immunization of mice with insect cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses that express the c ...19947510328
role of interferons in infectious diseases in the bovine species: effect on viruses and rickettsias.successful protection was obtained with interferon treatment in experimental viral infections in the bovine species in a number of cases. the efficacy of the treatment against vaccinia virus infection and against rotavirus infection have been demonstrated. on the contrary, bovine herpes virus 1 (bhv 1-causing rhinotracheitis and part of the shipping fever complex) infections were not inhibited by interferon (ifn). the authors have undertaken a study in cattle in zimbabwe to assess the role of in ...19937510899
role of cell-mediated immunity in bovine leukemia virus (blv) infection in ruminants: its implication for the vaccination strategy against retroviruses.recent studies in the immunopathogenesis of bovine leukemia virus (blv) infection in ruminants, reviewed herein, provide an insight into the vaccination strategy against retrovirus infection. it was shown that vaccination of naive sheep with a recombinant vaccinia virus (rvv) expressing blv envelope glycoprotein protected the animals against blv infection. the involvement of cell-mediated immunity (cmi) in this phenomenon was strongly suggested. the postinfection vaccination, that is, the vaccin ...19947584504
vaccinia virus b18r gene encodes a type i interferon-binding protein that blocks interferon alpha transmembrane signaling.poxviruses encode a large number of proteins that attenuate the inflammatory and immune responses to infection. in this report we demonstrate that a number of orthopoxviruses express a type i interferon (ifn)-binding protein, which is encoded by the b18r open reading frame in the wr strain of vaccinia virus. the b18r protein has significant regions of homology with the alpha subunits of the mouse, human, and bovine type i ifn receptors, bound human ifn alpha 2 with high affinity, and inhibited t ...19957608155
vaccinia, cowpox, and camelpox viruses encode soluble gamma interferon receptors with novel broad species specificity.soluble receptors for gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) are secreted from cells infected by 17 orthopoxviruses, including vaccinia, cowpox, rabbitpox, buffalopox, elephantpox, and camelpox viruses, representing three species (vaccinia, cowpox, and campelpox viruses). the b8r open reading frame of vaccinia virus strain western reserve, which has sequence similarity to the extracellular binding domain of cellular ifn-gamma receptors (ifn-gamma rs), is shown to encode an ifn-gamma binding activity by ex ...19957609027
[behavior of orf virus in permissive and nonpermissive systems].dogs were immunized i.m. with attenuated poxvirus vaccines (vaccinia virus, orf-virus) and a bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1) vaccine. after intradermal (i.d.) application of the vaccine viruses a specific delayed type hypersensitivity (dth) reaction of the skin occurred only with vaccinia virus. the i.d. application of orf-virus caused a short-term, non-specific inflammatory reaction of the skin, even in dogs not immunized with orf-virus. out of 30 sera from orf-virus immunized beagles (n = 4) only ...19957624861
t-cell responses to highly conserved cd4 and cd8 epitopes on the outer membrane protein of bovine leukemia virus: relevance to vaccine development.bovine leukemia virus (blv) is a retrovirus that infects cattle and sheep and may provide a model for studying human leukemia. cell-mediated immune mechanisms may play a major role in protection against blv infection. we describe here for the first time the identification of proliferative (cd4) and cytotoxic t-lymphocyte (cd8) epitopes of the gp51 envelope (env) protein of blv. this protein and a recombinant form expressed by a vaccinia virus construct have been shown to be potential vaccine can ...19937680386
protection of sheep against bovine leukemia virus (blv) infection by vaccination with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing blv envelope glycoproteins: correlation of protection with cd4 t-cell response to gp51 peptide 51-70.we have previously constructed vaccinia virus (vv) recombinants containing a complete or truncated envelope (env) gene of bovine leukemia virus (blv). only recombinants carrying the complete env gene (vv-blv2 and vv-blv3) expressed env glycoprotein on the surface of virus-infected cells and produced an antibody response in rabbits. in the present study, these vv recombinants were used to immunize sheep prior to challenge with blv-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. both humoral and cell ...19937680387
priming with recombinant influenza virus followed by administration of recombinant vaccinia virus induces cd8+ t-cell-mediated protective immunity against malaria.live vectors expressing foreign antigens have been used to induce immunity against several pathogens. however, for the virulent rodent malaria parasite plasmodium yoelii, the use of recombinant vaccinia virus, pseudorabies virus, or salmonella, expressing the circumsporozoite protein of this parasite, failed to induce protection. we generated a recombinant influenza virus expressing an epitope from the circumsporozoite protein of p. yoelii known to be recognized by cd8+ t cells and demonstrated ...19937685119
purification and characterization of dna ligase iii from bovine testes. homology with dna ligase ii and vaccinia dna ligase.mammalian cell nuclei contain three biochemically distinct dna ligases. in the present study we have found high levels of dna ligase i and dna ligase iii activity in bovine testes and have purified dna ligase iii to near homogeneity. the high level of dna ligase iii suggests a role for this enzyme in meiotic recombination. in assays measuring the fidelity of dna joining, we detected no significant differences between dna ligases ii and iii, whereas dna ligase i was clearly a more faithful enzyme ...19957721901
protection from la crosse virus encephalitis with recombinant glycoproteins: role of neutralizing anti-g1 antibodies.la crosse virus, a member of the california serogroup of bunyaviruses, is an important cause of pediatric encephalitis in the midwestern united states. like all bunyaviruses, la crosse virus contains two glycoproteins, g1 and g2, the larger of which, g1, is the target of neutralizing antibodies. to develop an understanding of the role of each of the glycoproteins in the generation of a protective immune response, we immunized 1-week-old mice with three different preparations: a vaccinia virus re ...19957745694
vaccinia virus encodes a soluble type i interferon receptor of novel structure and broad species specificity.vaccinia virus (vv) and other orthopoxviruses express a soluble type i interferon (ifn) receptor that for vv strain western reserve is encoded by gene b18r. the 60-65 kda glycoprotein is related to the interleukin-1 receptors and is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, unlike other type i ifn receptors, which belong to the class ii cytokine receptor family. the receptor has high affinity (kd, 174 pm) for human ifn alpha and, unlike other type i ifn receptors, has broad species specificity ...19957758109
molecular mimicry between fc receptor and s peplomer protein of mouse hepatitis virus, bovine corona virus, and transmissible gastroenteritis virus.we have previously demonstrated molecular mimicry between the s peplomer protein of mouse hepatitis virus (mhv) and fc gamma r (fc gamma r). a monoclonal antibody (mab) to mouse fc gamma r (2.4g2 anti-fc gamma r mab), purified rabbit immunoglobulin, but not their f(ab')2 fragments, as well as mouse and rat igg, immunoprecipitated (1) recombinant s peplomer protein expressed by a vaccinia virus recombinant in human, rabbit, and mouse cells, and (2) natural s peplomer protein from cells infected w ...19957768529
topoisomerase activity associated with polyoma virus large tumor antigen.polyomavirus (py) large tumor antigen (lt) was produced in mammalian or insect cells infected with a suitable viral expression vector, and purified by a procedure combining immunoprecipitation with ion-exchange chromatography. fractions containing the bulk of lt displayed a dna-relaxing activity (lt-topo) which could be attributed neither to topoisomerase ii (topo ii) nor to topoisomerase i (topo i) encoded by the cell or the viral vector. on the one hand, lt-topo relaxed pbr322 dna in a reactio ...19957772600
processing of secretogranin ii by prohormone convertases: importance of pc1 in generation of secretoneurin.secretoneurin is a recently characterized neuropeptide present in the primary amino acid sequence of secretogranin ii. we investigated the proteolytic processing of secretogranin ii by prohormone convertases in vivo in a cellular system using the vaccinia virus system. both pc1 and pc2 can cleave the secretogranin ii precursor at sites of pairs of basic amino acids to yield intermediate-sized fragments. other convertases like pace4, pc5 and furin were not active. for the formation of the free ne ...19957883050
the human keratinocyte two-dimensional protein database (update 1994): towards an integrated approach to the study of cell proliferation, differentiation and skin diseases.the master two-dimensional (2-d) gel database of human keratinocytes currently lists 3087 cellular proteins (2168 isoelectric focusing, ief; and 919 none-quilibrium ph gradient electrophoresis, nephge), many of which correspond to posttranslational modifications, 890 polypeptides have been identified (protein name, organelle components, etc.) using one or a combination of procedures that include (i) comigration with known human proteins, (ii) 2-d gel immunoblotting using specific antibodies (iii ...19947895731
progress in the development of a heat-stable recombinant rinderpest vaccine using an attenuated vaccinia virus vector.rinderpest is a fatal infectious disease of cattle and buffalo, and is prevalent in many parts of the developing world. eradication campaigns are at present under way in africa, the middle east and south asia. as these regions have very hot climates, it is difficult and expensive to establish reliable cold chains to deliver heat-sensitive vaccines and, for this reason, many previous vaccination/eradication campaigns have been ineffective. to overcome the problem of vaccine heat-lability, a recom ...19947949348
mammalian dna ligase ii is highly homologous with vaccinia dna ligase. identification of the dna ligase ii active site for enzyme-adenylate formation.mammalian cells contain three biochemically distinct dna ligases. in this report we describe the purification of dna ligase ii to homogeneity from bovine liver nuclei. this enzyme interacts with atp to form an enzyme-amp complex, in which the amp moiety is covalently linked to a lysine residue. an adenylylated peptide from dna ligase ii contains the sequence, lys-tyr-asp-gly-glu-arg, which is homologous to the active site motif conserved in atp-dependent dna ligases. the sequences adjacent to th ...19947989368
retrovirus-like particles produced by vaccinia viruses expressing gag-pro-pol region genes of bovine leukaemia virus.processing and assembly of bovine leukaemia virus-like particles were studied in african green monkey kidney cells using recombinant vaccinia viruses (rvvs) expressing regions of the bovine leukaemia virus genome. unprocessed gag precursor protein (pr44) was detected in immunoblot analysis of lysed cells and particles sedimented from culture supernatants after infection with a rvv carrying the gag and truncated protease (pro) gene. processing of pr44 was observed after infection of cells with a ...19948077921
trans activation by the full-length e2 proteins of human papillomavirus type 16 and bovine papillomavirus type 1 in vitro and in vivo: cooperation with activation domains of cellular transcription factors.papillomaviral e2 genes encode proteins that regulate viral transcription. while the full-length bovine papillomavirus type 1 (bpv-1) e2 peptide is a strong trans activator, the homologous full-length e2 product of human papillomavirus type 16 (hpv-16) appeared to vary in function in previous studies. here we show that when expressed from comparable constructs, the full-length e2 products of hpv-16 and bpv-1 trans activate a simple e2- and sp1-dependent promoter up to approximately 100-fold in h ...19948083999
recombinant capripoxvirus expressing the hemagglutinin protein gene of rinderpest virus: protection of cattle against rinderpest and lumpy skin disease viruses.a cdna clone containing the complete coding sequence of the hemagglutinin (h) protein gene of the rbok vaccine strain of rinderpest virus, under the control of the vaccinia late promoter p11, was inserted by homologous recombination into the thymidine kinase gene of the ks-1 strain of capripoxvirus. the recombinant virus produced authentic h protein as judged by its electrophoretic mobility, transport to the cell surface of infected lamb testis cells, and reactivity with monoclonal antibodies sp ...19948091673
characteristics of an attenuated vaccinia virus strain, lc16m0, and its recombinant virus vaccines.this article reviews studies concerning the characteristics of a vaccinia virus strain, lc16m0, and its recombinant virus vaccines. the lc16m0 strain is one of several temperature-sensitive and further attenuated variants derived from the lister (elstree) strain of vaccinia virus, which has a proven safety record in human populations. several types of recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing a foreign antigen gene from a pathogenic virus have been constructed using the lc16m0 strain as a vector, ...19948091843
molecular evolution of herpesviruses: genomic and protein sequence comparisons.phylogenetic reconstruction of herpesvirus evolution is generally founded on amino acid sequence comparisons of specific proteins. these are relevant to the evolution of the specific gene (or set of genes), but the resulting phylogeny may vary depending on the particular sequence chosen for analysis (or comparison). in the first part of this report, we compare 13 herpesvirus genomes by using a new multidimensional methodology based on distance measures and partial orderings of dinucleotide relat ...19948107249
ftz-f1-related orphan receptors in xenopus laevis: transcriptional regulators differentially expressed during early embryogenesis.orphan receptors of the ftz-f1-related group of nuclear receptors (xff1r) were identified in xenopus laevis by isolation of cdnas from a neurula stage library. two cdnas were found, which encode full length, highly related receptor proteins, xff1ra and b, whose closet relative known so far is the murine lrh-1 orphan receptor. xff1ra protein expressed by a recombinant vaccinia virus system specifically binds to ftz-f1 response elements (fre; pycaaggpycpu). in cotransfection studies, xff1ra consti ...19948139576
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