rabies antibody prevalence and virus tissue tropism in wild carnivores in virginia.carnivores trapped in a rabies control program in virginia were examined for rabies virus and serum neutralizing antibody. local antibody prevalence ranged from 0% to 29% in gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus). rabies virus was pantropic in naturally infected gray foxes and a bobcat (lynx rufus).1978739588
characteristics of 11 rabies virus isolates in mice: titers and relative invasiveness of virus, incubation period of infection, and survival of mice with sequelae.mice were inoculated intracerebrally or in the footpad with 11 salivary gland suspensions from rabid foxes, skunks, and bobcats. the 11 isolates differed in their ratios of intracerebral titer to footpad titer, a result indicating that the "invasiveness" of different isolates varies markedly. the degree of invasiveness could not be correlated with the species of animal. the inoculation of the less invasive isolates resulted in an appreciable number of permanently paralyzed animals (survivors wit ...1977903672
rabies in skunks from enzootic focus of rabies in skunks in mexico is described. fifty three wild animals including two badgers (taxidea taxus), 32 bats (various species), one bobcat (lynx rufus), two coatis (nasua narica) three foxes (urocyon cineroargenteus), one raccoon (procyon lotor) and 12 skunks (see below) were tested for rabies by direct immunofluorescence assay from 1991 to 1997 in the central part of san luis potosi state, mexico. rabies occurrence was 21% of all tested mammals, with 19% in skunks and o ...199910479094
molecular characterization of rabies virus isolates from mexico: implications for transmission dynamics and human risk.twenty-eight samples from humans and domestic and wild animals collected in mexico between 1990 and 1995 were characterized by using anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies and limited sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein gene. the variants of rabies viruses identified in these samples were compared with other isolates from mexico and the rest of the americas to establish epidemiologic links between cases and outbreaks and to increase the understanding of rabies epidemiology in the western he ...199910548293
rabies among infrequently reported mammalian carnivores in the united states, 1960-2000.most cases of rabies reported annually in the united states occur among three groups of carnivores--raccoons (procyon lotor), skunks (mephitis, spilogale, and putorius), foxes (vulpes, urocyon, and alopex)--and among bats (numerous species). however, between 1960 and 2000, a total of 2,851 cases of rabies in 17 other carnivore taxa were reported to the centers for disease control and prevention, atlanta, georgia (usa), from 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico. three species of t ...200312910751
raccoon poxvirus as a mucosal vaccine vector for domestic the present study, we evaluated both the immunogenicity and safety of recombinant raccoon poxvirus (rcn) as a mucosal vaccine vector for domestic cats. rcn is an orthopoxvirus that was isolated from healthy raccoons and has been used experimentally as a vaccine vector for rabies and other antigens in a variety of species, including raccoons, skunks, foxes, bobcats, rabbits, domestic cats, piglets, sheep and non-human primates. we evaluated the antibody response induced by a recombinant rcn va ...200315203914
the molecular epidemiology of rabies associated with chiropteran hosts in mexico.while large-scale dog vaccination campaigns have significantly reduced urban rabies throughout mexico, reports of sylvatic rabies, including cases of spill-over of bat strains into livestock and humans, are increasing. to improve knowledge of these epidemiological trends, 64 mexican rabies virus isolates from various host species, have been characterized. phylogenetic analysis at the viral p locus identified distinct viral strains associated with terrestrial reservoirs (dog, skunk and fox/bobcat ...200616303200
animal rabies in massachusetts, this study, we review annual rabies data from massachusetts from 1985 to 2006, spanning the introduction of raccoon strain rabies in 1992. of 52,034 animals tested, 9.7% (5,049/52,034) were rabid, representing 26 of over 67 species submitted. bats were the most common rabid animals prior to 1992 (50 of 52), but raccoons (procyon lotor) became the most common rabies-positive species upon arrival of raccoon strain rabies virus (38.2%, 2,728 of 7,138 tested), followed by striped skunks (mephitis ...200919395747
immunohistochemical study of rabies virus within the central nervous system of domestic and wildlife species.immunohistochemistry using a commercial polyclonal antibody for lyssavirus was applied to 39 archival cases of rabies. paraffin blocks from 13 different species were available, including 3 dogs, 4 cats, 1 pig, 6 cattle, 4 horses, 1 llama, 7 skunks (mephitis mephitis), 7 raccoons (procyon lotor), 1 bat (myotis species), 1 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), 1 bobcat (lynx rufus), 2 gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus), and 1 red fox (vulpes vulpes). all cases had previously been diagnose ...201020484176
host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals.the majority of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, with viruses that originate in wild mammals of particular concern (for example, hiv, ebola and sars). understanding patterns of viral diversity in wildlife and determinants of successful cross-species transmission, or spillover, are therefore key goals for pandemic surveillance programs. however, few analytical tools exist to identify which host species are likely to harbour the next human virus, or which viruses can cross species ...201728636590
global mammal parasite database version 2.0.illuminating the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of parasites is one of the most pressing issues facing modern science, and is critical for basic science, the global economy, and human health. extremely important to this effort are data on the disease-causing organisms of wild animal hosts (including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, helminths, arthropods, and fungi). here we present an updated version of the global mammal parasite database, a database of the parasites of wild ungulates (artioda ...201728273333
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