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borrelia burgdorferi in ticks (acari: ixodidae) from coastal virginia.ixodid ticks removed from hosts and from vegetation during march-november 1987 at sites in coastal virginia and north carolina were examined for borrelia burgdorferi. b. burgdorferi was evident in nine (22%) ixodes cookei packard removed from rice rats (oryzomys palustris), a white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus), and raccoons (procyon lotor); four (6%) amblyomma americanum (l.) removed from raccoons; and two (3%) dermacentor variabilis (say) removed from a raccoon and a rice rat. b. burgdorf ...19911941936
adherence of the lyme disease spirochete to glial cells and cells of glial origin.lyme disease, a tick-borne spirochetosis caused by borrelia burgdorferi, produces protean neurologic manifestations, yet its neuropathogenesis is poorly understood. the affinity of the spirochete for cells of primary rat brain cultures and of the c6 glioma cell line was studied. b. burgdorferi adhered to both types of cells in a dose-dependent manner and exhibited an affinity for an extracellular matrix produced by the primary and by glioma cell cultures. adherence of the spirochetes to the glia ...19892760500
reservoir competence of the rice rat (rodentia: cricetidae) for borrelia burgdorferi.the reservoir competence of the rice rat, oryzomys palustris, for borrelia burgdorferi is described. infected ixodes scapularis say (i. dammini, spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin) nymphs were used to infect animals. borrelia infection was diagnosed by xenodiagnostic feeding of noninfected i. scapularis larvae and by reisolation of the spirochetes from blood and other tissues. rice rats acquired b. burgdorferi and maintained spirochete infection for 5-9 wk. b. burgdorferi were cultured from sa ...19957608919
interaction between acari ectoparasites and rodents in suez governorate, egypt.from the medical point of view, the relation between man and rodents comes in the priority. some rodent populations are wild but others are commensal and live in close association with man. they steal his food and conveying many zoonotic diseases. their arthropod ectoparasites play an important role in conveying or transmitting these zoonotic diseases. several disorders and diseases of man are tick borne relapsing fever, rocky mountain spotted fever, lyme disease, and many others. besides numero ...19957665934
norway rats as reservoir hosts for lyme disease spirochetes on monhegan island, maine.to determine whether the agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, may be maintained in the absence of its usual white-footed mouse reservoir host, ixodes dammini ticks from an island where mice are absent were examined. prevalence of spirochetal infection was described for ticks removed from mammals, birds, and vegetation on monhegan island, maine. forty percent of adult i. dammini removed from vegetation were infected. norway rats were heavily infested with ticks, and > 60% of such ticks co ...19938354910
isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from the blood of a bushy-tailed wood rat in california.borrelia burgdorferi was isolated from the blood of a bushy-tailed wood rat (neotoma cinerea) from northeastern california, usa. this is the first isolation of live b. burgdorferi spirochetes from a wild animal in california. spirochetes were observed in stained tissues from the brain, liver, spleen, and kidneys.19938355352
in vitro inhibition of borrelia burgdorferi growth by antibodies.function-oriented immunoassays, such as complement fixation and neutralization, are not commonly used in the study of the lyme disease agent, borrelia burgdorferi. to determine whether such assays provide information additional to matrix-based methods, such as elisa, polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies were examined for their abilities to agglutinate viable borreliae and inhibit their in vitro growth in microtiter plates. different strains of b. burgdorferi in both high and low passage ...19938418163
reservoir competence of four chaparral-dwelling rodents for borrelia burgdorferi in california.aspects of the reservoir competence of four rodents for the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, were evaluated in california. rodents were live-trapped and ear-punch biopsies were cultured during each season. a second set of biopsies was cultured from representative individuals after 2-3 weeks of captivity and the results of culturing biopsies taken on both dates were compared with the results of feeding ixodes pacificus larvae on hosts xenodiagnostically. the prevalence of infections ...19968651378
competence of urban rats as reservoir hosts for lyme disease spirochetes.to determine whether urban rats serve efficiently as reservoir hosts for the agent of lyme disease, we recorded the frequency of infection in nymphal ixodes ricinus (l.) ticks that had fed as larvae on experimentally infected norway rats, rattus norvegicus (berkenhout), or on black rats, r. rattus (l.), and evaluated the nidicolous venue of transmission. subadult vector ticks attached readily to norway rats as well as black rats and virtually all became infected in the course of feeding. larval ...19979220684
genospecies identification and characterization of lyme disease spirochetes of genospecies borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolated from rodents in taiwan.lyme disease spirochetes of the genospecies borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were identified and characterized for the first time in taiwan. seven isolates, designated twkm1 to twkm7, were purified from the ear tissues of three species of rodents captured from seven localities of taiwan. the immunological characteristics of these taiwan isolates were compared with those of other genospecies of lyme disease spirochetes by analyzing the protein profiles and reactivities with b. burgdorferi-specific ...19989774551
proteomics in human disease: cancer, heart and infectious diseases.in recent years, genomics has increased the understanding of many diseases. proteomics is a rapidly growing research area that encompasses both genetic and environmental factors. the protein composition represents the functional status of a biological compartment. the five approaches presented here resulted in the detection of disease-associated proteins. calgranulin b was upregulated in colorectal cancer, and hepatoma-derived aldose reductase-like protein was reexpressed in a rat model during h ...199910451122
ticks and antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi from mammals at cape hatteras, nc and assateague island, md and va.results of a survey for ixodid ticks and/or serum antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi from 14 species of small to large mammals from eastern coastal areas of the united states are presented. most samples were obtained from july 1987 through june 1989 (excluding december-march) at 3 locales: assateague is. national seashore, worcester co., md., and accomack co., va. (approximately 38 degrees 05' n 75 degrees 10' w), and cape hatteras national seashore, dare co., nc (approximately 35 degrees 30' n ...199910534951
expression of a luxs gene is not required for borrelia burgdorferi infection of mice via needle inoculation.the luxs gene product is an integral component of luxs/autoinducer-2 (ai-2) quorum-sensing systems in bacteria. a putative luxs gene was expressed at comparable levels by borrelia burgdorferi strain 297 cultivated either in vitro or in dialysis membrane chambers implanted in rat peritoneal cavities. although the borrelial luxs gene functionally complemented a luxs deficiency in escherichia coli dh5 alpha, ai-2-like activity could not be detected within b. burgdorferi culture supernatants or conc ...200312704164
[preliminary investigation on reservoir hosts of borrelia burgdorferi in china].from 1987 to 1997, the reservoir hosts of borrelia burdorferi(b.b.) were investigated in 16 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions of china. seroepidemiological findings indicated that cattle, sheep, dogs and rats from forest areas had a high antibody titer for b.b. (b31) with positive rates of 18.18%-32.61%, 17.12%-61.21%, 38.50-60.00% and 41.18%-86.05% respectively. using bsk medium, 20 strains of b.b. were isolated from apodemus agrarius, clethrionomys rufocanus, eutamias sibiricus, ...199912712735
abundance of ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) after the complete removal of deer from an isolated offshore island, endemic for lyme disease.monhegan is an isolated 237-ha island lying 16 km off the coast of maine. introduced to the island in 1955, white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus zimmerman, reached a density of approximately 37/km2 by the mid-1990s. black-legged ticks, ixodes scapularis say, first noticed in the late 1980s, flourished thereafter. norway rats (rattus norvegicus berkenhout) on monhegan are highly infected with borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmidt, hyde, steigerwalt, and brenner, the agent of lyme disease. by ...200415311475
first detection and molecular identification of borrelia burgdorferi-like spirochetes in ixodes granulatus ticks collected on kinmen island of taiwan.borrelia burgdorferi-like spirochetes were detected for the first time in ixodes granulatus ticks collected in taiwan. the genetic identities of these detected spirochetes were determined by analyzing the gene sequences amplified by a genospecies-specific polymerase chain reaction assay based on the outer surface protein a (ospa) gene of b. burgdorferi sensu lato. phylogenetic analysis reveals that the sequence similarity of these spirochetes, ranging from 90.5% to 98.7% is highly homogeneous wi ...200919270287
reservoir competence of various rodents for the lyme disease spirochete borrelia spielmanii.to determine whether the pathogenic lyme disease spirochete borrelia spielmanii is adapted exclusively to garden dormice, we compared the reservoir competence of various rodent species for this spirochete, including sympatric and peridomestic rodents. the different kinds of rodents varied in their attractiveness to nymphal ticks and their level of susceptibility to tick-borne b. spielmanii infection, but only the edible dormouse appeared to be refractory. although hazel dormice and norway rats b ...201121460106
synanthropic rodents and their ectoparasites as carriers of a novel haemoplasma and vector-borne, zoonotic pathogens indoors.despite their close association with human dwellings, the role of synanthropic rodents in the epidemiology of vector-borne infections is seldom studied. the aim of the present study was to compensate for this lack of information, by the molecular investigation of vector-borne bacteria in peridomestic rodents and their ectoparasites.201525589174
microbial pathogens in ticks, rodents and a shrew in northern gyeonggi-do near the dmz, korea.a total of 1,618 ticks [420 individual (adults) and pooled (larvae and nymphs) samples], 369 rodents (apodemus agrarius, rattus norvegicus, tscherskia triton, mus musculus, and myodes regulus), and 34 shrews (crocidura lasiura) that were collected in northern gyeonggi-do near the demilitarized zone (dmz) of korea during 2004-2005, were assayed by pcr for selected zoonotic pathogens. from a total of 420 individual and pooled tick dna samples, anaplasma (a.) phagocytophilum (16), a. platys (16), e ...200818716449
experimental immunization with borrelia burgdorferi induces development of antibodies to gangliosides.patients with neuroborreliosis produce antibodies, mostly of the immunoglobulin m (igm) class, to gangliosides, particularly to those with gal(beta 1-3)galnac terminal sequences. lewis rats were immunized with a nonpathogenic strain of borrelia burgdorferi and with a chloroform-methanol extract (nonprotein) of this organism (cm) to determine whether antibodies to b. burgdorferi also recognized gangliosides. rats were also immunized with asialo-gm1 to determine whether the elicited antibodies rec ...19957558329
experimental lyme arthritis in rats infected with borrelia burgdorferi. 19883258003
lyme borreliosis in laboratory animals: effect of host species and in vitro passage of borrelia burgdorferi.the susceptibility of several common laboratory animal species to a known pathogenic isolate of borrelia burgdorferi (n40) was evaluated following intraperitoneal (ip) inoculation of 10(6-8) spirochetes into 3-day-old lewis rats, cd-1 mice, syrian hamsters, and 3-week-old american dutch rabbits. at 30 days, tissues were cultured for spirochetes and examined histologically. all species developed multisystemic infection as well as arthritis and carditis, but disease was most severe in rats and mic ...19902143358
susceptibility of laboratory rats to isolates of borrelia burgdorferi from different geographic areas.one week old lew/n rats were inoculated with 15 different isolates of borrelia burgdorferi from 3 major north american (northeast, midwest, and pacific) and 1 european endemic areas. at 30 days after inoculation, several tissues were cultured for b. burgdorferi and examined for histopathological changes. sera were tested for igm and igg antibody to b. burgdorferi by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. one or more isolates from each geographic region was recovered by culture and caused arthriti ...19902142584
the failure of immune response evasion by linear plasmid 28-1-deficient borrelia burgdorferi is attributable to persistent expression of an outer surface protein.infectivity and persistence by borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme disease, rely stringently on regulatory events. among these is the downregulation of lipoprotein antigen expression, exemplified by outer surface protein c (ospc), at the advent of specific immunity in the mammalian host. b. burgdorferi spirochetes that lack the linear plasmid 28-1 (lp28-1) succumb to the host's immune response. we thus explored the notion that these two phenomena were related--that lp28-1(-) organi ...200818625742
case study: periodic follow-up is necessary in morphea profunda to identify systemic evolution.the term "morphea" includes a wide spectrum of clinical entities, varying from localized plaques of only cosmetic importance to deep lesions resulting in considerable morbidity for the patient. in fact, although survival rates are no different from that of the general population, localized scleroderma may be associated with development of substantial disability, as occurs in deep morphea and in pediatric patients (disabling pansclerotic morphea of children). we report a case of morphea profunda ...200515891259
risk of urban lyme disease enhanced by the presence of rats.to determine whether norway rats contribute to the risk of human lyme disease in a central european city park, densities of endemic rodents were compared as were feeding densities of vector ticks and prevalence of infection by the lyme disease spirochete. only norway rats and yellow-necked mice were abundant, and three times as many mice as rats were present. more larval ticks fed on rats than on mice, and far more nymphs engorged on the rats. all rats but only about half of the mice infected ti ...19968896518
genetic diversity among borrelia burgdorferi isolates from wood rats and kangaroo rats in california.twenty-nine borrelia burgdorferi isolates, obtained from dusky-footed wood rats (neotoma fuscipes) and california kangaroo rats (dipodomys californicus) in california, were analyzed genetically. chromosomal dna was examined by restriction endonuclease analysis (rea) and gene probe restriction fragment length polymorphism. pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the plasmid profiles of the isolates. rea, the method with the greatest discrimination, disclosed 24 distinct restriction p ...19937905880
borrelia burgdorferi and escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides induce nitric oxide and interleukin-6 production in cultured rat brain cells.borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of lyme disease, infects the central nervous system (cns), but the factors that mediate inflammation and neurologic dysfunction are not known. sonicated b. burgdorferi stimulated in a concentration-dependent manner the production of nitric oxide (no) in glial-enriched primary cultures of neonatal rat brain cells via induction of no synthase activity. lipopolysaccharide (lps) of escherichia coli also stimulated nitrite accumulation in a concentration-de ...19947513330
fibronectin binding protein bbk32 of the lyme disease spirochete promotes bacterial attachment to glycosaminoglycans.borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of lyme disease, causes a multisystemic illness that can affect the skin, heart, joints, and nervous system and is capable of attachment to diverse cell types. among the host components recognized by this spirochete are fibronectin and glycosaminoglycans (gags). three surface-localized gag-binding bacterial ligands, bgp, dbpa, and dbpb, have been previously identified, but recent studies suggested that at least one additional gag-binding ligand is expressed on the ...200616368999
acute peripheral facial palsy in lyme disease -- a distal neuritis at the infection site.children with acute peripheral facial palsy have often suffered tick bites and/or erythema migrans in the head/neck region on the same side. with respect to the pathogenesis of neuroborreliosis this topographical association was investigated in an animal model.200415534758
new genomospecies related to borrelia valaisiana, isolated from mammals in okinawa archipelago, japan.in 2000 and 2001, a survey was conducted of borrelia isolated from various mammals in the southernmost islands of japan, including okinawa (main island), izena, iriomote and ishigaki. isolates obtained from the ear tissues of suncus murinus (10 isolates), mus calori (four isolates), rattus norvegicus (one isolate) and crocidura watasei (one isolate), were characterized by rflp of the 5s-23s rdna intergenic spacer and sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer, 16s rdna and flagellin gene. while ...200415096552
impaired bactericidal activity and host resistance to listeria monocytogenes and borrelia burgdorferi in rats administered an acute oral regimen of ethanol.a rat model was used to examine how ethanol ingestion may interfere with antimicrobial immunity both in vitro and in vivo. nonimmune long-evans rats were given a short-course treatment orally with excessive amounts of ethanol. their spleens were removed at the time of sacrifice, and separate spleen cell suspensions were prepared and tested in vitro for their ability to kill two bacterial pathogens, listeria monocytogenes and borrelia burgdorferi. after the bacteria were mixed separately with var ...200211874864
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