TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
the synergism of human influenza and canine distemper viruses in ferrets.the infections produced in ferrets by human influenza virus and canine distemper virus were studied. cross immunity and cross neutralization tests showed that these two viruses were not related antigenically. ferrets infected with influenza virus alone rapidly produced considerable quantities of neutralizing antibodies, and after the 6th day virus was not demonstrable in their lungs. ferrets infected with both influenza and distemper viruses simultaneously produced but small amounts of neutraliz ...194019871021
distemper studies in foxes: vi. - attempted immunization of foxes with ferret distemper virus against canine distemper virus. 194417648011
the use of an egg-adapted modified canine distemper virus vaccine under experimental conditions and in the field. 195114836268
canine distemper virus in the ferret. 195513263452
canine distemper virus in ferret, dog and bovine kidney cell cultures. 19654160642
the virus of canine distemper in cell culture. i. adaptation of canine distemper virus to growth and serial passage in ferret kidney cell cultures and in bs-c-1 cell cultures. 19685648804
the virus of canine distemper in cell culture. ii. effect of serial passage in ferret kidney cell cultures and bs-c-1 cell cultures on the virulence of canine distemper virus. 19685648805
the growth and cytopathogenicity of virulent and attenuated strains of canine distemper virus in dog and ferret macrophages. 19715090886
cell fusion by canine distemper virus-infected cells.av3 cells (continuous human amnion) infected with the onderstepoort strain of canine distemper virus produced cell fusion within 2 to 5 hr when added to av3 cell monolayers. an apparent requirement for intact, infected cells was demonstrated by showing that (i) frozen-and-thawed infected cells failed to induce fusion, (ii) infected cells frozen in the presence of glycerol retained their ability to induce fusion, (iii) infected cells subjected to swelling in hypotonic buffer and homogenization lo ...19724644630
fatal vaccine-induced canine distemper virus infection in black-footed ferrets.four black-footed ferrets that were live-trapped in south dakota and transported to the patuxent wildlife research center died within 21 days after vaccination with modified live canine distemper virus. immunofluorescence, european ferret inoculation, virus isolation attempts, and serum-neutralization tests indicated insufficient attenuation of the vaccine for this species.1976988011
vaccine-induced canine distemper virus in black-footed ferrets. 1977556720
isolation of a paramyxovirus from the cerebrospinal fluid of a dog with posterior paresis.a paramyxovirus was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of a dog with a history of incoordination and posterior paresis. the virus apparently was not related to canine distemper virus (cdv), considering the lack of virus neutralization with cdv-specific antibody, negative immunofluorescence with cdv-specific conjugate, and avirulence for ferrets. the virus was antigenically related to a prototype strain of canine parainfluenza virus, as determined by positive immunofluorescence with canine parainf ...19806254938
[evidence of canine distemper virus in kidneys of apparently healthy ferrets (author's transl)]. 19807006506
canine distemper virus titration in ferret peritoneal macrophages.the sensitivity of a ferret peritoneal macrophage fluorescent antibody technique for assay of various strains of canine distemper virus was investigated. the macrophage system was compared with established methods of titration in canine kidney cell culture, vero cell culture, and embryonated chicken eggs. it was found to be as sensitive as and in several instances more sensitive than the established methods.19817011675
clinical trials with canine distemper vaccines in exotic carnivores.two types of killed canine distemper virus (cdv) vaccine and a modified-live cdv vaccine were clinically evaluated in four species of exotic carnivores. in 16 trials in which 13 red pandas (ailurus fulgens) were given the killed vaccine, only 1 animal had a virus-neutralization titer that exceeded 1:100. a red panda given modified-live cdv vaccine deemed safe for gray foxes and ferrets died of bacterial pneumonia 16 days later. there was no pathologic evidence of canine distemper in that panda. ...19836358163
canine distemper virus: in vivo virulence of in vitro-passaged persistent virus strains.groups of ferrets were inoculated intraperitoneally with cell lysates or equivalent doses of whole cells from 9 different cell lines persistently infected with canine distemper virus. viral persistence in these cell lines was characterized by noncytolytic infection and restricted release of cell-free infectious virus. in vivo replication competency of the various viruses in ferrets ranged from nil to virulent and did not correlate with in vitro titers of inocula. ferret virulence (cell lysates o ...19873826861
effects of induced thrombocytopenia on viral invasion of the central nervous system in canine distemper virus infection.groups of canine distemper virus (cdv) susceptible ferrets were treated daily with 2.0 ml of normal goat serum (ngs) or goat anti-ferret platelet serum from 2 days before to 11 days after infection. each group was subdivided into 2 and one subgroup of each was subsequently injected intraperitoneally with virulent r252-cdv. ferrets were killed on days 2, 4, 6, 9 and 11 after infection and tissues from the central nervous system (cns) were examined for histopathological lesions typical for cdv and ...19873312311
establishment of central nervous system infection by canine distemper virus: breach of the blood-brain barrier and facilitation by antiviral antibody.morphologic, immunologic and virologic data implicating antiviral antibody in promoting entry of canine distemper virus (cdv) into brain and reticuloendothelial tissues are reviewed. infection of central nervous system (cns) endothelium precedes invasion of virus-positive and -negative leukocytes into virchow-robin spaces and central nervous system (cns) parenchyma by 1-3 days. platelets are implicated in initiation of endothelial infection in that: cdv-infected dogs are thrombocytopenic; platel ...19872963430
antibody titers in domestic ferret jills and their kits to canine distemper virus vaccine.antibody titers were measured in domestic or european ferret (mustela putorius furo) jills vaccinated with modified-live canine distemper virus (cdv) vaccine and in their kits. the half-life of maternal antibody to cdv in ferrets was 9.43 days. ferret kits should be vaccinated against cdv at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age.19883182383
canine distemper in black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes) from september and october 1985, six black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes) were captured from the only known population, located near meeteetse, wyoming for captive propagation. two days following capture an adult male showed signs of canine distemper and an adult female displayed similar signs 7 days postcapture; these infections were undoubtedly acquired prior to capture. subsequently the four remaining captive black-footed ferrets also developed canine distemper and all eventually died. clini ...19883411697
serologic response of domestic ferrets (mustela putorius furo) to canine distemper and rabies virus vaccines.nine unrelated 12-week-old naive domestic ferrets (mustela putorius furo) were used to evaluate the serologic responses to commercial canine distemper virus (cdv) and rabies virus (rv) vaccines. five of the ferrets (group 1) were inoculated 3 times at 2-week intervals with a multivalent modified-live virus vaccine of canine cell-line origin, containing cdv and an inactivated rv vaccine. four of the ferrets (group 2) were inoculated once with the multivalent modified-live virus vaccine containing ...19892537273
pathogenicity of morbilliviruses for terrestrial carnivores.many different species of the order carnivora are susceptible to canine distemper and the mortality rate varies greatly between species. ailuridae, canidae, hyaenidae, mustelidae, procyonidae, ursidae, viverridae and now felidae have been reported to be susceptible to canine distemper virus infection. although distemper outbreaks in dogs, fur farms and in zoo carnivores have been greatly reduced in recent years due to vaccination, there are still regular outbreaks in free-living carnivores. unex ...19958588312
[ultrastructural analysis of pathological changes in ferrets with experimental canine distemper].morphologic study of the lungs, liver, spleen, and kidneys of ferrets infected with canine distemper virus has been carried out. electron microscopy revealed virus reproduction in bronchial epithelial cells, types i and ii alveolocytes, bile duct epitheliocytes, and hepatocytes. mononuclear phagocyte system cells infected with the virus were found in all the examined organs. the most expressed pathological changes were observed in the lungs.19968669139
vaccination of black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes) x siberian polecat (m. eversmanni) hybrids and domestic ferrets (m. putorius furo)against canine inactivated canine distemper vaccine with adjuvant and a modified-live virus (mlv) vaccine were evaluated using black-footed ferret (mustegla nigripes) x siberian polecat (mustela eversmanni) hybrids us surrogates for endangered black-footed ferrets. for comparative purposes, we also vaccinated domestic ferrets (mustela putorius furo) with the mlv vaccine. response to vaccination was measured by clinical observation, hematology, dynamics of serum virus neutralizing antibodies, and challenge w ...19968827666
canine distemper virus (cdv) infection of ferrets as a model for testing morbillivirus vaccine strategies: nyvac- and alvac-based cdv recombinants protect against symptomatic infection.canine distemper virus (cdv) infection of ferrets causes an acute systemic disease involving multiple organ systems, including the respiratory tract, lymphoid system, and central nervous system (cns). we have tested candidate cdv vaccines incorporating the fusion (f) and hemagglutinin (ha) proteins in the highly attenuated nyvac strain of vaccinia virus and in the alvac strain of canarypox virus, which does not productively replicate in mammalian hosts. juvenile ferrets were vaccinated twice wit ...19978995676
genetic diversity of the attachment (h) protein gene of current field isolates of canine distemper characterize the variability of recent field isolates of canine distemper virus (cdv) from different hosts and geographical areas, we conducted nucleotide sequence analysis of the gene encoding the haemagglutinin (h), the attachment protein of this virus. pronounced differences between field isolates were revealed in comparison to the convac and onderstepoort vaccine strains. the diversity of cdv appeared to exceed that determined for measles virus. phylogenetic analysis also separated the fi ...19979018059
molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the haemagglutinin (h) proteins of field isolates of canine distemper virus from naturally infected dogs.we isolated three strains of canine distemper virus (cdv)--the ueno, hamamatsu, and yanaka strains--from dogs in japan and analysed the molecular properties of their haemagglutinin (h) proteins. immunoprecipitation of all three strains with a monoclonal antibody revealed h proteins with molecular masses of 84 kda, which differs from the molecular mass (78 kda) of the h protein of the onderstepoort vaccine strain. however, after tunicamycin treatment immunoprecipitation identified h proteins of i ...19979018060
protective vaccination of ferrets against canine distemper with recombinant pox virus vaccines expressing the h or f genes of rinderpest investigate the ability of rinderpest virus (rpv) antigens, expressed in pox virus vectors, to protect against canine distemper virus (cdv) infection in ferrets.19979185963
mucosal vaccination with recombinant poxvirus vaccines protects ferrets against symptomatic cdv infection.canine distemper virus (cdv) infection of ferrets causes a disease characterized by fever, erythema, conjunctivitis and leukocytopenia, similar clinically to measles except for the fatal neurologic sequelae of cdv. we vaccinated juvenile ferrets twice at 4-week intervals by the intranasal or intraduodenal route with attenuated vaccinia (nyvac) or canarypox virus (alvac) constructs containing the cdv hemagglutinin and fusion genes. controls were vaccinated with the same vectors expressing rabies ...19999987168
vaccination against canine distemper virus infection in infant ferrets with and without maternal antibody protection, using recombinant attenuated poxvirus vaccines.canine distemper virus (cdv) infection of ferrets is clinically and immunologically similar to measles, making this a useful model for the human disease. the model was used to determine if parenteral or mucosal immunization of infant ferrets at 3 and 6 weeks of age with attenuated vaccinia virus (nyvac) or canarypox virus (alvac) vaccine strains expressing the cdv hemagglutinin (h) and fusion (f) protein genes (nyvac-hf and alvac-hf) would induce serum neutralizing antibody and protect against c ...200010864646
serologic evaluation, efficacy, and safety of a commerical modified-live canine distemper vaccine in domestic determine efficacy and safety of a commercial modified-live canine distemper virus (cdv) vaccine used for prophylaxis in domestic ferrets.200111341395
pathogenesis of two strains of lion (panthera leo) morbillivirus in ferrets (mustela putorius furo).canine distemper virus (cdv) was previously considered to have a host range restricted to the canid family. in 1994, the virus was associated with sporadic outbreaks of distemper in captive felids. however, after severe mortality occurred in the serengeti lions (panthera leo), attention became focused on the pathogenesis of the virus and a concerted effort was made to identify the virus as cdv or a closely related feline morbillivirus. the present study was designed to explore the susceptibility ...200111355661
application of n-pcr for diagnosis of distemper in dogs and fur animals.the immunofluorescence test, routinely used for laboratory diagnosis of canine distemper virus (cdv) in poland, is not sufficiently sensitive and specific. therefore, the application of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), nested pcr (n-pcr) and southern blot hybridization for detection of phosphoprotein (p) gene of cdv in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) or internal organs of dogs and fur animals was the aim of these studies. the optimal parameters for two-step pc ...200212119141
[ferrets in veterinary practice].ferrets (mustela putorius furo) show up with increasing frequency in veterinary practice. originally domesticated for hunting of rodents and rabbits, they became very popular pets which require legal permission though and the further fulfillment of various husbandry needs. ferrets have to be maintained on a high protein diet which in practice is often done with commercial feline products. physical examination is similar to dogs and cats whereas the frequent occurrence of non-specific symptoms re ...200212481538
evaluation of oral and subcutaneous delivery of an experimental canarypox recombinant canine distemper vaccine in the siberian polecat (mustela eversmanni).we assessed the safety and efficacy of an experimental canarypox-vectored recombinant canine distemper virus (cdv) subunit vaccine in the siberian polecat (mustela eversmanni), a close relative of the black-footed ferret, (m. nigripes), an endangered species that is highly susceptible to the virus. siberian polecats were randomized into six treatment groups. recombinant canine distemper vaccine was administered s.c. at three dose levels (10(4.5), 10(5.0), and 10(5.5) plaque-forming units [pfu] p ...200312723797
immunohistochemical analysis of two strains of lion (panthera leo)-adapted canine distemper virus in ferrets (mustela putorius furo).canine distemper virus (cdv) caused epizootics in lions (panthera leo) in tanzania's serengeti national park in 1994 and in captive lions and other panthera spp. in the usa in 1991-1992. in this study, immunohistochemistry was used to compare viral distribution in tissues collected from ferrets (mustela putorius furo) inoculated with one of the two lion-derived cdv isolates, either from serengeti (a94-11/13) or from california (a92-27/20). the california isolate resulted in severe morbidity in a ...200312824519
sequence analysis of the fragment of the phosphoprotein gene of polish distemper virus isolates.the nucleotide sequence analysis of the 429 bp fragment of the p gene of 11 polish field isolates of canine distemper virus (cdv), reference strains and other virus isolates available in the genbank was the aim of the studies. high homology between all dog strains from east-southern region of poland and reference strains of cdv was demonstrated. it was estimated as 97-100 % for cdv-ond; 96.7-99.8 % for cdv-rock; 96.7-99.8 % for cdv-led and 96.3-97.9 % for a75-17. the 100 % homology of the nucleo ...200312898335
incidence of adverse events in ferrets vaccinated with distemper or rabies vaccine: 143 cases (1995-2001).to determine the incidence of adverse events in ferrets vaccinated with a modified-live avian cell culture canine distemper virus vaccine licensed for use in ferrets, an inactivated rabies vaccine licensed for use in ferrets, or both.200312959385
a ferret model of canine distemper virus virulence and immunosuppression.canine distemper virus (cdv) infects many carnivores, including ferrets and dogs, and is the member of the morbillivirus genus most easily amenable to experimentation in a homologous small-animal system. to gain insights into the determinants of cdv pathogenesis, we isolated a strain highly virulent for ferrets by repeated passaging in these animals. sequence comparison of the genome of this strain with that of its highly attenuated precursor revealed 19 mutations distributed almost evenly in th ...200314610181
tropism illuminated: lymphocyte-based pathways blazed by lethal morbillivirus through the host immune system.the immunosuppressive properties of morbilliviruses including measles and canine distemper virus (cdv) are well known, but the host cells supporting infection are poorly characterized. to identify these cells, a recombinant cdv expressing green fluorescent protein was produced by reverse genetics based on a wild-type strain lethal for ferrets. this recombinant virus fully retained virulence and blazed three lymphocyte-based pathways through the immune system of its host: first, it infected rapid ...200415377791
nearby clusters of hemagglutinin residues sustain slam-dependent canine distemper virus entry in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (slam, cd150) is the universal morbillivirus receptor. based on the identification of measles virus (mv) hemagglutinin (h) amino acids supporting human slam-dependent cell entry, we mutated canine distemper virus (cdv) h and identified residues necessary for efficient canine slam-dependent membrane fusion. these residues are located in two nearby clusters in a new cdv h structural model. to completely abolish slam-dependent fusion, combinations of mutati ...200515827201
receptor (slam [cd150]) recognition and the v protein sustain swift lymphocyte-based invasion of mucosal tissue and lymphatic organs by a morbillivirus.experimental infections of ferrets with canine distemper virus (cdv) recapitulate many hallmarks of measles: rash, high fever, viremia, depression of delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, lowered leukocyte counts, and reduced lymphocyte proliferation activity. to understand how a morbillivirus invades the host and causes immunosuppression, we generated cdv either unable to recognize one of the receptors or incapable of expressing either one or both of the candidate interferon antagonist prote ...200616731947
canine distemper virus uses both the anterograde and the hematogenous pathway for neuroinvasion.canine distemper virus (cdv), a member of the morbillivirus genus that also includes measles virus, frequently causes neurologic complications, but the routes and timing of cdv invasion of the central nervous system (cns) are poorly understood. to characterize these events, we cloned and sequenced the genome of a neurovirulent cdv (strain a75/17) and produced an infectious cdna that expresses the green fluorescent protein. this virus fully retained its virulence in ferrets: the course and signs ...200616973542
early cytokine mrna expression profiles predict morbillivirus disease outcome in ferrets.severe immunosuppression is a hallmark of morbillivirus infections. to study the underlying mechanisms, we have developed a ferret model of canine distemper virus infection. the model reproduces all clinical signs of measles, but the lack of ferret-specific reagents has limited the characterization of the cellular immune response. towards this, we cloned ferret cytokines and established semi-quantitative real-time pcr assays. to demonstrate the utility of these assays we compared the cytokine pr ...200717289104
disease manifestations of canine distemper virus infection in ferrets are modulated by vitamin a status.the measles virus (mv) causes half a million childhood deaths annually. vitamin a supplements significantly reduce measles-associated mortality and morbidity. the mechanisms whereby vitamin a acts against mv are not understood and currently there is no satisfactory small animal model for mv infection. we report on the development of a ferret model to study antiviral activity of vitamin a against canine distemper virus (cdv). cdv is closely related to mv at the molecular level and distemper in fe ...200717634264
disease duration determines canine distemper virus neurovirulence.the morbillivirus hemagglutinin (h) protein mediates attachment to the target cell. to evaluate its contribution to canine distemper virus neurovirulence, we exchanged the h proteins of the wild-type strains 5804p and a75 and assessed the pathogenesis of the chimeric viruses in ferrets. both strains are lethal to ferrets; however, 5804p causes a 2-week disease without neurological signs, whereas a75 is associated with a longer disease course and neurological involvement. we observed that both h ...200717699577
canine distemper virus in wild ferret-badgers of taiwan.canine distemper is an acute or subacute, highly contagious, febrile disease that is caused by canine distemper virus (cdv). two cdv-infected wild taiwan ferret-badgers (melogale moschata subauantiaca) were found in kaohsiung county, southern taiwan, in 2005. each case was confirmed by detecting cdv rna in lung and brain tissues. a suspected third case was detected based on clinical signs and histology. these cases are the first record of wildlife infected by cdv in taiwan. it is believed that d ...200818436676
an unusual presentation of canine distemper virus infection in a domestic ferret (mustela putorius furo).a 4.5-year-old, male castrated ferret was examined with a 27-day history of severe pruritus, generalized erythema and scaling. skin scrapings and a trichogram were negative for mites and dermatophyte organisms. a fungal culture of hair samples was negative. the ferret was treated presumptively for scabies and secondary bacterial and yeast infection with selamectin, enrofloxacin, fluconazole, diphenhydramine and a miconazole-chlorhexidine shampoo. the ferret showed mild improvement in clinical si ...200818547381
outbreak of canine distemper in domestic ferrets (mustela putorius furo).in 2006 an outbreak of canine distemper affected 14 young domestic ferrets in barcelona, spain. their clinical signs included a reduced appetite, lethargy, dyspnoea, coughing, sneezing, mucopurulent ocular and nasal discharges, facial and perineal dermatitis, diarrhoea, splenomegaly and fever. late in the course of the disease, general desquamation and pruritus, and hyperkeratotic/crusting dermatitis of the lips, eyes, nose, footpads, and perineal area were observed. none of the ferrets develope ...200818723866
ferrets as a model for morbillivirus pathogenesis, complications, and vaccines.the ferret is a standard laboratory animal that can be accommodated in most animal facilities. while not susceptible to measles, ferrets are a natural host of canine distemper virus (cdv), the closely related carnivore morbillivirus. cdv infection in ferrets reproduces all clinical signs associated with measles in humans, including the typical rash, fever, general immunosuppression, gastrointestinal and respiratory involvement, and neurological complications. due to this similarity, experimental ...200919203105
canine distemper virus selectively inhibits apoptosis progression in infected immune cells.morbillivirus infections are characterized by severe leukopenia and immune suppression that develop even before the onset of clinical signs. to characterize in more detail the fate of the immune cells during the critical first week, we evaluated the overall viability, level of apoptosis, cell cycle status, and extent of infection in different immune tissues of ferrets inoculated with a lethal canine distemper virus (cdv) strain. initial experiments with mdck cells, a canine epithelial cell line, ...200919357171
acute canine distemper encephalitis is associated with rapid neuronal loss and local immune activation.for most virus infections of the central nervous system (cns), immune-mediated damage, the route of inoculation and death of infected cells all contribute to the pathology observed. to investigate the role of these factors in early canine distemper neuropathogenesis, we infected ferrets either intranasally or intraperitoneally with the neurovirulent canine distemper virus strain snyder hill. regardless of the route of inoculation, the virus primarily targeted the olfactory bulb, brainstem, hippo ...201020016033
canine distemper viruses expressing a hemagglutinin without n-glycans lose virulence but retain immunosuppression.paramyxovirus glycoproteins are posttranslationally modified by the addition of n-linked glycans, which are often necessary for correct folding, processing, and cell surface expression. to establish the contribution of n glycosylation to morbillivirus attachment (h) protein function and overall virulence, we first determined the use of the potential n-glycosylation sites in the canine distemper virus (cdv) h proteins. biochemical characterization revealed that the three sites conserved in all st ...201020042514
emergence of canine distemper in bavarian wildlife associated with a specific amino acid exchange in the haemagglutinin protein.a widespread, severe outbreak of canine distemper encephalitis was observed in wildlife in southern bavaria in the spring and summer of 2008. the haemagglutinin (ha) genes of six representative canine distemper virus (cdv) samples originating from five red foxes and one badger during this outbreak had a y549h amino acid substitution in the ha protein compared to sequences from two captive domesticated ferrets which succumbed to cdv in the same area 2 years earlier. as this specific substitution ...201120089424
canine distemper matrix protein modulates particle infectivity, particle composition, and envelope distribution in polarized epithelial cells, and paramyxoviruses, the matrix (m) protein mediates the interaction between the envelope and internal proteins during particle assembly and egress. in measles virus (mev), m mutations such as in those found in sspe strains, and differences in vaccine and wild type m proteins can affect the strength of interaction with the envelope glycoproteins, assembly efficiency, and spread. however, the contribution of the m protein to virus replication and pathogenesis of the closely related canine distempe ...201121543493
evaluation of synthetic infection-enhancing lipopeptides as adjuvants for a live-attenuated canine distemper virus vaccine administered intra-nasally to ferrets.inactivated paramyxovirus vaccines have been associated with hypersensitivity responses upon challenge infection. for measles and canine distemper virus (cdv) safe and effective live-attenuated virus vaccines are available, but for human respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus development of such vaccines has proven difficult. we recently identified three synthetic bacterial lipopeptides that enhance paramyxovirus infections in vitro, and hypothesized these could be used as adjuvan ...201222705079
recombinant canine distemper virus strain snyder hill expressing green or red fluorescent proteins causes meningoencephalitis in the ferret.the propensity of canine distemper virus (cdv) to spread to the central nervous system is one of the primary features of distemper. therefore, we developed a reverse genetics system based on the neurovirulent snyder hill (sh) strain of cdv (cdv(sh)) and show that this virus rapidly circumvents the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid (csf) barriers to spread into the subarachnoid space to induce dramatic viral meningoencephalitis. the use of recombinant cdv(sh) (rcdv(sh)) expressing enhance ...201222553334
canine distemper virus epithelial cell infection is required for clinical disease but not for characterize the importance of infection of epithelial cells for morbillivirus pathogenesis, we took advantage of the severe disease caused by canine distemper virus (cdv) in ferrets. to obtain a cdv that was unable to enter epithelial cells but retained the ability to enter immune cells, we transferred to its attachment (h) protein two mutations shown to interfere with the interaction of measles virus h with its epithelial receptor, human nectin-4. as expected for an epithelial receptor (epr ...201222278252
membrane-bound siv envelope trimers are immunogenic in ferrets after intranasal vaccination with a replication-competent canine distemper virus vector.we are investigating canine distemper virus (cdv) as a vaccine vector for the delivery of hiv envelope (env) that closely resembles the native trimeric spike. we selected cdv because it will promote vaccine delivery to lymphoid tissues, and because human exposure is infrequent, reducing potential effects of pre-existing immunity. using siv env as a model, we tested a number of vector and gene insert designs. vectors containing a gene inserted between the cdv h and l genes, which encoded env lack ...201324074564
paramyxovirus infections in ex vivo lung slice cultures of different host species.paramyxoviruses, including measles virus (mv), human metapneumovirus (hmpv), human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) and canine distemper virus (cdv), are transmitted via the respiratory route. despite their close phylogenetic relationship, the pathogenesis of these viruses is very different. to study viral tropism and replication ex vivo, a protocol for the inflation of lungs with low-melting-point agarose mixed with culture medium was established. lung slices were prepared and remained viable ...201323777750
an orally available, small-molecule polymerase inhibitor shows efficacy against a lethal morbillivirus infection in a large animal model.measles virus is a highly infectious morbillivirus responsible for major morbidity and mortality in unvaccinated humans. the related, zoonotic canine distemper virus (cdv) induces morbillivirus disease in ferrets with 100% lethality. we report an orally available, shelf-stable pan-morbillivirus inhibitor that targets the viral rna polymerase. prophylactic oral treatment of ferrets infected intranasally with a lethal cdv dose reduced viremia and prolonged survival. ferrets infected with the same ...201424739760
using the ferret model to study morbillivirus entry, spread, transmission and cross-species infection.canine distemper virus (cdv) is an animal morbillivirus with a worldwide circulation that infects carnivores, including domestic dogs and an assortment of wildlife hosts. the development of reverse genetics systems for wild-type strains of cdv and the use of the resulting recombinant (r) viruses to infect ferrets by a natural route has shed new light on the temporal pathogenesis of distemper. combining fluorescent protein expressing recombinant viruses and multimodal, macroscopic and microscopic ...201424525290
wildlife reservoirs of canine distemper virus resulted in a major outbreak in danish farmed mink (neovison vison).a major outbreak of canine distemper virus (cdv) in danish farmed mink (neovison vison) started in the late summer period of 2012. at the same time, a high number of diseased and dead wildlife species such as foxes, raccoon dogs, and ferrets were observed. to track the origin of the outbreak virus full-length sequencing of the receptor binding surface protein hemagglutinin (h) was performed on 26 cdv's collected from mink and 10 cdv's collected from wildlife species. subsequent phylogenetic anal ...201424454897
morbillivirus control of the interferon response: relevance of stat2 and mda5 but not stat1 for canine distemper virus virulence in ferrets.the v proteins of paramyxoviruses control the innate immune response. in particular, the v protein of the genus morbillivirus interferes with the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (stat1), stat2, and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (mda5) signaling pathways. to characterize the contributions of these pathways to canine distemper virus (cdv) pathogenesis, we took advantage of the knowledge about the mechanisms of interaction between the measles virus v protein with ...201424371065
cross-species transmission of canine distemper virus-an update.canine distemper virus (cdv) is a pantropic morbillivirus with a worldwide distribution, which causes fatal disease in dogs. affected animals develop dyspnea, diarrhea, neurological signs and profound immunosuppression. systemic cdv infection, resembling distemper in domestic dogs, can be found also in wild canids (e.g. wolves, foxes), procyonids (e.g. raccoons, kinkajous), ailurids (e.g. red pandas), ursids (e.g. black bears, giant pandas), mustelids (e.g. ferrets, minks), viverrids (e.g. civet ...201528616465
recombinant newcastle disease viral vector expressing hemagglutinin or fusion of canine distemper virus is safe and immunogenic in minks.canine distemper virus (cdv) infects many carnivores and cause several high-mortality disease outbreaks. the current cdv live vaccine cannot be safely used in some exotic species, such as mink and ferret. here, we generated recombinant lentogenic newcastle disease virus (ndv) lasota expressing either envelope glycoproyein, heamagglutinine (h) or fusion protein (f), named as rla-cdvh and rla-cdvf, respectively. the feasibility of these recombinant ndvs to serve as live virus-vectored cd vaccine w ...201525865465
development of a duplex real-time rt-qpcr assay to monitor genome replication, gene expression and gene insert stability during in vivo replication of a prototype live attenuated canine distemper virus vector encoding siv gag.advancement of new vaccines based on live viral vectors requires sensitive assays to analyze in vivo replication, gene expression and genetic stability. in this study, attenuated canine distemper virus (cdv) was used as a vaccine delivery vector and duplex 2-step quantitative real-time rt-pcr (rt-qpcr) assays specific for genomic rna (grna) or mrna have been developed that concurrently quantify coding sequences for the cdv nucleocapsid protein (n) and a foreign vaccine antigen (siv gag). these a ...201525486083
morbillivirus experimental animal models: measles virus pathogenesis insights from canine distemper virus.morbilliviruses share considerable structural and functional similarities. even though disease severity varies among the respective host species, the underlying pathogenesis and the clinical signs are comparable. thus, insights gained with one morbillivirus often apply to the other members of the genus. since the canine distemper virus (cdv) causes severe and often lethal disease in dogs and ferrets, it is an attractive model to characterize morbillivirus pathogenesis mechanisms and to evaluate ...201627727184
transcript profiling of toll-like receptor mrnas in selected tissues of mink (neovison vison).toll-like receptors (tlrs) can recognize conserved molecular patterns and initiate a wide range of innate and adaptive immune responses against invading infectious agents. the aim of this study was to assess the transcript profile of mink tlrs (mtlrs) in mink peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) and a range of tissues, and to explore the potential role of mtlrs in the antiviral immune response process. the results indicated that the mtlr partial nucleotide sequences had a high degree of nu ...201627435536
epidemiology and clinical presentation of canine distemper disease in dogs and ferrets in australia, determine the status and distribution of distemper in australian dogs and ferrets.201627349880
inactivated recombinant rabies viruses displaying canine distemper virus glycoproteins induce protective immunity against both pathogens.the development of multivalent vaccines is an attractive methodology for the simultaneous prevention of several infectious diseases in vulnerable populations. both canine distemper virus (cdv) and rabies virus (rabv) cause lethal disease in wild and domestic carnivores. while rabv vaccines are inactivated, the live-attenuated cdv vaccines retain residual virulence for highly susceptible wildlife species. in this study, we developed recombinant bivalent vaccine candidates based on recombinant vac ...201728148801
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