plague in small mammals and humans in rangoon, burma. 1977146917
measuring the efficacy of vaccination in affording protection against plague.the relationship of f1 antibody titre to protection against plague was investigated by subjecting seropositive laboratory rats to virulent challenge and observing for survival. the passive haemagglutination (pha) test in microtitre was employed for serology. rats vaccinated with live vaccine ev76 (51f), killed u.s.p. vaccine, or f1 antigen and challenged by subcutaneous inoculation of 1 x 10(3) to 5 x 10(5)yersinia pestis survived at similar rates that, overall, equalled 6% at titres less than 1 ...1979312163
trapping and serum testing of rodents caught prior to the outbreak of plague in rhodesia. 1976963739
a comparison of serological tests for detecting antibody to plague.a study was undertaken of the relationship between the passive haemagglutination and haemagglutination inhibition tests used in serum surveys for specific plague antibodies. both techniques gave similar titres for sera of albino rattus norvegicus convalescent from plague infection. they appear to be equally suitable for plague surveillance and control programmes.19761088106
[the specificity of plague antigen fi in pha].it were inoculate a total of the 15 type and 13 group leptospira strains to the rattus flavipetus and rattus lose 137 rates in lei zhou peninsula. as the antisera acquired, it has been examined the lyso-agglutinative test in leptospira strains. up to standard serum it was to test for pha of plaque, employing the sensitized blood cell by fi from 4 antiplague institutes. all of tests are negative. in addition to test for 3 immune sera, hemorrhagic fever antisera (immunized animals apodemus agraius ...19911878960
[effects of y. pestis mouse toxin on carbohydrate metabolism in rats].effects of intravenous y. pestis mouse toxin (ld50) injection on glucose, lactate glucagon, insulin blood levels and camp liver content in dynamics of intoxication development were studied. hypoglycemia, observed 2 hours after toxin administration seems not to be due to the enhanced glucose utilization in peripheral tissues because insulin blood level during this period was decreased and lactate concentration has not been changed. glucagon content by 2-5 hour of shock was strong elevated. propos ...19882847830
gel precipitation test for detection of plague infection. 19724633903
serological survey of small mammals in the south indian plaque focus. ii. 19724660286
antibody formation in a culture of surviving lymph-node tissue from immunized animals. 19665223520
[susceptibility of rattus norvegicus and rattus rattus frugivorus from the city of recife to pasteurella pestis]. 19695376934
[studies on antibody formation in cultures of surviving lymph node tissues of immunized animals]. 19655884340
[molecular organization and functions of the protein toxins of the causative agents of cholera and plague]. 19836362301
evidence for the extinction of plague in hawaii.plague (infection by yersinia pestis) was present in hawaii for the period 1899-1957 and caused at least 370 fatalities. the first infections came from immigrant commensal rats, probably rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus, on ships from the orient. both species were already established in hawaii and became the widespread local carriers of plague, supplemented by rattus exulans which had colonized the islands in ancient polynesian times. the flea xenopsylla vexabilis arrived with r. exulans, and ...19846364800
in vivo comparison of avirulent vwa- and pgm- or pstr phenotypes of yersiniae.the abilities of yersinia pestis to undergo restriction in ca2+-deficient medium with concomitant production of v and w antigens (vwa+) and to absorb exogenous pigments (pgm+) are established virulence factors. mutation of y. pestis to pgm- is known to promote resistance to pesticin (pstr) and reduced lethality by peripheral routes of injection. vwa+ pgm- isolates of y. pestis were shown in this study to retain virulence in mice when injected intravenously. although pgm- in appearance, wild-type ...19846365786
studies on plague in the eastern cape province of south africa.investigations were carried out in the area of a human plague outbreak in march 1982 at coega in the eastern cape province of south africa. trapping revealed that rodent populations were high owing primarily to a population increase of the four-striped mouse, rhabdomys pumilio. flea populations were low and had been declining in the eastern cape province since october 1981. the results of a serological survey from march to october 1982 showed haemagglutinating antibody to yersinia pestis in 0.35 ...19836665833
plague in brazil during two years of bacteriological and serological north-east brazil, where plague infection is endemic, bacteriological and serological methods were employed during a two-year period to determine accurately the occurrence of human infection and to define certain epidemiological features of both human and rodent infection. there were 67 confirmed cases of plague, predominantly among males and children. most of these cases occurred in two inland rural plateaux of ceara state. clustering of cases in place and time was common, as was a history o ...19816976228
[pathology of experimental infection in domestic rodents using various strains of yersinia pestis]. 19807348290
[the role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the pathogenesis of an experimental infection induced by yersinia pestis]. 19947879566
effect of yersinia pestis infection on temperature preference and movement of the oriental rat flea (xenopsylla cheopis) (siphonaptera: pulicidae).previous laboratory studies have shown that inoculation of bacterial endotoxin into the hemocoel of some arthropods, or natural infection by a number of pathogens, causes them to seek out a higher ambient temperature. this phenomenon has been called behavioral fever. yersinia pestis is an endotoxin-producing bacterium that relies on infection of fleas for transmission. behavioral fever in fleas might enhance the transmission of plague if infected fleas were induced to seek out a warm-bodied host ...19938433328
studies on the contribution of the f1 capsule-associated plasmid pfra to the virulence of yersinia pestis. 19958833858
comparison of yersinia cin agar and mouse inoculation assay for the diagnosis of plague. 19969015505
entomological and rodent surveillance of suspected plague foci in agro-environmental and feral biotopes of a few districts in maharashtra and gujarat states of india.studies carried out on entomological and rodent surveillance in agroclimatic and feral biotopes of five districts of maharashtra and two districts of gujarat revealed that the terrain features of the seven districts surveyed were conducive to wild rodent species, tatera indica, a natural reservoir of plague and vector flea species, xenopsylla cheopis. a total of 214 tatera indica and three bandicoota bengalensis were collected from burrows by the digging method and 89 rat fleas were retrieved. t ...19979789784
a combination of different polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays for the presumptive identification of yersinia pestis.a combination of four polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays targeting the yersinia pestis-specific plasmoidal genes of the fraction 1 capsular antigen and plasminogen activator/coagulase, the gene of the v antigen of the yersinia virulence plasmid, and the chromosomal 16s rrna gene was evaluated for the identification of y. pestis isolates. all four assays were subjected to the same sample preparation technique, reagents and cycling conditions. eighteen y. pestis, 66 y. pseudotuberculosis, 40 y ...200011075545
sequence analysis of the aminoacylase-1 family. a new proposed signature for metalloexopeptidases.the amino acid sequence analysis of the human and porcine aminoacylases-1, the carboxypeptidase s precursor from saccharomyces cerevisiae, the succinyl-diaminopimelate desuccinylase from escherichia coli, haemophilus influenzae and corynebacterium glutamicum, the acetylornithine deacetylase from escherichia coli and dictyostelium discoideum and the carboxypeptidase g(2) precursor from pseudomonas strain, using the basic local alignment search tool (blast) and the position-specific iterated blast ...200111250542
[the plague in vietnam: history and inventory of collected fleas (insecta, siphonaptera) in the inhabited zones].ten flea species are reported in anthropic zones of vietnam. xenopsylla vexabilis is also here included because of it has been involved in others plague's countries. lentistivalius klossi is the only selvatic flea known as parasite of synanthropic rats. l. klossi bispiniformis (li and wang, 1958), first describe from chinese specimens, is here synonymized (syn. nov.) with the nominal subspecies.200211938693
conserved filamentous prophage in escherichia coli o18:k1:h7 and yersinia pestis biovar orientalis.microbial virulence is known to emerge by horizontal gene transfer mechanisms. here we describe the discovery of a novel filamentous prophage, designated cus-1, which is integrated into the chromosomal dif homologue of the high-virulence clone escherichia coli o18:k1:h7. an homologous chromosomal element (cus-2) in yersinia pestis biovar orientalis is integrated at the same relative location as cus-1; both lysogenic e. coli and y. pestis strains produce particles with properties expected of sing ...200212374839
[behavior of two glycerol positive continental strains of pasteurella pestis after 50 passages through white rats; first epidemiological deductions]. 195413219583
bactericidal activity of rat leucocytic extracts. i. antibacterial spectrum and the subcellular localization of the bactericidal activity.all extract of polymorphonuclear leucocytes of the rat, prepared by means of ultrasonic vibration, was found to be bactericidal against m. aureus. the bactericidal activity was primarily confined to the mitochondrial fraction of the leucocytes. the rat leucocyte mitochondrial extract was bactericidal against both gram-positive (m. aureus, beta-streptococci, diplococcus pneumoniae, corynebacterium diphtheriae) and gram-negative (shigella dysenteriae, salmonella enteritidis, pasteurella pestis) ba ...195713428920
the detection of inapparent infections with pasteurella pestis in a microtus californicus population in the san francisco bay area. 196414270073
plague and rats, the "plague of the philistines", and: what did our ancestors know about the role of rats in plague. 200314695061
double infection of the rat fleas x. cheopis and n. fasciatus with pasteurella and salmonella. 195114875880
plague: from natural disease to bioterrorism.yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague, an enzootic vectorborne disease usually infecting rodents (rats) and fleas. humans can become infected after being bitten by fleas that have fed on infected rodents. in humans, the disease usually occurs in the form of bubonic plague. in rare cases, the infection spreads to the lungs via the bloodstream and causes secondary pneumonic plague. person-to-person transmission has been described for pneumonic plague but is rare in primary bubonic plagu ...200516200159
serotype differences and lack of biofilm formation characterize yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection of the xenopsylla cheopis flea vector of yersinia pestis.yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is usually transmitted by fleas. to produce a transmissible infection, y. pestis colonizes the flea midgut and forms a biofilm in the proventricular valve, which blocks normal blood feeding. the enteropathogen yersinia pseudotuberculosis, from which y. pestis recently evolved, is not transmitted by fleas. however, both y. pestis and y. pseudotuberculosis form biofilms that adhere to the external mouthparts and block feeding of caenorhabditis elegans nematode ...200616428415
yersinia pestis yopj suppresses tumor necrosis factor alpha induction and contributes to apoptosis of immune cells in the lymph node but is not required for virulence in a rat model of bubonic plague.the virulence of the pathogenic yersinia species depends on a plasmid-encoded type iii secretion system that transfers six yop effector proteins into host cells. one of these proteins, yopj, has been shown to disrupt host cell signaling pathways involved in proinflammatory cytokine production and to induce macrophage apoptosis in vitro. yopj-dependent apoptosis in mesenteric lymph nodes has also been demonstrated in a mouse model of yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection. these results suggest th ...200616926404
acute oral toxicity of yersinia pseudotuberculosis to fleas: implications for the evolution of vector-borne transmission of plague.yersinia pestis diverged from yersinia pseudotuberculosis</= 20 000 years ago, during which time it evolved to be transmitted by fleas. in comparing the ability of these closely related species to infect the rat flea xenopsylla cheopis, we found that y. pseudotuberculosis, unlike y. pestis, is orally toxic to fleas. fleas showed signs of acute toxicity, including diarrhoea, immediately after feeding on blood containing y. pseudotuberculosis in response to protein toxin(s) produced by the bacteri ...200717587333
immunization with recombinant v10 protects cynomolgus macaques from lethal pneumonic plague.vaccine and therapeutic strategies that prevent infections with yersinia pestis have been sought for over a century. immunization with live attenuated (nonpigmented) strains and immunization with subunit vaccines containing recombinant low-calcium-response v antigen (rlcrv) and recombinant f1 (rf1) antigens are considered effective in animal models. current antiplague subunit vaccines in development for utilization in humans contain both antigens, either as equal concentrations of the two compon ...200818794281
characterization of the rat pneumonic plague model: infection kinetics following aerosolization of yersinia pestis co92.yersinia pestis, the causative agent of human bubonic and pneumonic plague, is spread during natural infection by the fleas of rodents. historically associated with infected rat fleas, studies on the kinetics of infection in rats are surprisingly few, and these reports have focused mainly on bubonic plague. although the natural route of primary infection results in bubonic plague in humans, it is commonly thought that aerosolized y. pestis will be utilized during a biowarfare attack. accordingly ...200919073275
identification of different regions among strains of yersinia pestis by suppression subtractive hybridization.yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic and pneumonic plague, has been classified into four biovars: antiqua, mediaevalis, orientalis and microtus. although the entire genome sequences of three y. pestis strains, co92, kim and 91001, of biovar orientalis, mediaevalis and microtus, respectively, have been decoded, the genome sequence of the biovar antiqua strain is unknown. in an initial effort to find antiqua-specific sequences, suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) was performed a ...200515993571
threshold conditions for the persistence of plague transmission in urban this article we derive a mathematical expression characterizing the tendency for yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, to become established in an urban rat population upon introduction, and evaluate this risk for several cities. the expression gives a threshold condition for the persistence of y. pestis transmission in terms of measurable attributes of a local urban rat population: the average flea density and the rat colony size. if the local rat and flea populations exceed this t ...200919878483
effect of pituitary adrenocorticotropic and growth hormones on the resistance of rats infected with pasteurella pestis.the influence of highly purified pituitary adrenocorticotropic (acth) and growth (somatotropic, sth) hormones on resistance of normal, young adult rats infected with pasteurella pestis organisms (ev 76) has been studied. the daily dosage of acth was 0.1 mg. (25 i.u per mg.) and that of sth was 1.0 mg. when these hormones were administered for 3 days prior to infection (1 ld(50)) and for 4 days thereafter, acth treatment resulted in a significant depression of resistance (p = < 0.001). the simult ...195713439120
analysis of hmsh and its role in plague biofilm formation.the yersinia pestis hms(+) phenotype is a manifestation of biofilm formation that causes adsorption of congo red and haemin at 26 degrees c but not at 37 degrees c. this phenotype is required for blockage of the proventricular valve of the oriental rat flea and plays a role in transmission of bubonic plague from fleas to mammals. genes responsible for this phenotype are located in three separate operons, hmshfrs, hmst and hmsp. hmsh and hmsf are outer membrane (om) proteins, while the other four ...201020093287
[the plague at the tsenabe isotry market in antananarivo: a complex epidemiologic situation].the transmission of yersinia pestis is intense among rats in the wholesale market tsenabe isotry in the capital antananarivo (anti-f1 sero-prevalence 80%, flea index 8.4 for a cut-off risk index of > 1). however, the number of plague-suspected (not laboratory confirmed) human cases has only been 3 in this district during a four years period from 1995 to 1999. a seroepidemiological survey among the market vendors was undertaken in june 1999 to test the hypothesis that the low incidence of human p ...200112471741
the plague of the philistines and other pestilences in the ancient world: exploring relations between the religious-literary tradition, artistic evidence and scientific ancient times the term pestilence referred not only to infectious disease caused by yersinia pestis, but also to several different epidemics. we explore the relations between references in the bible and recent scientific evidence concerning some infectious diseases, especially the so-called plague of the philistines and leprosy. in addition, some considerations regarding possible connections among likely infectious epidemic diseases and the ten plagues of egypt are reported. evidence suggesti ...201020956880
[yersinia pestis infection in the state of bahia: effective control or epidemiological silence?]introduction: from an epidemiological point of view, the plague is still being considered of great importance, because of its high epidemic potential. despite the absence of cases of human plague in brazil, its etiologic agent, the bacteria yersinia pestis, is still deep rooted in its natural environment. the occurrence of positive serology for plague in domestic carnivores in plague areas in bahia in the past few years implies the need for a more rigorous evaluation in order to verify whether t ...201121468476
bubonic plague: a metapopulation model of a zoonosis.bubonic plague (yersinia pestis) is generally thought of as a historical disease; however, it is still responsible for around 1000-3000 deaths each year worldwide. this paper expands the analysis of a model for bubonic plague that encompasses the disease dynamics in rat, flea and human populations. some key variables of the deterministic model, including the force of infection to humans, are shown to be robust to changes in the basic parameters, although variation in the flea searching efficienc ...200011413636
prevention of pneumonic plague in mice, rats, guinea pigs and non-human primates with clinical grade rv10, rv10-2 or f1-v vaccines.yersinia pestis causes plague, a disease with high mortality in humans that can be transmitted by fleabite or aerosol. a us food and drug administration (fda)-licensed plague vaccine is currently not available. vaccine developers have focused on two subunits of y. pestis: lcrv, a protein at the tip of type iii secretion needles, and f1, the fraction 1 pilus antigen. f1-v, a hybrid generated via translational fusion of both antigens, is being developed for licensure as a plague vaccine. the rv10 ...201121763383
[ecological aspects of evolution of the plague microbe yersinia pestis and genesis of natural reservoirs].a new hypothesis of the origin of the plague microbe in the mongolian bobak (marmota sibirica radde, 1862) populations in central asia during the pleistocene is based on the ideas of its relative phylogenetic recency. the late pleistocene cooling, which induced a deep freezing of the grounds in southern siberia, mongolia, and manchuria, is considered as an inducer of speciation. the main ecological factors of the plague microbe evolution include the species specific behavior of the mongolian bob ...200011147494
[the discovery by paul-louis simond of the role of the flea in the transmission of the plague].after yersin's two fundamental discoveries of the plague bacillus and of the rat's role in its propagation, no one had sought to solve the riddle of how the bacillus itself spread and how it contaminated man. p. l. simond was the first to realise that manipulating a rat that had recently died could be extremely dangerous whereas after a time lapse of several hours the same dead rat presented no risks to man. he was also the first to detect an insect bite as being responsible for the lesions he h ...199911000944
[update on plague in madagascar].after a thirty year period of successful control, bubonic plague showed the first signs of return in madagascar where a fatal outbreak occurred in antananarivo in 1978. a second outbreak was observed in mahajanga in 1991 after more than a half century. in 1997, 459 confirmed or presumptive cases were reported, as compared to 150 to 250 cases during the last years. however the actual extent of this recrudescence must be placed in the perspective of a more efficient control program that has led to ...19989812306
plague genome: the black death decoded. 201122031418
preliminary survey of ectoparasites and associated pathogens from norway rats in new york city.the norway rat (rattus norvegicus) is a reservoir of many zoonotic pathogens and lives in close proximity to humans in urban environments. human infection with rodent-borne disease occurs either directly through contact with a rat or its excreta, or indirectly via arthropod vectors such as fleas and ticks. here, we report on the diversity and abundance of ectoparasitic arthropod species and associated pathogenic bacteria from 133 norway rats trapped over a 10-mo period in manhattan, new york, ny ...201526336309
detection of a yersinia pestis gene homologue in rodent samples.a homologue to a widely used genetic marker, pla, for yersinia pestis has been identified in tissue samples of two species of rat (rattus rattus and rattus norvegicus) and of mice (mus musculus and apodemus sylvaticus) using a microarray based platform to screen for zoonotic pathogens of interest. samples were from urban locations in the uk (liverpool) and canada (vancouver). the results indicate the presence of an unknown bacterium that shares a homologue for the pla gene of yersinia pestis, so ...201627602258
recent emergence of new variants of yersinia pestis in madagascar.yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, has been responsible for at least three pandemics. during the last pandemic, which started in hong kong in 1894, the microorganism colonized new, previously unscathed geographical areas where it has become well established. the aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the genetic stability of y. pestis strains introduced into a new environment just under a century ago and to follow the epidemiology of any new genetic variant detected. in t ...19979350742
effectiveness of fipronil as a systemic control agent against xenopsylla cheopis (siphonaptera: pulicidae) in madagascar.fipronil was evaluated as a systemic control agent for the rat flea xenopsylla cheopis (rothschild), the main vector of yersinia pestis (yersin), the causative agent of plague, in madagascar. the effectiveness of fipronil as a systemic control agent against x. cheopis was assessed by determining the toxicity values of the "lethal dose 50" (ld50). two techniques were used to evaluate the systemic action of the insecticide on the vector: 1) an artificial feeding device filled with blood-fipronil m ...201728122816
plague pneumonia disease caused by yersinia pestis.plague is a zoonotic infection caused by yersina pesits, a pleomorphic, gram-negative non-spore-forming coccobacillus that is more accurately classified as a subspecies of y pseudotuberculosis. animal reservoirs include rodents, rabbits, and occasionally larger animals. cats become ill and have spread pneumonic disease to man. dogs may be a significant sentinel animal as well as a reservoir, although do not usually become ill. flea bites commonly spread disease to man. person to person spread ha ...19979097371
[regulation of the adenylate cyclase system of the rat lungs in yersinia pestis intoxication]. 19948204850
potential for rat plague from nonencapsulated variants of the plague bacillus (yersinia pestis).potentials for oral and flea-borne transmission of nonencapsulated y. pestis were demonstrated when 45% of rats that consumed infected meat died of plague and 22% of the rats that died of plague had bacteremia.19846745406
[species peculiarities of the plasmocyte reaction in animals following immunization with soluble antigens]. 19705503342
observations on commensal rats and their status to plague in bombay.the distribution pattern of various types of commensal rodents in bombay city reveals that bandicota bengalensis constitutes the predominant commensal rodent species followed by r. rattus and rattus norvegicus. apart from these three types, bandicota indica, m. musculus and an insectivore (suncus murinus) are the three species of commensal small mammals that are frequently encountered in or near human habitations. these small mammals are prevalent throughout the year and their percentage distrib ...19883221091
[glutathione and superoxide dismutase redox system in the development of toxic-infectious shock caused by yersinia pestis toxin].the changes in the glutathione-dependent and superoxide dismutase (sod) enzymatic activity in the rat lungs and liver tissues have been studied after the administration of plague murine toxin (ld100). it has been found out the early toxic effect in 1h in the lungs: 35% sod and glutathione peroxidase (tributyl hydroperoxide) (gp) decrease, 87% glutathione reductase (gr) increase along with two-hold ascent of ratio gr/glutathione-s-transferase (gt), gr/gps. the fundamental ratio gr/gt.gps rises in ...19902337651
[regulatory properties of the rat heart adenylate cyclase in the course of toxic-infective shock caused by yersinia pestis].influence of intravenously administered to rats murine toxin of y. pestis in the dose of i mg/ml (ld100) on the regulatory properties of heart plasma membranes adenylate cyclase (ac) has been studied during the intoxication. it has been shown that basal, fluoride,- and 5-guanylyl imidodiphosphate-stimulated ac activity remained unchanged during the intoxication. stimulation of ac by isoproterenol, glucagon and histamine did not change during the first two hours and significantly decreased after ...19921611068
[potential-dependent ca2+ channels and contractile function of the heart in toxic-infectious shock caused plague].influence of intravenous administration to rats of murine toxin of y. pestis (1 mg/ml, ld100) on the number of potential-operated ca(2+)-channels, alpha- and beta-adrenergic and m1-cholinergic receptors of plasma membranes and heart contractility function has been studied in rats. the number of ca(2+)-channels in plasma membranes and contractility of heart decreased by 50% in 1 hour after the i.v. administration of toxin and further decreased up to the lethal end. during the agonal stage of the ...19921327279
atypical plague bacilli isolated from rodents, fleas, and man. 1978637172
decline of maternal antibodies to plague in norway rats.the decline of maternal antibodies to the fraciton i antigen of yersinia pestis was investigated in newly weaned rattus norvegicus obtained from dams vaccinated with strain ev76(51f) of y. pestis. iha titre decreased by 50% each 7-3 days and cf titre declined 50% each 10-0 days in young rats. an analysis of available data indicated that maternal iha and cf antibodies could persist to 3 months of age. therefore, positive serologic reactions in young r. norvegicus, detected in the course of serolo ...1977264498
pneumonic plague pathogenesis and immunity in brown norway rats.the brown norway rat was recently described as a bubonic plague model that closely mimics human disease. we therefore evaluated the brown norway rat as an alternative small animal model for pneumonic plague and characterized both the efficacy and potency of vaccine candidates. when infected by intranasal instillation, these rats rapidly developed fatal pneumonic plague within 2 to 4 days of infection. plague disease was characterized by severe alveolar edema and vascular hemorrhage in the lung i ...200919164505
lipid a mimetics are potent adjuvants for an intranasal pneumonic plague effective intranasal (i.n.) vaccine against pneumonic plague was developed. the formulation employed two synthetic lipid a mimetics as adjuvant combined with yersinia pestis-derived v- and f1-protective antigens. the two nontoxic lipid a mimetics, classed as amino-alkyl glucosaminide 4-phosphates (agps) are potent ligands for the toll-like receptor (tlr) 4. using a murine (balb/c) pneumonic plague model, we showed a single i.n. application of the vaccine provided 63% protection within 21 days ...200818722493
sequential proteolytic processing of the capsular caf1 antigen of yersinia pestis for major histocompatibility complex class ii-restricted presentation to t lymphocytes.we studied the mechanisms of antigen presentation of cd4 t cell epitopes of the capsular caf1 antigen of yersinia pestis using murine bone marrow macrophages as antigen presenting cells and t cell hybridomas specific for major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class ii-restricted epitopes distributed throughout the caf1 sequence. the data revealed diversity in the pathways used and the degrees of antigen processing required depending on the structural context of epitopes within the caf1 molecule. ...200616840777
yersinia pestis or: the dyschromatopsic flea. 200820050418
kinetics of disease progression and host response in a rat model of bubonic plague.plague, caused by the gram-negative bacterium yersinia pestis, primarily affects rodents but is also an important zoonotic disease of humans. bubonic plague in humans follows transmission by infected fleas and is characterized by an acute, necrotizing lymphadenitis in the regional lymph nodes that drain the intradermal flea bite site. septicemia rapidly follows with spread to spleen, liver, and other organs. we developed a model of bubonic plague using the inbred brown norway strain of rattus no ...200515855643
septic shock and nonpulmonary organ dysfunction in pneumonic plague: the role of yersinia pestis pcd1- vs. pgm- virulence factors.pneumonic plague resulting from yersinia pestis induces swiftly lethal sepsis and is a major concern as a weapon of bioterrorism. however, the role of specific plasmid-encoded vs. chromosomal y. pestis virulence factors in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury, shock, and nonpulmonary dysfunction is unclear. we hypothesized that the pathophysiology of pneumonic plague resulting from expression of proteins encoded by the thermally regulated pcd1 plasmid differs from cardiopulmonary and inflammato ...201020400901
[epizootological assessment of the possibilities of importing plague from vietnam to russia].to assess whether the plague microbe with vectors or carriers can be imported from vietnam to russia, the authors consider the specific features of pathogen circulation in this country's biotopes varying in anthropogenic transformation. the idea that there were natural foci of plague in vietnam dominated until the late 1990s. the small rat rattus exulans that inhabits open stations and ensures a parasitic contact with the synanthropic representatives of the fauna was considered to be a major car ...201121797070
sir charles james martin mb frs: australian serpents and indian plague, one-hundred years 1891 as demonstrator in physiology at the university of sydney, charles martin began the first systematic study of the chemical and physiological properties of the venoms of the australian elapid species, pseudechis porphyriacus and notechis scutatus. two major constituents were detected: a large coagulable protein which was associated with intravascular clotting, and a small proteinaceous molecule, an albumose, associated with neurotoxicity. martin designed and constructed a high-pressure ge ...19979247999
the established yersinia pestis biovars are characterized by typical patterns of i-ceui restriction fragment length polymorphism.the genomes of three main biovars of yersinia pestis were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using i-ceui endonuclease. i-ceui which is encoded by a mobile intron in chlamydomonas engamenans recognizes a 25-bp site in the ribosomal rna rrl gene and cuts dna of most representatives of enterobacteriaceae into seven fragments corresponding to the presence of seven rrn-operons. glycerol-positive y. pestis strains (biovars antiqua and mediaevalis) contain seven ribosomal o ...19957477035
the influence of adrenocorticotropic and growth hormones on antibody formation.the influence of pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (acth) and growth hormone (somatotropin, sth), singly and in combination, has been studied in normal, young adult rats, with respect to antibody formation against fraction ia of pasteurella pestis. when acth was administered during the period of immunization, in a daily dose just sufficient to prevent body weight increase relative to the non-treated, immunized controls, serum antibody levels against the specific antigen employed were signifi ...195713406170
[role of activation of lipid peroxidation in pathogenesis of experimental plague intoxication].activation of lipid peroxidation, increasing during the elevation of clinical symptoms of y. pestis intoxication and hypoxic syndrome development, is the efferent link in cytopathogenic effects of toxic and enzymatic factors of this microorganism. absolute or relative insufficiency of enzymatic mechanisms of blood antioxidant protection systems is the main pathogenic factor in lipid components of biomembrane destruction leading to the haemorrhagic syndrome development in y. pestis intoxication.201121688666
role of the yersinia pestis ail protein in preventing a protective polymorphonuclear leukocyte response during bubonic plague.the ability of yersinia pestis to forestall the mammalian innate immune response is a fundamental aspect of plague pathogenesis. in this study, we examined the effect of ail, a 17-kda outer membrane protein that protects y. pestis against complement-mediated lysis, on bubonic plague pathogenesis in mice and rats. the y. pestis ail mutant was attenuated for virulence in both rodent models. the attenuation was greater in rats than in mice, which correlates with the ability of normal rat serum, but ...201121969002
phylogeography and molecular epidemiology of yersinia pestis in madagascar.plague was introduced to madagascar in 1898 and continues to be a significant human health problem. it exists mainly in the central highlands, but in the 1990s was reintroduced to the port city of mahajanga, where it caused extensive human outbreaks. despite its prevalence, the phylogeography and molecular epidemiology of y. pestis in madagascar has been difficult to study due to the great genetic similarity among isolates. we examine island-wide geographic-genetic patterns based upon whole-geno ...201121931876
a survey of rodent-borne pathogens carried by wild rattus spp. in northern examine the prevalence of human pathogens carried by rats in urban areas in hanoi and hai phong, vietnam, we live-trapped 100 rats in january 2011 and screened them for a panel of bacteria and viruses. antibodies against leptospira interrogans (22·0%), seoul virus (14·0%) and rat hepatitis e virus (23·0%) were detected in rats, but antibodies against yersinia pestis were not detected. antibodies against l. interrogans and seoul virus were found only in adult rats. in contrast, antibodies to r ...201323114204
remote monitoring of the progression of primary pneumonic plague in brown norway rats in high-capacity, high-containment housing.development of new vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutics for biodefense or other relatively rare infectious diseases is hindered by the lack of naturally occurring human disease on which to conduct clinical trials of efficacy. to overcome this experimental gap, the u.s. food and drug administration established the animal rule, in which efficacy testing in two well-characterized animal models that closely resemble human disease may be accepted in lieu of large-scale clinical trials for diseases ...201424719212
beyond an aflp genome scan towards the identification of immune genes involved in plague resistance in rattus rattus from madagascar.genome scans using amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) markers became popular in nonmodel species within the last 10 years, but few studies have tried to characterize the anonymous outliers identified. this study follows on from an aflp genome scan in the black rat (rattus rattus), the reservoir of plague (yersinia pestis infection) in madagascar. we successfully sequenced 17 of the 22 markers previously shown to be potentially affected by plague-mediated selection and associated with ...201323237097
host stress and immune responses during aerosol challenge of brown norway rats with yersinia pestis.inhalation exposure models are becoming the preferred method for the comparative study of respiratory infectious diseases due to their resemblance to the natural route of infection. to enable precise delivery of pathogen to the lower respiratory tract in a manner that imposes minimal biosafety risk, nose-only exposure systems have been developed. early inhalation exposure technology for infectious disease research grew out of technology used in asthma research where predominantly the collison ne ...201223226684
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