brucellosis in elk. ii. clinical effects and means of transmission as determined through artificial infections. 197899525
brucellosis in elk i. serologic and bacteriologic survey in wyoming.incidence of brucellosis in elk (cervus canadensis) on two winter feedgrounds in wyoming was examined over a 5-year period by testing serum samples using the standard plate agglutination (spt) buffered brucella antigen (bba), rivanol (riv) and complement fixation (cft) tests. thirty-one percent of 1,165 elk were positive by defined criteria. considering each test individually, only 29% (106) of 370 positive sera would have been classified as reactors by the spt, 83% (307) by the bba test and 86% ...1978416232
the role of wild north american ungulates in the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis: a review.published reports of brucella abortus infections in wild north american ungulates and domestic cattle herds were reviewed to determine if infection in these species was related. bison (bison bison) were frequently found infected, but are probably a minor threat to livestock due to their current limited distribution. most elk (cervus elaphus) were free of infection except where their range was shared with infected bison or livestock. deer (odocoileus spp.), pronghorns (antilocapra americana), moo ...19853908724
a serologic survey for some bacterial and viral zoonoses in game animals in the czech republic.between 1986 and 1991, sera were collected from 33 roe deer (capreolus capreolus), 24 red deer (cervus elaphus), four fallow deer (dama dama), two mouflon (ovis musimon), 34 wild boars (sus scrofa), and 48 hares (lepus europaeus) shot in two areas of the czech republic. collectively, the sera contained antibodies to coxiella burnetii (prevalence of 12%), francisella tularensis (4%), brucella spp. (2%), central european tick-borne encephalitis virus (8%), tahyna (california serogroup) virus (36%) ...19938258864
survey of free-ranging elk from wyoming and montana for selected pathogens.from december 1991 through january 1995, a disease survey was conducted on herds of free-ranging, hunter-killed elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) from three areas in proximity to yellowstone national park (ynp), wyoming (usa), after tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis was discovered in a captive herd of elk in the area. complete or partial sets of specimens from 289 elk collected between december 1991 and january 1993 were examined histologically; no mycobacterial lesions were observed. lesion ...19979131561
safety and efficacy of brucella abortus strain rb51 vaccine in captive pregnant elk.brucella abortus strain rb51 is a laboratory-derived rough mutant of virulent b. abortus strain 2308 used as a vaccine because it induces antibodies that do not react on standard brucellosis serologic tests. strain rb51 vaccine was evaluated in pregnant captive elk (cervus elaphus) to determine (1) if it induced abortion and (2) if it protected against abortion following subsequent challenge. the time period of this study (february-june, 1998) was similar to field conditions where elk are vaccin ...200010941732
safety of brucella abortus strain rb51 in bull elk.some of the elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) of the greater yellowstone area (wyoming, idaho, montana; usa) are infected with brucella abortus, the bacterium that causes bovine brucellosis. brucella abortus strain rb51 vaccine is being considered as a means to control b. abortus induced abortions in cow elk. however, the most probable vaccination strategies for use in free-ranging elk might also result in some bull elk being inoculated, thus, it is important to insure that the vaccine is safe in the ...200010941733
evaluation of the fluorescence polarization assay and comparison to other serological assays for detection of brucellosis in cervids.the complement fixation test (cft), competitive enzyme immunoassay (celisa), indirect enzyme immunoassay (ielisa) and fluorescence polarization assay (fpa) were evaluated for the detection of antibodies to brucella abortus and brucella suis biotype 4 in caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou), elk (cervus elapus), red deer (cervus elapus), and reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus). when combining the data the fpa and the celisa were determined to be the most suitable tests for serodiagnosis of cervi ...200111272484
cloning, sequencing, and expression of interferon-gamma from elk in north america.eradication of mycobacterium bovis relies on accurate detection of infected animals, including potential domestic and wildlife reservoirs. available diagnostic tests lack the sensitivity and specificity necessary for accurate detection, particularly in infected wildlife populations. recently, an in vitro diagnostic test for cattle which measures plasma interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) levels in blood following in vitro incubation with m. bovis purified protein derivative has been enveloped. this tes ...200111272492
health protocol for translocation of free-ranging elk.when considering an elk (cervus elaphus) restoration program, wildlife managers must evaluate the positive and negative elements of translocation. we prepared this protocol to give an overview of health considerations associated with translocation of elk, with an emphasis on movement of free-ranging elk from western north america to the southeastern usa. we evaluated infectious agents and ectoparasites reported in elk from two perspectives. first, we made a qualitative estimate of the ability of ...200111504216
experimental infection of nontarget species of rodents and birds with brucella abortus strain rb51 vaccine.the brucella abortus vaccine strain rb51 (srb51) is being considered for use in the management of bnucellosis in wild bison (bison bison) and elk (cervus elaphus) populations in the greater yellowstone area (usa). evaluation of the vaccines safety in non-target species was considered necessary prior to field use. between june 1998 and december 1999, ground squirrels (spermophilus richardsonii, n = 21), deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus, n = 14), prairie voles (microtus ochrogaster, n = 21), and ...200111504226
safety of brucella abortus strain rb51 in deer mice.brucella abortus strain rb51 is an approved brucellosis vaccine for use in cattle that may have potential as an oral vaccine for use in elk (cervus elaphus) and/or bison (bison bison). this study was designed to determine effects of strain rb51 on deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus), a nontarget species that could have access to treated baits in a field situation. in february 1994, 90 mice were orally dosed or intraperitoneally injected with 1 x 10(8) colony forming units strain rb51 and 77 contr ...200111504238
brucella abortus strain rb51 vaccination in elk. i. efficacy of reduced dosage.bovine brucellosis is a serious zoonotic disease affecting some populations of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and bison (bison bison) in the greater yellowstone area, usa. the fear that elk and/or bison may spread brucella abortus to livestock has prompted efforts to reduce or eliminate the disease in wildlife. brucella abortus strain rb51 (rb51) vaccine has recently been approved for use in cattle. unlike strain 19 vaccine, rb51 does not cause false positive reactions on standard b ...200211838212
brucella abortus strain rb51 vaccination in elk. ii. failure of high dosage to prevent abortion.brucella abortus strain rb51 is used as a vaccine because it induces antibodies that do not react on standard serologic tests for brucellosis allowing differentiation between vaccination and infection. strain rb51 was evaluated in captive elk (cervus elaphus) to determine if vaccination protected against abortion following experimental challenge. thirty elk were vaccinated intramuscularly with 1.0 x 10(10) colony-forming units (cfu) of strain rb51 in march 1998. fourteen of these were given a bo ...200211838225
analysis of mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte subset proliferation and nitric oxide production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of captive elk (cervus elaphus).elk (cervus claphus) are reservoirs for brucella abortus, mycobacterium bovis, and mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, each a serious pathogen of domestic livestock. an understanding of the basic immune responsiveness of elk would aid efforts to develop methods to diagnose and prevent these diseases of elk. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) isolated from captive elk were examined for phenotype, lymphocyte subset proliferative capacity, and ability to produce nitric oxide (no) up ...200212038134
safety of brucella abortus strain rb51 vaccine in non-target ungulates and coyotes.brucellosis is endemic in free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus) and bison (bison bison) in the greater yellowstone area (gya; usa). it is possible that an oral brucellosis vaccine could be developed and disseminated in the gya to reduce disease transmission. should this occur, non-target species other than elk and bison may come in contact with the vaccine resulting in morbidity or mortality. to assess biosafety, bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis; n = 10), pronghorn (antilocapra americana; n = 9), mule ...200212238372
immune responses of elk to vaccination with brucella abortus strain a study conducted from january to august 2000, elk (cervus elaphus) were vaccinated with brucella abortus strain rb51 (srb51, n = 6) or injected with 0.15 m nacl solution (n = 3) at approximately 6 mo of age. beginning at 2 wk and continuing to 25 wk after vaccination, srb51-vaccinated elk had greater antibody responses (p < 0.05) to srb51 when compared to nonvaccinated elk. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from srb51-vaccinated elk had greater (p < 0.05) proliferative responses to s ...200212528441
an indirect elisa to detect the serologic response of elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) inoculated with brucella abortus strain indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to identify elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with brucella abortus strain rb51 (rb51)-specific antibodies using a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for bovine igg1. this test was relatively easy to perform, accurate, and easily reproducible; therefore it could be standardized for use between laboratories. in addition, we attempted to compensate for inherent variabilities encountered when comparing elisa readings from multiple sampl ...200212528442
validation of a brucella abortus competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for use in rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).brucellosis caused by infection with brucella abortus is present in some elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) of the greater yellowstone area (parts of wyoming, montana, and idaho, usa). since 1985, the wyoming game and fish department has vaccinated elk on elk feedgrounds in northwestern wyoming during the winter months using b. abortus strain 19 (strain 19). analysis of this vaccination program is hampered by the inability of standard serologic tests to differentiate between strain 19 vaccinated elk a ...200312910758
brucellosis in captive rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) caused by brucella abortus biovar 4.nine (four female, five male) captive adult rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) contracted brucellosis caused by brucella abortus biovar 4 as a result of natural exposure to an aborted elk (cervus elaphus) fetus. clinical signs of infection were orchitis and epididymitis in males and lymphadenitis and placentitis with abortion in females. gross pathologic findings included enlargement of the testes or epididymides, or both, and yellow caseous abscesses and pyogranulomas of the same. b ...200415362833
brucellosis in elk of eastern idaho.brucellosis occurs in free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus) and bison (bison bison) in the greater yellowstone area, which includes portions of idaho, wyoming, and montana. brucella abortus was first detected in elk in idaho in 1998, and from 1998 to 2002, serologic surveillance of hunter-killed elk was conducted in northeastern and southeastern idaho. prevalence of antibodies in these elk varied annually, but averaged between 2% and 3%. elk were also trapped in northeastern idaho from 1998-2002 and ...200616870849
immune responses of elk to initial and booster vaccinations with brucella abortus strain rb51 or 19.previous studies have suggested that currently available brucellosis vaccines induce poor or no protection in elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). in this study, we characterized the immunologic responses of elk after initial or booster vaccination with brucella abortus strains rb51 (srb51) and 19 (s19). elk were vaccinated with saline or 10(10) cfu of srb51 or s19 (n=seven animals/treatment) and booster vaccinated with a similar dosage of the autologous vaccine at 65 weeks. compared to nonvaccinates, ...200617028213
abomasal and uterine adenocarcinomas with ovarian metastasis in a captive elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).a captive, 20-year-old female elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) euthanized due to progressive lameness and weight loss was presented to colorado state university veterinary diagnostic laboratory for postmortem examination. within the uterus there was a poorly demarcated, multilobulated mass measuring 10 cm in diameter. histologically the tumor was an adenocarcinoma. histologic examination of the ovaries revealed unilateral metastasis. a focal, 1-cm diameter adenocarcinoma was identified within the ab ...200717823404
enhanced immune response of red deer (cervus elaphus) to live rb51 vaccine strain using composite microspheres.brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease of nearly worldwide distribution. the occurrence of the infection in humans is largely dependent on the prevalence of brucellosis in animal reservoirs, including wildlife. the current vaccine used for cattle brucella abortus strain rb51, has proven ineffective in protecting bison (bison bison) and elk (cervus nelsoni) from infection and abortion. to test possible improvements in vaccine efficacy, a novel approach of immunization was examined from apri ...200919204345
observations on the use of gonacon in captive female elk (cervus elaphus).overabundant populations of elk (cervus elaphus) are a significant concern in some areas of the western united states because of potential ecologic damage and spread of brucellosis to domestic livestock. brucella abortus is transmitted among elk through direct contact with aborted fetuses, placentas and associated fluids, or postpartum discharge of infected animals. because transmission of brucellosis is dependent on pregnancy, contraception of cows could be used for both disease and population ...200919204347
effects of management, behavior, and scavenging on risk of brucellosis transmission in elk of western wyoming.brucellosis is endemic in elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) using winter feedgrounds of western wyoming, usa presumably because of increased animal density, duration of attendance, and subsequent contact with aborted fetuses. however, previous research addressed antibody prevalence rather than more direct measures of transmission and did not account for elk behavior or scavenging in transmission risk. throughout march and early april 2005-07, we monitored 48 sets of culture-negative, pseudoaborted el ...200919395749
oral vaccination with microencapsuled strain 19 vaccine confers enhanced protection against brucella abortus strain 2308 challenge in red deer (cervus elaphus elaphus).bison (bison bison) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in the greater yellowstone area (gya), usa, are infected with brucella abortus, the causative agent of bovine brucellosis, and they serve as a wildlife reservoir for the disease. bovine brucellosis recently has been transmitted from infected elk to cattle in montana, wyoming, and idaho and has resulted in their loss of brucellosis-free status. an efficacious brucella vaccine with a delivery system suitable for wildlife would be a valuable tool ...200919901378
dna genotyping suggests that recent brucellosis outbreaks in the greater yellowstone area originated from elk.identifying the source of infectious disease outbreaks is difficult, especially for pathogens that infect multiple wildlife species. brucella spp. are among the most problematic zoonotic agents worldwide, and they are notoriously difficult to detect and identify. we genotyped 10 variable number of tandem repeat (vntr) dna loci in 56 brucella abortus isolates from bison (bos bison), elk (cervus elaphus), and cattle (bos taurus) to test the wildlife species most likely to be the origin of recent o ...200919901392
identification of brucella abortus genes in elk (cervus elaphus) using in vivo-induced antigen technology (iviat) reveals novel markers of infection.elk in the greater yellowstone area are a major reservoir for brucellosis, which represents an obstacle to eradication of the disease in domestic livestock. furthermore, immune responses to brucella abortus infection in the wild host are not well-understood. in this regard, in vivo-induced antigen technology (iviat) was employed to identify novel b. abortus antigens expressed during infection in elk. sera collected from sero-positive wyoming elk were pooled and absorbed against in vitro-grown cu ...201019914012
evaluation of the western immunoblot as a detection method for brucella abortus exposure in elk.brucella abortus has been an important wildlife disease issue for most of the last century, especially because wildlife species are considered to be important disease reservoirs for cattle. diagnostic uncertainty, caused in part by cross-reactions of antibodies to environmental pathogens such as yersinia enterocolitica o:9 on standard brucella serology, has exacerbated the challenges of managing the disease and has highlighted the need for test validation in wildlife species. the western immunob ...201020090021
surveys for disease agents in introduced elk in arkansas and kentucky.surveys for disease agents were conducted in introduced free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in arkansas and kentucky. elk had been captured in colorado and nebraska and released in arkansas during 1981-1985. from 1997 through 2002 elk were captured in arizona, kansas, north dakota, new mexico, oregon, and utah and released in southeastern kentucky. specimens were collected from 170 hunter-killed elk in arkansas during 1998-2006, and 44 elk in kentucky during 2001-2004. significant findings ...201020090032
spatial distribution and risk factors of brucellosis in iberian wild ungulates.the role of wildlife as a brucellosis reservoir for humans and domestic livestock remains to be properly established. the aim of this work was to determine the aetiology, apparent prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for brucellosis transmission in several iberian wild ungulates.201020205703
probable causes of increasing brucellosis in free-ranging elk of the greater yellowstone ecosystem.while many wildlife species are threatened, some populations have recovered from previous overexploitation, and data linking these population increases with disease dynamics are limited. we present data suggesting that free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus) are a maintenance host for brucella abortus in new areas of the greater yellowstone ecosystem (gye). brucellosis seroprevalence in free-ranging elk increased from 0-7% in 1991-1992 to 8-20% in 2006-2007 in four of six herd units around the gye. th ...201020349847
comparative study of the immunobiological properties of live brucellosis vaccines.findings from the comparative study of the immunobiological properties of live brucellosis vaccines in guinea pigs are presented in the article. vaccines from strains brucella abortus 19 (u.s.) and 82 (russia), in the s and sr forms, respectively, exhibited the highest and most pronounced immunological efficacy, while vaccines from strains b. abortus 82-ps (in the rs form) and b. abortus rb-51 and 75/79-ab (in the r forms) exhibited the lowest. the live vaccine from strain b. abortus 82, togethe ...201020362201
brucellosis in the united states: role and significance of wildlife reservoirs.regulatory programs for brucellosis in domestic livestock have been active in the u.s. for almost 80 years. wildlife reservoirs of brucellosis include bison (bison bison) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsonii) for brucella abortus whereas brucella suis is the predominant species infecting feral swine. the persistence of brucellosis in wildlife reservoirs poses a risk for reintroduction of brucella into domestic livestock. reducing the prevalence of brucellosis in wildlife reservoirs is anticipated to ...201020362627
status of brucellosis in free-ranging elk and bison in wyoming.brucella abortus is the causative agent of brucellosis, a disease enzootic in populations of free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus) and bison (bison bison) in the greater yellowstone ecosystem, usa. we define the distribution of the disease in elk throughout wyoming, usa, using three epidemiologic/geographic classifications based on winter-foraging opportunity. antibody prevalence for >3,300 yearling and adult, female elk, sampled from supplemental feedgrounds in western wyoming, usa, since 1985, was ...201020688637
dna vaccination of bison to brucellar antigens elicits elevated antibody and ifn-+¦ responses.brucella abortus remains a threat to the health and well-being of livestock in states bordering the greater yellowstone area. during the past several years, cohabitation of infected wildlife with cattle has jeopardized the brucellosis-free status of idaho, usa; wyoming, usa; and montana, usa. current livestock b. abortus vaccines have not proven to be efficacious in bison (bison bison) or elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). one problem with the lack of vaccine efficacy may stem from the failure to und ...201121719815
brucellosis transmission between wildlife and livestock in the greater yellowstone ecosystem: inferences from dna genotyping.the wildlife of the greater yellowstone ecosystem carries brucellosis, which was first introduced to the area by cattle in the 19th century. brucellosis transmission between wildlife and livestock has been difficult to study due to challenges in culturing the causative agent, brucella abortus . we examined b. abortus transmission between american bison ( bison bison ), rocky mountain elk ( cervus elaphus nelsoni), and cattle ( bos taurus ) using variable number tandem repeat (vntr) markers on dn ...201728118557
risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater yellowstone area (ii): cost-benefit analysis of reducing elk brucellosis prevalence.recent cases of bovine brucellosis (brucella abortus) in cattle (bos taurus) and domestic bison (bison bison) of the southern greater yellowstone area (sgya) have been traced back to free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus). several management activities have been implemented to reduce brucellosis seroprevalence in elk, including test-and-slaughter, low-density feeding at elk winter feedgrounds, and elk vaccination. it is unclear which of these activities are most cost-effective at reducing the risk of ...201627836044
integrating ecology with management to control wildlife brucellosis.bison (bison bison) and elk (cervus elaphus) in the greater yellowstone ecosystem have long been infected with brucella abortus. the continued culling of large numbers of yellowstone bison to reduce the risk of brucellosis transmission to cattle could negatively affect long-term conservation. a desirable management objective is to reduce the level of b. abortus infection while conserving wildlife populations. identifying the ecological factors that influence immune suppression and vulnerabilityt ...201323837381
an ecological perspective on brucella abortus in the western united states.after a hiatus during the 1990s, outbreaks of brucella abortus in cattle are occurring more frequently in some of the western states of the united states, namely, montana, wyoming and idaho. this increase is coincidentwith increasing brucellosis seroprevalence in elk (cervus elaphus), which is correlated with elk density. vaccines are a seductive solution, but their use in wildlife systems remains limited by logistical, financial, and scientific constraints. cattle vaccination is ongoing in the ...201323837367
risks of brucella abortus spillover in the greater yellowstone area.recurrent spillover of brucella abortus from wildlife reservoirs to domestic cattle in the greater yellowstone area (gya) has prevented the united states from completely eradicating bovine brucellosis. risks to cattle are a function of the size and location of wildlife and livestock populations, the degree and nature of spatio-temporal interactions between the various hosts, the level of disease in wildlife, and the susceptibility of livestock herds. while the brucellosis prevalence in wild, fre ...201323837366
evaluation of transmission of brucella abortus strain 19 in bison by intravaginal, intrauterine, and intraconjunctival inoculation.bovine brucellosis, caused by the bacterium brucella abortus, is endemic in bison (bison bison) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations in the area of yellowstone national park, usa. two strategies have been proposed to reduce the risk of transmission of disease in bison: remote vaccination with the vaccine rb51, and the use of immunocontraception of bison to decrease shedding of organisms from infected females. the frequent occurrence of venereal transmission in bison would complicate eith ...201323778600
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