terminal rna replication elements in human parechovirus define structural elements critical for rna replication in human parechovirus 1 (hpev1), a replicon with chloramphenicol acetyltransferase as a reporter gene and an infectious virus cdna clone have been used. it was observed that there are cis-acting signals required for hpev1 replication located within the 5'-terminal 112 nucleotides of the genome and that these include two terminal stem-loops, sl-a and sl-b, together with a pseudoknot element. significant disruption of any of these structur ...200212438643
inactivation of selected picornaviruses by high hydrostatic pressure.the potential of high hydrostatic pressure processing (hpp) to inactivate aichi virus (aiv), human parechovirus-1 (hpev-1), and the coxsackievirus strains a9 and b5 was investigated. for coxsackievirus a9 (cav9), a 5-min hpp treatment in minimum essential growth medium (mem) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine sera (fbs) resulted in 3.4-, 6.5-, and 7.6-log(10) tissue culture infectious dose (50%) (tcid(50)) reductions at 400, 500, and 600megapascals (mpa), respectively. for hpev-1, a 5-min treatm ...200415084405
analysis of a new human parechovirus allows the definition of parechovirus types and the identification of rna structural domains.human parechoviruses (hpev), members of the parechovirus genus of picornaviridae, are frequent pathogens but have been comparatively poorly studied, and little is known of their diversity, evolution, and molecular biology. to increase the amount of information available, we have analyzed 7 hpev strains isolated in california between 1973 and 1992. we found that, on the basis of vp1 sequences, these fall into two genetic groups, one of which has not been previously observed, bringing the number o ...200717005640
neonatal enterovirus infections reported to the national enterovirus surveillance system in the united states, 1983-2003.neonatal enterovirus (ev) infections lead to a wide range of clinical manifestations, from mild febrile illness to severe, sometimes fatal, sepsislike disease.200617006282
isolation and characterization of novel human parechovirus from clinical samples.using vero cells, we isolated a virus (nii561-2000) from a cerebrospinal fluid specimen of a 1-year-old girl with reye syndrome. the determined amino acid sequence of the virus indicated that the isolate was a human parechovirus (hpev), a member of picornaviridae. neutralization test showed that the nii561-2000 virus had distinct antigenicity to hpev-1, hpev-2, and hpev-3, and that the sequence was distinct from these types as well as from hpev-4 and hpev-5. thus, we propose the virus (nii561-20 ...200717553229
prevalence of human parechovirus in the netherlands in 2000 to 2007.infection with human parechovirus 3 (hpev3) was described for the first time in japan in 2004 and reportedly is more often associated with severe disease than infection with hpev1 or hpev2. in 2004, infections with hpev3 were observed for the first time in the netherlands. genetic analysis showed several different lineages, suggesting endemic circulation. we analyzed 163 cell culture isolates from the same number of patients tested in routine virological laboratories as part of the national ente ...200818614653
epidemiology and clinical associations of human parechovirus respiratory infections.infections with human parechoviruses (hpevs) are prevalent in young children and have been associated with mild gastroenteritis and, less frequently, with meningitis and neonatal sepsis. to investigate the involvement of these viruses in respiratory disease, a highly sensitive nested pcr was used to screen a large archive of respiratory specimens, collected between january and december 2007. respiratory samples had previously been tested for eight respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncy ...200818753351
the first detection of human parechovirus infections in china. 200919576846
detection of human enterovirus and human parechovirus (hpev) genotypes from clinical stool samples: polymerase chain reaction and direct molecular typing, culture characteristics, and serotyping.molecular (polymerase chain reaction [pcr]) methods are increasingly used to detect and type human enteroviruses (hevs) and parechoviruses (hpev). here, we assessed their value in comparison to virus culture and serotyping for detection and typing of hev and hpev in stool samples from hospitalized patients. by use of real-time pcr, 221/1174 patients (18.8%) were found positive for hev/hpev. by cell culture, a virus could be isolated from 107 of the hev/hpev pcr-positive samples. culture efficien ...201020846590
clinical and molecular characterization of a parechovirus type 1 outbreak in neonates in croatia.during july 2009 an outbreak in neonates represented with gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms was observed at the neonatal postintensive care unit, clinical hospital center, zagreb. human parechovirus type 1 (hpev1) was isolated from seven patients, one of whom was asymptomatic. all but one were premature neonates with serious underlying conditions, and all recovered fully after several days. in order to characterize the hpev1s, sequencing of the vp1/2a region was conducted on six isolates ...201121108351
[detection and molecular characterization of human parechovirus (hpev) in children with acute gastroenteritis].to study hpev from stool samples of children with acute gastroenteritis under 5 years old.201121789854
severe human parechovirus sepsis beyond the neonatal we describe a case of viral sepsis beyond the neonatal period caused by human parechovirus subtype 3 (hpev-3), which manifested as cardio-respiratory failure, hepatitis, and necrotizing enterocolitis (nec). hpev-1 and 2 were originally classified as enteroviruses but the advent of sequence analysis led to them being recognized as a new genus in the picornavirus family. subsequently, nine additional hpev strains have been reported including hpev-3 in 1999.(1) the spectrum of disease that the ...201121388870
[detection of human parechovirus in children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis].to detect human parechovirus (hpev) from stool samples of hospitalized children for acute gastroenteritis of undetectable etiology.200920104751
[diagnosis and molecular epidemiology of viral gastroenteritis in the past, present and future].outline, history of research, diagnosis and molecular epidemiology of viral gastroenteritis were described. rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, human parechovirus, aichivirus, and human bocavirus are the major target viruses which cause acute gastroenteritis. the viruses were differentiated into genogroup, genotypes and subgenotypes/clusters/lineages. the changing of their genetic backgrounds was well recognized in different areas and years. some reassortments or recombinati ...200919927992
diversity of human parechoviruses isolated from stool samples collected from thai children with acute gastroenteritis.a total of 82 fecal specimens which were known to be negative for rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus and which were collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in chiang mai, thailand, from january to december 2005 were screened for human parechovirus (hpev). hpev was detected by reverse transcription-pcr with a primer pair that amplified the 5' untranslated region of its genome and was genotyped by sequencing of the vp1 region. hpev was detected in 12 ...201019864477
detection and identification of human parechoviruses from clinical specimens.human parechovirus (hpev) may cause various illnesses; however, technologists and clinicians often overlook it. this study, designed to detect hpev in 3124 clinical specimens from 2849 patients between january and august 2007, presents the first report of hpevs confirmed by rna sequences in taiwan. reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and phylogenetic tree analysis identified the isolates as hpev1 (n = 5), hpev3 (n = 1), and hpev4 (n = 2) from 6 children. although the prevale ...200919729265
molecular characterization of a new serotype of duck hepatitis hepatitis strains 90d and 04g were determined to be antigenically unrelated to type 1 duck hepatitis virus (dhv-1) by in vitro cross-neutralization assay. the genome sequences of 90d and 04g revealed that both strains of the new serotype dhv (n-dhv) possessed a typical picornavirus genome organization apart from the unique possession of three in-tandem 2a genes present in dhv-1. the 2a1, 2a2, and 2a3 proteins represented an aphthovirus-like 2a protein, aig1-like protein, and human parechovi ...200717292992
tlr8 and tlr7 are involved in the host's immune response to human parechovirus 1.toll-like receptors (tlr) have a key role in regulating immunity against microbial agents. engagement of tlr by bacterial, viral or fungal components leads to the production and release of inflammatory cytokines. in this study we show that mainly tlr8 and also tlr7 act as the host sensors for human parechovirus 1, a single-stranded rna (ssrna) virus. furthermore, we see that the viral ssrna genome is detected in endosomal compartments by these tlr, which activate signalling that lead to the synt ...200516025564
human parechovirus 3 and neonatal infections.a third serotype of human parechovirus (hpev) has been recently isolated from stool specimens of a young japanese child with transient paralysis. we report 3 additional cases of neonatal sepsis caused by hpev-3 in the fall of 2001 in canadian infants 7-27 days old. all children were hospitalized with high fever, erythematous rash, and tachypnea for a median of 5 days. the viruses isolated from nasopharyngeal aspirates grew slowly on tertiary monkey kidney cells and were successfully passaged on ...200515705330
diagnostic potential of parechovirus capsid study humoral and cellular immunity against human parechovirus type 1 (hpev1), the viral capsid proteins vp0, vp1, and vp3 were expressed and purified as glutathione s-transferase (gst)-tagged recombinant proteins. the fusion proteins were used to raise antisera in rabbits. vp0 and vp1 antisera specifically detected hpev1-infected cells in culture by immunoperoxidase staining and immunofluorescence. furthermore, antisera against the vp0 and vp1 proteins had neutralizing effects against hpev1 ...200312791839
encephalomyelitis due to human parechovirus type 1.the implication of a viral agent in encephalomyelitis has been reported for several years. in the present study we wanted to demonstrate the presence of human parechovirus type 1 (hpev1) in a patient diagnosed with encephalomyelitis.200212367654
specific rt-pcr procedure for the detection of human parechovirus type 1 genome in clinical samples.among the new genera of parechoviruses, human parechovirus type 1, formerly echo virus 22, has recently been recognized on the basis of distinctive biological and molecular properties. this human pathogen generally causes mild gastro-enteritis, respiratory infections and is also responsible for central nervous system infections. to ensure reliable detection, these latter infections are diagnosed by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) procedures. due to genetic differen ...200211879703
parechoviruses, a novel group of human picornaviruses.parechoviruses are a recently established group of human viral pathogens. at the time of their first isolation, parechoviruses were classified among the enterovirus genus in the picornavirus family, but based on their different biological properties they were separated into their own genus. the type member is human parechovirus 1 (hpev1), which frequently infects humans, in particular small children. the parechovirus genus also includes hpev2 and the ljungan virus, which was recently isolated fr ...200111680794
screening enteroviruses for beta-cell tropism using foetal porcine beta-cells.primary adult human insulin-producing beta-cells are susceptible to infection by prototype strains of coxsackieviruses (cv) and infection may result in impaired beta-cell function and/or cell death, as shown for coxsackie b virus (cvb) types 4 and 5, or have no apparent immediate adverse effects, as shown for cva-9. because of the limited availability of human pancreatic beta-cells, the aim of this study was to find out if foetal porcine pancreatic islets could be used as a substitute in enterov ...200111457997
in vivo and in vitro identification of structural and sequence elements of the human parechovirus 5' untranslated region required for internal initiation.sequence analysis of the picornavirus echovirus 22 led to its classification as the first member of a new genus, parechovirus, and renaming as human parechovirus type 1 (hpev1). although distinct from other genera in most of the genome, the 5' untranslated region (5'utr) shows similarities to that of cardio/aphthoviruses in some of its structural domains (a to l). the 5'utr plays an important role in picornavirus translation initiation and in rna synthesis. to investigate translation in hpev1, w ...200010864636
detection of human parechovirus (hpev)-3 in spinal fluid specimens from pediatric patients in the chicago area.background: the human parechoviruses (hpev) have recently been recognized as important viral pathogens causing various illnesses including sepsis and meningitis in children. however, data from the united states is limited. objectives: to better understand the epidemiology of hpev in the united states and its role in pediatric disease through detection and typing of the virus in cerebrospinal fluid specimens. study design: four hundred and twenty-one spinal fluid samples collected from 373 patien ...201121813319
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