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three groups of babesia canis distinguished and a proposal for nomenclature.two stocks of large babesia from dogs originating in france, transmitted by dermacentor reticulatus, two from north africa, having rhipicephalus sanguineus as vector, and one from south africa, transmitted by haemaphysalis leachi, were compared in cross-immunity tests in dogs and in the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). the french and north african stocks did not immunise against the south african one, while the north african stocks did not protect against a french one. the south africa ...19892655263
two species of canine babesia in australia: detection and characterization by pcr.the haemoprotozoan babesia canis has been recognized in australia for many years, and a second, smaller species has recently been discovered. amplification and sequencing of a partial region of the 18s small subunit ribosomal rna (rrna) gene enabled detection and characterization of the large and small canine babesiae of australia for the first time. isolates from northern australia were genetically characterized to be 99% homologous to babesia canis vogeli, confirming previous speculation about ...200312760669
prevalence of ehrlichia canis, anaplasma platys, babesia canis vogeli, hepatozoon canis, bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii, and rickettsia spp. in dogs from grenada.to identify the tick-borne pathogens in dogs from grenada, we conducted a serologic survey for ehrlichia canis in 2004 (104 dogs) and a comprehensive serologic and molecular survey for a variety of tick-borne pathogens in 2006 (73 dogs). in 2004 and 2006, 44 and 32 dogs (42.3% and 43.8%) were seropositive for e. canis, respectively. in 2006, several tick-borne pathogens were identified by serology and pcr. dna of e. canis, anaplasma platys, babesia canis vogeli, hepatozoon canis, and bartonella ...200818160223
detection and molecular characterization of babesia canis vogeli from naturally infected dogs and rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in tunisia.canine babesiosis, caused by intra-erythrocytic babesia, is a tick-borne disease of worldwide importance. no information on canine babesiosis has been documented in tunisia. detection and analysis of babesia species from naturally infected dogs and ticks recovered from dogs were attempted by reverse line blot hybridization and nucleotide sequence analysis based on 18s rrna gene. out of 180 blood samples collected from domestic dogs in 4 villages situated in different bioclimatic zones, 12 were p ...200818242865
canine babesiosis caused by babesia canis vogeli in rural areas of the state of minas gerais, brazil and factors associated with its seroprevalence.this epidemiological survey on canine babesiosis was carried out in three distinct rural regions (lavras, belo horizonte and nanuque) of the state of minas gerais, brazil. ticks and blood samples were collected during a dry season (lavras, n=92; belo horizonte, n=50; nanuque, n=102) and the subsequent rainy season (lavras, n=71; belo horizonte, n=28; nanuque, n=66) from dogs living on farms. plasma samples were analyzed by the indirect fluorescent antibody test for detection of anti-babesia cani ...200918723199
canine babesiosis in northern portugal and molecular characterization of vector-borne co-infections.abstract:201020377861
molecular detection of ehrlichia canis, anaplasma bovis, anaplasma platys, candidatus midichloria mitochondrii and babesia canis vogeli in ticks from israel.: ticks are vectors of important pathogens of human and animals. therefore, their microbial carriage capacity is constantly being investigated. the aim of this study was to characterize the diversity of domestic animal pathogens in ticks collected from vegetation and the ground, from different parts of israel. non-engorged questing adult ticks were collected from 13 localities. a total of 1196 ticks in 131 pools-83 pools of rhipicephalus turanicus and 48 of rhipicephalus sanguineus (with two to ...201120636417
multiplex real-time qpcr for the detection of ehrlichia canis and babesia canis vogeli.ehrlichia canis and babesia canis vogeli are two tick-borne canine pathogens with a worldwide importance. both pathogens are transmitted by rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick, which has an increasing global distribution. a multiplex quantitative real-time pcr (qpcr) assay for the simultaneous detection of the tick-borne pathogens e. canis and b. canis vogeli was developed using dual-labeled probes. the target genes were the 16s rrna of e. canis and the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) of ...201020674177
molecular and serological detection of ehrlichia canis and babesia vogeli in dogs in colombia.ehrlichiosis and babesiosis are tick-borne diseases, caused mainly by ehrlichia canis and babesia canis, respectively, with a worldwide occurrence in dogs, whose main vector is the brown-dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus. the present work aimed to detect the presence of e. canis and babesia sp. in 91 dog blood samples in colombia, by molecular and serological techniques. we also performed sequence alignment to indicate the identity of the parasite species infecting these animals. the present wo ...201122130333
molecular detection of vector-borne agents in dogs from ten provinces of china.although many vector-borne agents are potential zoonoses and cause substantial morbidity and mortality in dogs worldwide, there are limited data on these organisms in dogs of china.201526428085
molecular detection and characterization of tick-borne pathogens in dogs and ticks from nigeria.only limited information is currently available on the prevalence of vector borne and zoonotic pathogens in dogs and ticks in nigeria. the aim of this study was to use molecular techniques to detect and characterize vector borne pathogens in dogs and ticks from nigeria.201323505591
comparative speed of kill of sarolaner (simparica) and afoxolaner (nexgard) against induced infestations of rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. on dogs.the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, commonly infests dogs globally, is the major vector of the pathogen that causes canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and also transmits babesia vogeli. a rapid speed of kill of a parasiticide is essential to reduce the direct deleterious effects of tick infestation and the risk of tick-borne pathogen transmission. the speed of kill of a novel orally administered isoxazoline parasiticide, sarolaner (simparica), against r. sanguineus sensu lato on ...201626896456
acute febrile illness is associated with rickettsia spp infection in dogs.rickettsia conorii is transmitted by rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and causes mediterranean spotted fever (msf) in humans. although dogs are considered the natural host of the vector, the clinical and epidemiological significance of r. conorii infection in dogs remains unclear. the aim of this prospective study was to investigate whether rickettsia infection causes febrile illness in dogs living in areas endemic for human msf.201525886403
incidence of cercopithifilaria bainae in dogs and probability of co-infection with other tick-borne pathogens.cercopithifilaria bainae is a filarioid parasite that infects dogs, being transmitted by rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks in many countries of the mediterranean basin. this study assessed the incidence density rate (idr) of infection by c. bainae in dogs and the probability of co-infection with other tick-borne pathogens (i.e., anaplasma platys, babesia vogeli and hepatozoon canis), in an area of high endemicity in southern italy.201424498437
prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in dogs from haiti.canine vector-borne pathogens are common on some caribbean islands, but survey data in haiti are lacking. to determine the prevalence of selected vector-borne pathogens in dogs from haiti, we tested blood samples collected from 210 owned dogs, 28 (13.3%) of which were infested with rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks at the time of blood collection. no other tick species were identified on these dogs. a commercially available elisa identified antibodies to ehrlichia spp. in 69 (32.9%), antibodies to ...201627270383
tick-borne diseases (borreliosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis) in german and austrian dogs: status quo and review of distribution, transmission, clinical findings, diagnostics and prophylaxis.tick-borne diseases (tbd) in dogs have gained in significance in german and austrian veterinary practices. the widespread european tick species ixodes ricinus represents an important vector for spirochaetes of the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group and rickettsiales such as anaplasma phagocytophilum. the meadow or ornate dog tick (dermacentor reticulatus) is an important vector for babesia canis, as is the brown dog tick (rhipicephalus sanguineus) for babesia vogeli in the mediterranean regio ...201526152408
spatial distribution of anaplasma phagocytophilum and hepatozoon canis in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in hungary.in recent years, ehrlichia canis and hepatozoon canis transmitted by rhipicephalus sanguineus were reported from hungary. the aim of the present study was to reveal the spatial distribution pattern of pathogens transmitted by r. sanguineus in a sentinel species, red fox (vulpes vulpes) in hungary and to analyse the relationship of these patterns with landscape and climate by geographical information systems. fox carcasses, representing 0.5% of the total fox population were randomly selected out ...201526065623
molecular detection of bacterial and parasitic pathogens in hard ticks from portugal.ticks are important vector arthropods of human and animal pathogens. as information about agents of disease circulating in vectors in portugal is limited, the aim of the present study was to detect bacteria and parasites with veterinary and zoonotic importance in ticks collected from dogs, cats, and field vegetation. a total of 925 ticks, comprising 888 (96.0%) adults, 8 (0.9%) nymphs, and 29 (3.1%) larvae, were collected in 4 geographic areas (districts) of portugal. among those, 620 (67.0%) we ...201424745731
first detection of tick-borne pathogens of dogs from malta.the knowledge about the vector-borne infections in domestic dogs has been increasing worldwide. however no studies have been done on hard tick infestation and tick-borne pathogens (tbps) of dogs present in malta. therefore, a total of 99 dogs was selected and inspected between march and july 2013 in 18 urban and 17 rural areas on the islands of malta and gozo. all ticks were removed from the dogs and identified. blood samples were taken and tested for protozoa (babesia spp. and hepatozoon spp.) ...201728143697
a survey of tick-borne pathogens in dogs and their ticks in the pantanal biome, brazil.tick and blood samples collected from domestic dogs in the brazilian pantanal were tested by molecular methods for the presence of tick-borne protozoa and bacteria. among 320 sampled dogs, 3.13% were infected by babesia vogeli (piroplasmida: babesiidae), 8.75% by hepatozoon canis (eucoccidiorida: hepatozoidae), 7.19% by anaplasma platys (rickettsiales: anaplasmataceae), and 0.94% by an unclassified anaplasma sp. in three tick species collected from dogs, the following tick-borne agents were dete ...201626467462
vector-borne pathogens in dogs from costa rica: first molecular description of babesia vogeli and hepatozoon canis infections with a high prevalence of monocytic ehrlichiosis and the manifestations of co-infection.infection with canine vector-borne pathogens was evaluated in dogs from four different regions of costa rica by pcr. demographic data, clinical signs, packed cell volume values, and the presence of tick infestation were recorded for each dog. forty seven percent (69/146) of the dogs were infected with at least one pathogen and 12% were co-infected with two pathogens. ehrlichia canis was detected in 34%, anaplasma platys in 10%, babesia vogeli in 8%, and hepatozoon canis in 7.5% of the blood samp ...201424315693
tick-borne pathogens and disease in dogs on st. kitts, west indies.between 2009 and 2011, we conducted a case-control study of ticks and tick-associated pathogens affecting dogs on the island of st. kitts, eastern caribbean, including 55 cases of clinically suspected tick-borne disease (tbd) and 110 presumably healthy animals presented for elective surgeries. rhipicephalus sanguineus caused year-round infestations of dogs, and 36% of the dogs in the study were infested at the time of examination. overall, 62% of suspected tbd cases and 24% of presumably healthy ...201323481028
confirmation of occurrence of <i>babesia vogeli</i> in a dog in windhoek, central namibia.although there is evidence of high seroprevalence of antibodies to babesia spp. in dogs in central namibia, clinical babesiosis is rarely diagnosed. rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, the vector of babesia vogeli, is common in namibia while haemaphysalis elliptica, the vector of the highly virulent but morphologically indistinguishable babesia rossi, has rarely been recorded, mainly in northern namibia. on the basis of vector occurrence, clinical cases of canine babesiosis in windhoek, central ...201627796110
first evidence and molecular characterization of babesia vogeli in naturally infected dogs and rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in southern france.babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease of animals and humans caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genera babesia and theileria. in france canine babesiosis has a high prevalence with babesia canis thought to be the main aetiological agent of the disease. babesia vogeli has already been reported to occur in europe and in other countries around the mediterranean sea. the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus, the main known vector of b. vogeli, occurs in southern france. however, only one cas ...201222342131
molecular detection of theileria, babesia, and hepatozoon spp. in ixodid ticks from palestine.ixodid ticks transmit various infectious agents that cause disease in humans and livestock worldwide. a cross-sectional survey on the presence of protozoan pathogens in ticks was carried out to assess the impact of tick-borne protozoa on domestic animals in palestine. ticks were collected from herds with sheep, goats and dogs in different geographic districts and their species were determined using morphological keys. the presence of piroplasms and hepatozoon spp. was determined by pcr amplifica ...201626969489
seroprevalence of tick-borne pathogens and tick infestation in dogs from tapirapé and karajá indigenous communities, brazil.with the aim of studying some tick-borne diseases, a total of 327 dogs (114 from tapirapé and 213 from karajá indigenous ethnicity, mato grosso, mt, brazil) were sampled. serum samples were submitted to the indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat) to detect antibodies against babesia vogeli, ehrlichia canis, and rickettsia spp. possible associations of risk factors and the occurrence of seroreativity to tick-borne agents and tick infestations were analyzed through chi-squared tests. among 327 ...201526186512
survey of ehrlichia canis, babesia spp. and hepatozoon spp. in dogs from a semiarid region of brazil.this study assessed the occurrence of ehrlichia spp., babesia spp. and hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the state of paraíba, northeastern brazil. blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. the 1,151 ticks collected were identified as rhipicephalu ...201525909253
a serological and molecular survey of babesia vogeli, ehrlichia canis and rickettsia spp. among dogs in the state of maranhão, northeastern brazil.this study evaluated exposure and infection by tick-borne agents (babesia vogeli, ehrlichia canis and rickettsia spp.) in 172 dogs in rural areas and 150 dogs in urban areas of the municipality of chapadinha, state of maranhão, northeastern brazil, using molecular and serological methods. overall, 16.1% of the sampled dogs (52/322) were seroreactive to b. vogeli, with endpoint titers ranging from 40 to 640. for e. canis, 14.6% of the dogs (47/322) were seroreactive, with endpoint titers from 80 ...201525909250
detection and molecular identification of hepatozoon canis and babesia vogeli from domestic dogs in palestine.dogs serve as hosts for a great number of parasites, which may affect their health and wellbeing. this study aimed to observe tick borne pathogens in dogs from palestine including hepatozoon canis and babesia species. the prevalence of both h. canis and babesia species infections in apparently healthy dogs, from ten districts of the west bank was surveyed. dna was extracted from blood samples obtained from dogs (n = 362) and ticks (n = 213) collected from dogs (n = 77). a primer set that amplifi ...201727938422
apparent tick paralysis by rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae) in dogs.certain tick species including ixodes holocyclus can inoculate neurotoxins that induce a rapid, ascending flaccid paralysis in animals. rhipicephalus sanguineus, the most widespread tick of dogs, is recognized as a vector of several pathogens causing diseases in dogs and humans. a single report suggests its role as cause of paralysis in dogs. this study presents the clinical history of 14 young dogs heavily infested by r. sanguineus (intensity of infestation, 63-328) in an endemic area of southe ...201222546547
molecular analysis of rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae), an incriminated vector tick for babesia vogeli in taiwan.the genetic identity of rhipicephalus sanguineus tick was determined for the first time in taiwan. the phylogenetic relationships were analyzed by comparing the sequences of mitochondrial 16s ribosomal dna gene obtained from 32 strains of ticks representing six species of rhipicephalus, two species of dermacentor and two outgroup species (haemaphysalis inermis and ixodes ricinus). seven major clades can be easily distinguished by neighbour-joining analysis and were congruent by maximum-parsimony ...201627815655
a new pcr assay for the detection and differentiation of babesia canis and babesia vogeli.babesia spp. are globally distributed tick-borne protozoan parasites that infect the red blood cells of a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including humans. diagnosis of babesiosis is often impeded by the transient presence of the parasites in peripheral blood, as well as by their pleomorphic nature. given the reports of an expanding and, in some cases, sympatric geographical distribution of babesia canis and babesia vogeli in dogs and associated vectors, in europe, the development of time-effici ...201728739301
molecular identification of babesia spp. in naturally infected dogs of kerala, south india.canine babesiosis is a tick borne haemoprotozoan disease caused by large and small intraerythrocytic apicomplexan piroplasms of the genus babesia spp. the clinical manifestations of the disease vary from inapparent subclinical form to hyperacute shock related haemolytic crisis. microscopic examination of blood smears from suspected dogs revealed babesia canis and b. gibsoni in 3.45 and 25.86 % of samples respectively. a seminested pcr based on previously published species specific primers target ...201728615859
first detection and molecular identification of babesia vogeli from rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodidae) in taiwan.a total of 578 rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from dogs in taiwan were examined for babesia by species-specific polymerase chain reaction assay based on the 18s small subunit ribosomal rna (ssrrna) gene. babesia dna was detected in 1.04 % (6/578) of rh. sanguineus ticks. phylogenetic analysis revealed that these babesia spp. were genetically linked to the same clade within the genospecies of babesia vogeli and could be discriminated from other genospecies of babesia. intra-species anal ...201626796569
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