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characterization of a calcium binding domain in the vp1 protein of the avian polyomavirus, budgerigar fledgling disease virus.calcium ions appear to play a major role in maintaining the structural integrity and assembly of papovavirus virions and are likely involved in the process of viral uncoating. recently it was reported that the purified recombinant vp1 protein of budgerigar fledgling disease virus (bfdv) was capable of assembling into capsid-like particles in the presence of calcium. it is now reported that the major capsid protein vp1 of bfdv binds calcium ions in an in vitro calcium binding assay. two deletions ...19968879141
recombinant expression of late genes agno-2a and agno-2b of avian polyomavirus bfdv.budgerigar fledgling disease virus (bfdv) genome contains two times two (two pairs) open reading frames (agnogenes) at the 5' end of the late coding region. recombinant influenza a viruses were constructed to express the second pair of bfdv agnoproteins, agno-2a and agno-2b, with a fusion of a histidine-tag at their carboxy-termini, respectively. specific proteins were detected in western blot analysis using anti histidine-tag monoclonal antibody. by indirect immunofluorescence experiments agno- ...199910595409
the sensitivities of various erythrocytes in a haemagglutination assay for the detection of psittacine beak and feather disease virus.the erythrocytes of various species were tested in psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd) virus haemagglutination (ha) and haemagglutination inhibition assays to determine which are suitable for use in these assays. ha activity was observed for erythrocytes of the salmon-crested cockatoo, the sulphur-crested cockatoo, the umbrella cockatoo, the goffin's cockatoo and the cockatiel, with differences amongst individuals within species, but not for erythrocytes of humans, the pig, the guinea pig ...200011014065
evidence for specificity of psittacine beak and feather disease viruses among avian hosts.beak and feather disease is a major avian disease of both captive and wild parrot and cockatoo populations. clinical signs include beak elongation and abnormal growth, together with weight loss and in some individuals the disease is fatal. we investigated the relationship between viral genotypes and their hosts in order to test for a positive association between distinct viral genomes and avian species. specifically, we used the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to amplify and sequence a 605-nucle ...200312620803
genetic diversity of the rep gene of beak and feather disease virus in south africa.a study on the genetic variation of beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) isolates in south africa was performed by amplifying and sequencing a region within the orf1 of the genome. six different bfdv isolates were found in 15 psittacine species from 6 regions within south africa, representing three unique isolates and three isolates that clustered into a budgerigar lineage (bg) previously described.200616932986
global genetic diversity and geographical and host-species distribution of beak and feather disease virus isolates.psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd) has a broad host range and is widespread in wild and captive psittacine populations in asia, africa, the americas, europe and australasia. beak and feather disease circovirus (bfdv) is the causative agent. bfdv has an ∼2 kb single stranded circular dna genome encoding just two proteins (rep and cp). in this study we provide support for demarcation of bfdv strains by phylogenetic analysis of 65 complete genomes from databases and 22 new bfdv sequences is ...201021177924
Avian polyomavirus infection of a fledgling budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and differential diagnoses of viral inclusions in psittacine birds--case report and mini-review.A two-week-old budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) of an outdoor aviary died suddenly and was submitted for determination the cause of illness and death. Macroscopically, the sparsely feathered animal was in a poor body condition. Histopathological examination revealed in various mesenchymal and epithelial tissues, numerous up to 15 microm in diameter large intranuclear, amphophilic to basophilic inclusion bodies with a clearing of the centre. Additionally, a feather dysplasia and retention hyp ...201122059291
a novel genotype of beak and feather disease virus in budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus).beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) is a causative agent for psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd), which shows a characteristic feather disorder in psittacine birds. nineteen budgerigars, which were clinically suspected to have pbfd, were examined by two polymerase chain reactions (pcr), which target each of open reading frames (orfs) v1 and c1. all of the 19 samples were detected bfdv by the pcr targeting orf c1, whereas only two of them were detected by the pcr targeting orf v1. it was ...201020658313
avian polyomavirus expression patterns of bicistronic late mrnas.avian polyomavirus (apv, previously called budgerigar fledgling disease virus, bfdv-1) differs from other polyoma viruses by a complex arrangement within its late genes: p(l1)-promoted agno-genes 1a and 1b overlap p(l2)-promoted agno-genes 2a and 2b in different reading frames, and are located upstream of standard late vp genes. as a minimal set, agno-gene 1a plus vp1, vp2, vp3 support effective viral propagation in cell culture, together with the origin-region and t-antigen section. all viral l ...200919329136
a concurrent outbreak of psittacine beak and feather disease virus, and avian polyomavirus infection in budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus).a dual natural infection with psittacine beak and feather disease virus and budgerigar fledgling disease virus in a breeding aviary of budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) is described. one-hundred per cent of newly-hatched birds were affected and mortality was high (85%). most surviving birds had diarrhoea, feather alterations and 30% mortality after a 5- to 10-week period. necropsies of 1-week-old and 2-month-old birds demonstrated non-specific lesions, but histologically nuclear inclusions s ...199818483964
comparitive sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction diagnosis of psittacine beak and feather disease on feather samples, cloacal swabs and blood from budgerigars (melopsittacus undulates, shaw 18005).a longitudinal study was performed in order to investigate virus excretion and viraemia during a clinical outbreak of the psittacine beak and feather disease in budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus). viral nucleic acid was detected in feathers, cloacal swabs and blood samples. overall, beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) dna was detected most commonly in feather samples, followed by cloacal swabs, and least frequently from blood samples. in most cases the viraemia was short lived and correlate ...200415545027
early and late pre-mrna processing of budgerigar fledgling disease virus 1: identification of viral rna 5' and 3' ends and internal splice junctions.budgerigar fledgling disease virus 1 (bfdv-1) is the first avian polyomavirus to be identified, and it possesses uncommon structural and biological properties. here we present an analysis of the processed viral rnas in infected chicken embryo fibroblast cells. two early and 18 late bfdv-1 mrnas were defined according to their 5' ends and internal splice patterns. in the early region of the genome an incomplete splice reaction covering 195 nt is responsible for creating two mrnas that could encod ...19957844527
experimental inoculation of bfdv-positive budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) with two mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates.beak and feather disease virus- (bfdv-) positive (naturally infected) but clinically healthy budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) were inoculated with two isolates of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolated from naturally infected golden pheasant (chrysolophus pictus) and peafowl (pavo cristatus). during a period of more than two months after inoculation, samples of cloacal and crop swabs, faeces, and blood were obtained for bfdv and mycobacterium avium testing with pcr. birds were euthanized ...201424738057
disease screening of three breeding populations of adult exhibition budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) in new zealand reveals a high prevalence of a novel polyomavirus and avian malaria infection.disease surveillance is vital to the management of new zealand's endemic and threatened avian species. three infectious agents that are potential threats to new zealand's endemic birds include avian polyomavirus (apv), beak and feather disease virus (bfdv), and avian malaria. all three agents have been reported in new zealand; however, possible reservoir populations have not been identified. in this communication, we report the first study of apv, bfdv, and avian malaria in introduced adult exhi ...201424758122
beak and feather disease viruses circulating in cape parrots (poicepahlus robustus) in south africa.captive and wild psittacines are vulnerable to the highly contagious psittacine beak and feather disease. the causative agent, beak and feather disease virus (bfdv), was recently detected in the largest remaining population of endangered cape parrots (poicepahlus robustus), which are endemic to south africa. full-length genomes were isolated and sequenced from 26 blood samples collected from wild and captive cape parrots to determine possible origins of infection. all sequences had characteristi ...201525209153
survey of captive parrot populations around port phillip bay, victoria, australia, for psittacine beak and feather disease virus, avian polyomavirus and psittacine adenovirus.this study investigated the prevalence of psittacine beak and feather disease virus (bfdv), avian polyomavirus (apv) and psittacine adenovirus (psadv) in captive psittacine birds around port phillip bay, victoria, australia.201526220322
Prevalence and genetic characterization of avian polyomavirus and psittacine beak and feather disease virus isolated from budgerigars in Mainland China.Budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) and psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) are caused by avian polyomavirus (APV) and psittacine beak and feather disease virus (PBFDV), respectively. These diseases frequently infect psittacine birds and result in similar clinical manifestations. In this study, we observed the prevalence of PBFDV infection and a dual infection of APV and PBFDV in a budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) in Mainland China for the first time. One PBFDV isolate and two APV isol ...201122002652
a unique isolate of beak and feather disease virus isolated from budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) in south africa.beak and feather disease virus (bfdv), the causative agent of psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd) infects psittaciformes worldwide. we provide an annotated sequence record of three full-length unique genomes of bfdv isolates from budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) from a breeding farm in south africa. the isolates share >99% nucleotide sequence identity with each other and approximately 96% nucleotide sequence identity to two recent isolates (melopsittacus undulatus) from thailand but ...201020127375
detection of beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) and avian polyomavirus (apv) dna in psittacine birds in italy.beak and feather disease (psittacine circovirus) and budgerigar fledgling disease (avian polyomavirus) are viral diseases that can frequently affect captive psittacine birds. we designed the first survey to investigate the presence of beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) and avian polyomavirus (apv) inside the population of captive psittacine birds in italy. samples were collected in 18 italian psittacine breeding centres and four trade centres over a 4-year period. a total of 1516 birds were t ...200515752264
psittacine beak and feather disease virus in budgerigars and ring-neck parakeets in south africa.psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd) is a common disease of the psittacine species and is caused by the psittacine beak and feather disease virus (pbfdv). in this study the occurrence of the disease in ring-neck parakeets and budgerigars in south africa suffering from feathering problems, using polymerase chain reaction as a diagnostic test was investigated. the genetic variation between viral isolates was also studied. results indicate that pbfdv can be attributed to being the cause of fe ...200415185572
infection with the avian polyomavirus, bfdv, selectively affects myofibril structure in embryonic chick ventricle cardiomyocytes.embryonic cardiomyocytes can both beat and divide. they assemble cardiac muscle-specific proteins into sarcomeric myofibrils and contract. in addition, they periodically synthesize dna, complete mitosis, disassemble sarcomeric myofibrils in the area of the mitotic spindle, assemble cytoplasmic isoform-specific proteins into a cleavage furrow contractile ring, undergo cytokinesis, and then reform sarcomeric myofibrils in daughter cells. little is known about how embryonic cardiomyocytes disassemb ...19938228865
avian polyomavirus genome sequences recovered from parrots in captive breeding facilities in poland.eight genomes of avian polyomaviruses (apvs) were recovered and sequenced from deceased psittacula eupatria, psittacula krameri, and melopsittacus undulatus from various breeding facilities in poland. of these apv-positive samples, six had previously tested positive for beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) and/or parrot hepatitis b virus (phbv).201526404592
agnoprotein-1a of avian polyomavirus budgerigar fledgling disease virus: identification of phosphorylation sites and functional importance in the virus life-cycle.the avian polyomavirus budgerigar fledgling disease virus (bfdv) encodes an unusual set of four agnoproteins in its late upstream region. of the two pairs of these proteins, which overlap each other in two different reading frames, the p(l1)-promoted agnoprotein-1a (agno-1a) is the dominant species and is able to support virus propagation in the absence of the other three polypeptides. viral bfdv agno-1a, and also agno-1a expressed via an influenza virus vector, consists of a complex series of e ...200010644834
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