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complete genetic characterization and analysis of isolation of sin nombre virus.this study reports completion of the genetic characterization of the entire genome of sin nombre (sn) virus (nmh10) detected in autopsy tissues from a patient who died of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). the large (l) genome segment was found to be 6,562 nucleotides in length and encoded a putative l polymerase that was 2,153 amino acids in length. no evidence of segment reassortment with other well-characterized hantaviruses was obtained. the sequence of the entire s, m, and l genome segmen ...19957494336
a newly recognized virus associated with a fatal case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in louisiana.genetic analysis of virus detected in autopsy tissues of a fatal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome-like case in louisiana revealed the presence of a previously unrecognized hantavirus. nucleotide sequence analysis of pcr fragments of the complete s and m segments of the virus amplified from rna extracted from the tissues showed the virus to be novel, differing from the closest related hantavirus, sin nombre virus, by approximately 30%. both genome segments were unique, and there was no evidence of g ...19957853545
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. pathogenesis of an emerging infectious disease.a recent outbreak of a severe pulmonary disease in the southwestern united states was etiologically linked to a previously unrecognized hantavirus. the virus has been isolated from its major reservoir, the deer mouse, peromyscus maniculatus, and recently named sin nombre virus. clinically, the disease has become known as the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). since may 1993, 44 fatal cases of hps have been identified through clinicopathological review and immunohistochemical (ihc) testing of t ...19957887439
naturally occurring sin nombre virus genetic reassortants.genetic reassortment has been shown to play an important role in the evolution of several segmented rna viruses and in the epidemiology of associated diseases. sin nombre (sn) virus is the cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome throughout the western united states. like other hantaviruses, it possesses a genome consisting of three negative-sense rna segments, s, m, and l. recent analysis has demonstrated the presence of at least three different hantaviruses in nevada and eastern california, incl ...19958553562
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in florida: association with the newly identified black creek canal virus.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) is a recently recognized viral zoonosis. the first recognized cases were caused by a newly described hantavirus. sin nombre virus (previously known as muerto canyon virus), isolated from peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse). we describe a 33-year-old floridian man who resided outside the ecologic range of p maniculatus but was found to have serologic evidence of a hantavirus infection during evaluation of azotemia associated with adult respiratory distress synd ...19968579086
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: clinical, diagnostic, and virologic aspects.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is an acute pneumonitis with a high mortality rate that is caused by a newly recognized hantavirus. four corners virus (also known as muerto canyon virus and sin nombre virus) is enzootic among deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus). incidental transmission to humans can result in a disease characterized by rapidly progressive respiratory insufficiency, diffuse noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, vascular volume contraction with hemoconcentration, lactic acidosis, depressed ...19958668854
sequence analysis of the complete s genomic segment of a newly identified hantavirus isolated from the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus): phylogenetic relationship with other sigmodontine rodent-borne hantaviruses.four corners (fc) or sin nombre virus, a hantavirus harbored by the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus), is the principal etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). recently, a hantavirus, designated new york (ny) virus, isolated from a white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus) captured on shelter island, new york, was molecularly linked to a fatal case of hps occurring in the northeastern united states. to clarify the genetic and phylogenetic relationship between ny and fc viruses a ...19968883362
cocirculation of multiple hantaviruses in texas, with characterization of the small (s) genome of a previously undescribed virus of cotton rats (sigmodon hispidus).an environmental and laboratory investigation was conducted after a fatal childhood case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome occurred in deaf smith county, texas in may 1995. a trapping campaign was conducted to identify possible rodent carriers. six species of murid and heteromyid rodents were collected, and at least one hantavirus-seropositive specimen was found in each of the five murid species. tissues from a selection of 11 seropositive specimens were examined by the polymerase chain reaction ...19969025697
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.the objective of this report is to summarize the medical literature relevant to the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and control of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). the english language literature was searched from january 1993 through march 1995, manually and using medline, including conference proceedings and reference lists. we selected relevant articles on clinical aspects of hps. hps is a newly described illness that progresses through three phases: prodromal, cardiopulmonary, and co ...19979097374
seroepidemiologic studies of hantavirus infection among wild rodents in california.a total of 4,626 mammals were serologically tested for antibodies to sin nombre virus. all nonrodent species were antibody negative. among wild rodents, antibody prevalence was 8.5% in murids, 1.4% in heteromyids, and < 0.1% in sciurids. of 1,921 peromyscus maniculatus (deer mice), 226 (11.8%) were antibody positive, including one collected in 1975. the highest antibody prevalence (71.4% of 35) was found among p. maniculatus on santa cruz island, off the southern california coast. prevalence of ...19979204301
population dynamics of the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) and sin nombre virus, california channel islands.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, first documented in 1993, is caused by sin nombre virus (snv), which is carried by the peromyscus species. in 1994, high snv antibody prevalence was identified in deer mice from two california channel islands. we sampled two locations on three islands to estimate mouse population density and snv prevalence. population flux and snv prevalence appear to vary independently.19979284383
genetic reassortment among viruses causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.in order to determine the frequency and characteristics of reassortment among viruses causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps), mixed infections were initiated in tissue culture by using two closely related strains of sin nombre virus, cc107 (from eastern california) and nmr11 (from new mexico), which share the same species of rodent host in nature, the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus). potential reassortant virus plaques were screened by multiplex rt-pcr, using primers specific for indivi ...19989501041
a survey of hantavirus antibody in small-mammal populations in selected united states national parks.hantavirus activity in 39 national parks in the eastern and central united states was surveyed by testing 1,815 small mammals of 38 species for antibody reactive to sin nombre virus. antibody-positive rodents were found throughout the area sampled, and in most biotic communities. antibody was detected in 7% of 647 deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus), 2% of 590 white-footed mice (p. leucopus), 17% of 12 rice rats (oryzomys palustris), 3% of 31 cotton rats (sigmodon hispidus), and 33% of 18 western ...19989574803
tissue distribution of hantavirus antigen in naturally infected humans and deer mice.the sin nombre virus (snv) is the etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in humans but does not cause disease in chronically infected deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus), the natural host. in this study, murine antiserum raised against recombinant snv nucleocapsid protein was utilized to localize viral antigen immunohistochemically in tissues from both humans (n = 20; 11 positive, 9 negative) and deer mice (n = 6; 4 positive, 2 negative). viral infection status was confirmed by western ...19989607851
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome--colorado and new mexico, 1998.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) is a severe cardiopulmonary illness resulting in death in approximately 45% of cases. the most frequently recognized etiologic agent of hps in north america, sin nombre virus (snv), is transmitted to humans from its primary rodent reservoir, peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse), by direct contact with infected rodents, rodent droppings, or nests or through inhalation of aerosolized virus particles from mouse urine and feces. sporadic cases occur throughout the ...19989639364
sin nombre virus pathogenesis in peromyscus maniculatus.sin nombre virus (snv), a member of the hantavirus genus, causes acute viral pneumonia in humans and is thought to persistently infect mice. the deer mouse, peromyscus maniculatus, has been identified as the primary reservoir host for snv. to understand snv infection of p. maniculatus, we examined wild deer mice for localization of viral antigens and nucleic acid. morphologic examination consistently revealed septal edema within lung tissue and mononuclear cell infiltrates in portal areas of the ...19999847363
hantavirus (bunyaviridae) infections in rodents from orange and san diego counties, california.during a screening program to determine the extent of hantavirus activity in orange and san diego counties, california, serum samples from 2,365 rodents representing nine genera and 15 species were tested for hantavirus antibodies. a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on selected seropositive rodents was used to identify the specific hantavirus. rodents positive for sin nombre virus (snv) antibodies by western blot included 86 (9.1%) of 948 deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus), four ( ...19999988327
genetic diversity and distribution of peromyscus-borne hantaviruses in north america.the 1993 outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in the southwestern united states was associated with sin nombre virus, a rodent-borne hantavirus; the virus' primary reservoir is the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus). hantavirus-infected rodents were identified in various regions of north america. an extensive nucleotide sequence database of an 139 bp fragment amplified from virus m genomic segments was generated. phylogenetic analysis confirmed that snv-like hantaviruses are widely d ...199910081674
natural history of sin nombre virus in western colorado.a mark-recapture longitudinal study of immunoglobulin g (igg) antibody to sin nombre virus (snv) in rodent populations in western colorado (1994-results summarized to october 1997) indicates the presence of snv or a closely related hantavirus at two sites. most rodents (principally deer mice, peromyscus maniculatus, and pinyon mice, p. truei) did not persist on the trapping webs much beyond 1 month after first capture. some persisted more than 1 year, which suggests that even a few infected deer ...199910081680
relationships of deer mouse movement, vegetative structure, and prevalence of infection with sin nombre virus.the effects of vegetative structure on movement of deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) were examined in two distinct vegetation associations, one near hesperus and the other near molina in western colorado (usa) from june-october 1994 to october 1998. we monitored movement by live-trapping small mammals within gambel's oak/mixed-grass (hesperus) and sage brush/juniper (molina) vegetation types. vegetative structure differed between the sites with molina having more cover provided by shrubs and he ...199910231758
update: hantavirus pulmonary syndrome--united states, 1999.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) is a rodentborne viral disease characterized by severe pulmonary illness and a case-fatality ratio of 43%. sin nombre virus is the primary hantavirus that causes hps in the united states, and the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) is its predominant carrier. cdc-sponsored studies of rodent populations since 1994 have yielded data that suggest an increased risk for infection for humans in some areas of the southwestern united states during the summer of 1999. ...199910401910
temporal and spatial analysis of sin nombre virus quasispecies in naturally infected rodents.sin nombre virus (snv) is thought to establish a persistent infection in its natural reservoir, the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus), despite a strong host immune response. snv-specific neutralizing antibodies were routinely detected in deer mice which maintained virus rna in the blood and lungs. to determine whether viral diversity played a role in snv persistence and immune escape in deer mice, we measured the prevalence of virus quasispecies in infected rodents over time in a natural setti ...199910516063
role of maternal antibody in natural infection of peromyscus maniculatus with sin nombre virus.data from naturally infected deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) were used to investigate vertical transmission of sin nombre virus (snv) and snv-specific antibody. the antibody prevalence in juvenile mice (14 g or less) was inversely proportional to the mass of the animal, with juvenile deer mice weighing less than 11 g most likely to be antibody positive (26.9%) and juvenile mice weighing between 13 and 14 g least likely to be antibody positive (12.9%). although a significant sex bias in seropo ...200010666274
remote sensing and geographic information systems: charting sin nombre virus infections in deer mice.we tested environmental data from remote sensing and geographic information system maps as indicators of sin nombre virus (snv) infections in deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) populations in the walker river basin, nevada and california. we determined by serologic testing the presence of snv infections in deer mice from 144 field sites. we used remote sensing and geographic information systems data to characterize the vegetation type and density, elevation, slope, and hydrologic features of ea ...200010827114
sin nombre virus in deer mice captured inside homes, southwestern montana.from 1996 through 1999, 35 deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) were captured in 25 urban and suburban homes in southwestern montana. mice were captured throughout the year except for january; seven mice (20%) from seven (28%) of the homes were seropositive for sin nombre virus. the infected mice were mostly adult males captured in the spring and fall.200010905973
experimental infection model for sin nombre hantavirus in the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus).the relationship between hantaviruses and their reservoir hosts is not well understood. we successfully passaged a mouse-adapted strain of sin nombre virus from deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) by i.m. inoculation of 4- to 6-wk-old deer mouse pups. after inoculation with 5 id(50), antibodies to the nucleocapsid (n) antigen first became detectable at 14 d whereas neutralizing antibodies were detectable by 7 d. viral n antigen first began to appear in heart, lung, liver, spleen, and/or kidney by ...200010973478
the incubation period of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.in 1993 sin nombre virus was recognized as the cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) and the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) was identified as the reservoir host. surveillance by the centers for disease control and prevention and state health departments includes investigation to determine the likely site(s) and activities that led to infection, an environmental assessment of the home and workplace, and possibly rodent trappings at these sites. as of december 31, 1998, there were 200 ...200011304061
do unusual site-specific population dynamics of rodent reservoirs provide clues to the natural history of hantaviruses?between january 1995 and november 1997, longitudinal mark-recapture studies of rodent hosts of hantaviruses in a disturbed microhabitat within a shortgrass prairie ecosystem in southeastern colorado (usa) were conducted. the site was distinguished by edaphic and floristic characteristics unique to this area and associated with historical land use patterns, as well as the year-around availability of water from a functioning windmill. populations of two common rodent species that are hosts for han ...200111310878
serologic evidence of hantavirus infection in sigmodontine rodents in mexico.antibodies to hantaviruses in two species of sigmodontine rodents (peromyscus maniculatus and reithrodontomys sumichrasti) collected in central mexico are reported. peromyscus maniculatus, a common species throughout much of mexico, is the reservoir of sin nombre virus (snv), the etiologic agent of the great majority of cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in north america. although the identity of the virus detected in p. maniculatus in mexico could not be determined by these serologic ...200111310896
genetic and serotypic characterization of sin nombre-like viruses in canadian peromyscus maniculatus mice.in canada, hantavirus infected deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) have been collected from british columbia to newfoundland. partial sequencing of g1 and n protein encoding regions from canadian peromyscus maniculatus-borne hantaviruses demonstrated the existence of significant genotypic divergence among strains. phylogenetic analysis showed that sin nombre (sn)-like viruses from eastern and western canadian deer mice can be divided into at least two broad-based genogroups. sequencing of mitocho ...200111311430
antibody to sin nombre virus in rodents associated with peridomestic habitats in west central montana.most human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome are acquired in the peridomestic environment, yet studies of the ecology and infection dynamics in the reservoir host, the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus), have focused on sylvan populations. we describe a 2.5-year study of hantavirus infection in rodents associated with peridomestic habitats in west central montana. antibodies reactive with sin nombre virus (snv) were found in five species. overall snv antibody prevalence was highest among d ...200111442208
longitudinal studies of sin nombre virus in deer mouse-dominated ecosystems of montana.sin nombre virus (snv), hosted by the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus), is the primary etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in north america. to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of hps in the western united states, we conducted studies of population dynamics and snv antibody prevalence in deer mouse populations for 6 years on 12 mark-recapture grids in montana. monthly numbers of deer mice ranged from zero to over 170 on 1-hectare grids. snv antibody prevalence ...200111504405
assessment of ecologic and biologic factors leading to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, colorado, u.s.a.to understand the ecologic parameters of sin nombre virus (snv; family bunyaviridae, genus hantavirus) infections in the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus), environmental variables impacting the rodent populations, and the conditions under which snv is amplified. this may help us understand the antecedents of human risk for developing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) as a consequence of snv infection.200212035141
genetic vaccines protect against sin nombre hantavirus challenge in the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus).we used a deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) infection model to test the protective efficacy of genetic vaccine candidates for sin nombre (sn) virus that were known to provoke immunological responses in balb/c mice (bharadwaj et al., vaccine 17, 2836-2843, 1999 ). protective epitopes were localized in each of four overlapping cdna fragments that encoded portions of the sn virus g1 glycoprotein antigen; the nucleocapsid gene also was protective. the protective efficacy of glycoprotein gene fragm ...200212075094
shedding and intracage transmission of sin nombre hantavirus in the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) model.the mechanism(s) by which sin nombre (sn) hantavirus is maintained in deer mouse populations is unclear. field studies indicate that transmission occurs primarily if not exclusively via a horizontal mechanism. using an experimental deer mouse infection model in an outdoor laboratory, we tested whether infected rodents shed sn virus in urine, feces, and saliva, whether infected mice transmit infection to naïve cage mates, and whether infected dams are able to vertically transmit virus or antibody ...200212097572
elevated generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species in hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome.hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps) is a life-threatening respiratory disease characterized by profound pulmonary edema and myocardial depression. most cases of hcps in north america are caused by sin nombre virus (snv), which is carried asymptomatically by deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus). the underlying pathophysiology of hcps is poorly understood. we hypothesized that pathogenic snv infection results in increased generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (rons), which contribute ...200212134039
infection dynamics of sin nombre virus after a widespread decline in host populations.many researchers have speculated that infection dynamics of sin nombre virus are driven by density patterns of its major host, peromyscus maniculatus. few, if any, studies have examined this question systematically at a realistically large spatial scale, however. we collected data from 159 independent field sites within a 1 million-hectare study area in nevada and california, from 1995-1998. in 1997, there was a widespread and substantial reduction in host density. this reduction in host density ...200212408674
satellite imagery characterizes local animal reservoir populations of sin nombre virus in the southwestern united states.the relationship between the risk of hantaviral pulmonary syndrome (hps), as estimated from satellite imagery, and local rodent populations was examined. hps risk, predicted before rodent sampling, was highly associated with the abundance of peromyscus maniculatus, the reservoir of sin nombre virus (snv). p. maniculatus were common in high-risk sites, and populations in high-risk areas were skewed toward adult males, the subclass most frequently infected with snv. in the year after an el niño so ...200212473747
persistent sin nombre virus infection in the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) model: sites of replication and strand-specific expression.to address sin nombre (sn) virus persistence in deer mice, we sacrificed experimentally infected deer mice at eight time points from day 21 to day 217 postinoculation (p.i.) and examined their tissues for viral nucleocapsid (n) antigen expression and both negative-strand (genomic) and positive-strand (replicative/mrna) viral s segment rna titers. all the animals that we inoculated developed persistent infections, and sn virus could be isolated from tissues throughout the course of infection. the ...200312502867
hantavirus.sin nombre virus (snv), an emerging pathogen in the united states, was identified in 1993. this hantavirus, a member of the bunyaviridae family of rna viruses, is transmitted by its reservoir host peromyscus maniculatus, the deer mouse. transmission is by inhalation of aerosolized feces, urine, or saliva from the infected mice. the illness that pursues, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps), is characterized initially by mild flu-like symptoms, followed by rapid progression to respiratory distress ...200312587657
rapid and simple method for screening wild rodents for antibodies to sin nombre hantavirus.sin nombre hantavirus (snv) is the primary etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps) in the united states and canada. hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is a zoonotic disease. the most common reservoir is the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus), although numerous other species of wild rodent can carry the viruses that cause hcps throughout the americas. infected rodents show no signs of clinical disease but they develop persistent infection. sin nombre virus can be contracte ...200312910753
analyses of gene flow among populations of deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) at sites near hantavirus pulmonary syndrome case-patient residences.gene flow and potential for sin nombre virus (snv) trafficking of the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) was studied in delta and mesa counties of western colorado (usa). the study areas included grand mesa and surrounding grazing and agricultural areas. this area has several natural potential barriers to rodent gene flow, including rivers, cliffs, and mountains. ten study sites were utilized in a spatially nested design ranging from 0.65-81 km apart; four of these sites were at or near human h ...200312910755
generation of a recombinant cytomegalovirus for expression of a hantavirus glycoprotein.a cytomegalovirus (cmv) was isolated from its natural host, peromyscus maniculatus, and was designated peromyscus cmv (pcmv). a recombinant pcmv was constructed that contained sin nombre virus glycoprotein g1 (snv-g1) fused in frame to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) gene inserted into a site homologous to the human cmv ul33 (p33) gene. the recombinant cmv was used for expression and immunization of deer mice against snv-g1. the results of the study indicate that p. maniculatus cou ...200314581557
cloning and characterization of deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) cytokine and chemokine cdnas.sin nombre virus (snv) establishes a persistent infection in the deer mouse, peromyscus maniculatus. a strong antibody response occurs in response to snv infection, but the role of the innate immune response is unclear. to address this issue, we have initiated an effort to identify and characterize deer mouse cytokine and chemokine genes. such cytokines and chemokines are involved in various aspects of immunity, including the transition from innate to adaptive responses, type i and type ii respo ...200414720307
genetic relatedness of deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) infected with sin nombre virus.the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) is the primary rodent host of sin nombre virus (snv), the principal etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the united states. many characteristics of snv infections of deer mice are unknown. to better understand the transmission mechanisms of snv in deer mice, we conducted mark-recapture sampling and genetic analyses to study deer mouse population density and genetic relatedness from 2001 to 2002. we genotyped each deer mouse at 10 microsatell ...200415228816
generation of competent bone marrow-derived antigen presenting cells from the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus).human infections with sin nombre virus (snv) and related new world hantaviruses often lead to hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps), a sometimes fatal illness. lungs of patients who die from hcps exhibit cytokine-producing mononuclear infiltrates and pronounced pulmonary inflammation. deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) are the principal natural hosts of snv, in which the virus establishes life-long persistence without conspicuous pathology. little is known about the mechanisms snv employs t ...200415458574
epizootiology of sin nombre and el moro canyon hantaviruses, southeastern colorado, 1995-2000.sin nombre virus (snv) is an etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. to better understand the natural history of this virus we studied population dynamics and temporal pattern of infection of its rodent hosts in southeastern colorado (usa) from 1995 to 2000. we present evidence for the presence of two hantaviruses, snv in deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) and el moro canyon virus in western harvest mice (reithrodontomys megalotis), at our study sites. sin nombre virus appeared only sp ...200515827206
development and evaluation of serological assays for detection of human hantavirus infections caused by sin nombre virus.the hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps) was first recognized in 1993 after a cluster of acute respiratory distress syndrome deaths in the southwestern of the united states. the major causative agent of hcps in north america is the sin nombre virus (snv) carried by the deer mouse peromyscus maniculatus. the first hcps case imported to europe was reported in 2002.200515911448
a preliminary study of the patterns of sin nombre viral infection and shedding in naturally infected deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus).deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) were trapped in southern manitoba, canada and tested for evidence of sin nombre virus infection. viral genome was amplified from tissues as well as saliva/oropharyngeal fluid, and urine samples were collected from seropositive animals. detection of viral rna in tissue samples and excreta/secreta from mice suggest that differences may exist between naturally infected rodents with respect to viral shedding.200516011428
replication and immunoactivity of the recombinant peromyscus maniculatus cytomegalovirus expressing hantavirus g1 glycoprotein in vivo and in vitro.previously, we have shown that cmv isolated from deer mouse could be used in vivo and in vitro to express sin nombre virus (snv) glycoprotein g1 in deer mice [rizvanov aa, van geelen ag, morzunov s, et al. generation of a recombinant cytomegalovirus for expression of a hantavirus glycoprotein. j.virol. 2003;77(22):12203-10]. in this report, we further characterize replication of wild-type (wt) and recombinant peromyscus cmv (pcmv) in vivo and in vitro using realtime pcr, and infectious center as ...200616125285
long-term dynamics of sin nombre viral rna and antibody in deer mice in montana.infections with hantaviruses in the natural host rodent may result in persistent, asymptomatic infections involving shedding of virus into the environment. laboratory studies have partially characterized the acute and persistent infection by sin nombre virus (snv) in its natural host, the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus). however, these studies have posed questions that may best be addressed using longitudinal studies involving sequential sampling of individual wild-caught, naturally infected ...200516244056
biological control agents elevate hantavirus by subsidizing deer mouse populations.biological control of exotic invasive plants using exotic insects is practiced under the assumption that biological control agents are safe if they do not directly attack non-target species. we tested this assumption by evaluating the potential for two host-specific biological control agents (urophora spp.), widely established in north america for spotted knapweed (centaurea maculosa) control, to indirectly elevate sin nombre hantavirus by providing food subsidies to populations of deer mice (pe ...200616623730
phylogeography of the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) provides a predictive framework for research on hantaviruses.phylogeographical partitioning of sin nombre and monongahela viruses (hantaviruses) may reflect that of their primary rodent host, the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus). lack of a comprehensive assessment of phylogeographical variation of the host has precluded the possibility of predicting spatial limits of existing strains of these viruses or geographical regions where novel viral strains might emerge. the complete cytochrome b gene was sequenced for 206 deer mice collected from sites throug ...200616760402
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome--five states, 2006.hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) is a rodentborne viral disease characterized by severe pulmonary illness and a case-fatality ratio of 30%-40%. sin nombre virus causes the majority of hps cases in the united states, and the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) is its predominant reservoir. this report describes an increase in human cases of hps reported during january-march 2006 from arizona, new mexico, north dakota, texas, and washington state. the findings emphasize the need for renewed att ...200616760891
profiling helper t cell subset gene expression in deer mice.deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) are the most common mammals in north america and are reservoirs for several zoonotic agents, including sin nombre virus (snv), the principal etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps) in north america. unlike human hcps patients, snv-infected deer mice show no overt pathological symptoms, despite the presence of virus in the lungs. a neutralizing igg antibody response occurs, but the virus establishes a persistent infection. limitations of de ...200616916450
use of igg avidity to indirectly monitor epizootic transmission of sin nombre virus in deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus).an igg avidity assay was developed to differentiate deer mice that had recently acquired sin nombre virus (snv) from those that were infected in the distant past. using this procedure, low avidity antibodies were predominantly detected in experimentally infected deer mice (89.5%) within the first 30 days post-inoculation. the assay was then applied to sera from naturally infected deer mice collected during a field investigation associated with a cluster of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases. a ...200617172381
deer mouse movements in peridomestic and sylvan settings in relation to sin nombre virus antibody prevalence.prevalence of antibody to sin nombre virus (snv) has been found to be nearly twice as high in deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) in peridomestic settings as in sylvan settings in two studies in montana and one in new mexico. we investigated whether this difference may be related to a difference in deer mouse movements in the two settings. we used radiotelemetry to determine home range size and length of movement for 22 sylvan (1991-1992) and 40 peridomestic deer mice (1995-1999). we also determi ...200617255448
changes in sin nombre virus antibody prevalence in deer mice across seasons: the interaction between habitat, sex, and infection in deer mice.we examined the impact of season and habitat on sin nombre virus (snv) seroprevalence in deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) in utah's great basin desert from may 2002 through summer 2003. low mouse captures in 2002 limited analysis for that year. in two seasons during 2003, mouse density and sagebrush cover were positively linked (spring: r = 0.8, p = 0.01; summer: r = 0.8, p = 0.04). in the spring, seroprevalence was negatively correlated with density (r = -0.9, p< 0.01); male and female antibo ...200617255449
demographic factors associated with prevalence of antibody to sin nombre virus in deer mice in the western united states.we used long-term data collected for up to 10 yr (1994-2004) at 23 trapping arrays (i.e., webs and grids) in arizona, colorado, montana, and new mexico to examine demographic factors known or suspected to be associated with risk of infection with sin nombre virus (snv) in its natural host, the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus). gender, age (mass), wounds or scars, season, and local relative population densities were statistically associated with the period prevalence of antibody (used as a mar ...200717347388
sin nombre virus infection of deer mice in montana: characteristics of newly infected mice, incidence, and temporal pattern of infection.sin nombre virus (snv), hosted by the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus), is the principal cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in north america. to improve our understanding of factors that contribute to the occurrence of hps, we conducted an extensive field study of the characteristics of newly infected (as determined by recent acquisition of antibody) deer mice and the temporal pattern of antibody acquisition (seroconversion) from 1994 through 2004 in montana, usa. we sampled 6,584 i ...200717347389
two cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in randolph county, west virginia: a coincidence of time and place?hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) is caused by an infection with viruses of the genus hantavirus in the western hemisphere. rodent hosts of hantaviruses are present throughout the united states. in july 2004, two hps case-patients were identified in randolph county, wv: a wildlife science graduate student working locally and a randolph county resident. we interviewed family members and colleagues, reviewed medical records, and conducted environmental studies at likely exposure sites. small mam ...200717360864
differential resource allocation in deer mice exposed to sin nombre virus.the resource allocation hypothesis predicts that reproductive activity suppresses immunocompetence; however, this has never been tested in an endemic disease system with free-ranging mammals. we tested the resource allocation hypothesis in wild deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) with natural exposure to sin nombre virus (snv). immunocompetence was estimated from the extent of swelling elicited after deer mice were injected with phytohemagglutinin (pha); swelling is positively correlated with imm ...200717717814
delayed density-dependent prevalence of sin nombre virus antibody in montana deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) and implications for human disease risk.american hantaviruses cause a severe respiratory disease known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). in the united states, sin nombre virus (snv), carried by the deer mouse ( peromyscus maniculatus), is the etiologic agent in the majority of hps cases. the relationship between deer mouse population density and snv infection prevalence in deer mice is poorly understood. our purpose was to clarify this relationship by demonstrating the existence of delayed-density-dependent prevalence of snv inf ...200717767405
regulatory t cell-like responses in deer mice persistently infected with sin nombre virus.hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is a zoonotic illness associated with a systemic inflammatory immune response, capillary leak, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, and shock in humans. cytokines, including tnf, ifn-gamma, and lymphotoxin, are thought to contribute to its pathogenesis. in contrast, infected rodent reservoirs of hantaviruses experience few or no pathologic changes and the host rodent can remain persistently infected for life. generally, it is unknown why such dichotomous immune res ...200717875986
differential regulation of pathogens: the role of habitat disturbance in predicting prevalence of sin nombre virus.deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) are the primary reservoir for sin nombre virus (snv), a north american hantavirus that causes disease with high mortality in humans. recent studies have proposed that habitat disturbance affects prevalence of snv in deer mice; however, the outcomes proposed in these studies are in opposition to each other. our objectives were to test these divergent hypotheses by: (1) measuring snv infection in deer mice within a patchwork of disturbance; and (2) evaluating the ...200818064494
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in manitoba.the first confirmed case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in manitoba was diagnosed in 1999. to define better the risk of exposure to hantaviruses in this area, the clinical features and epidemiological factors pertaining to this case were described, and a serological survey of rodents collected near the patient's residence was undertaken. small mammals were collected using live traps, were anesthetized via inhalation of isoflurane and were bled. human and mouse serologies were undertaken using ...200118159335
rapid field immunoassay for detecting antibody to sin nombre virus in deer mice.we developed a 1-hour field enzyme immunoassay (eia) for detecting antibody to sin nombre virus in deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus). the assay specificity and sensitivity were comparable to those of a standard eia. this test will permit identification of rodents with antibody to this and perhaps other hantaviruses.200718258020
sin nombre virus shedding patterns in naturally infected deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) in relation to duration of infection.a 2-year capture-mark-recapture study was conducted in southern manitoba, canada, to test for an association between the duration of sin nombre virus (snv) infection in deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) and virus shedding. hantavirus-specific igg antibodies were detected in 22.2% of captured deer mice, and recently infected deer mice were identified based on the detection of low-avidity igg antibodies. snv rna was detected in blood samples from the majority of seropositive deer mice with no sig ...200818266564
seroprevalence against sin nombre virus in resident and dispersing deer mice.through dispersal, deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) enter peridomestic settings (e.g., outbuildings, barns, cabins) and expose humans and other deer mouse populations to sin nombre virus (snv). in june 2004, research on deer mouse dispersal was initiated at 2 locations in montana. during the course of the study, over 6000 deer mouse movements were recorded, and more than 1000 of these movements were classified as dispersal movements. more than 1700 individual deer mice were captured and tested ...200818447620
development of an elisa to detect sin nombre virus-specific igm from deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus).peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) is the primary reservoir for sin nombre virus (snv). although the presence of igg antibodies is often used as a marker of infection, it provides little information on active infections in a population but usually is an indicator of past infections. the presence of igm antibodies is a much better marker for determining whether active infections are present in a population. a mu-capture snv-specific igm enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed. fr ...200818586333
the role of heterogeneity in the persistence and prevalence of sin nombre virus in deer mice.many diseases persist at a relatively low prevalence, seemingly close to extinction. for a chronic disease in a homogeneous population, reducing the transmission rate by a fraction proportional to the prevalence would be sufficient to eradicate the disease. this study examines how higher prevalence of the sin nombre virus in male deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) might contribute to disease persistence. analyzing data from over 2,000 individual mice captured in 19 sites over 4 years, we found p ...200818959490
genomic organization and phylogenetic utility of deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) lymphotoxin-alpha and lymphotoxin-beta.deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) are among the most common mammals in north america and are important reservoirs of several human pathogens, including sin nombre hantavirus (snv). snv can establish a life-long apathogenic infection in deer mice, which can shed virus in excrement for transmission to humans. patients that die from hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps) have been found to express several proinflammatory cytokines, including lymphotoxin (lt), in the lungs. it is thought that t ...200818976466
contact heterogeneity in deer mice: implications for sin nombre virus transmission.heterogeneities within disease hosts suggest that not all individuals have the same probability of transmitting disease or becoming infected. this heterogeneity is thought to be due to dissimilarity in susceptibility and exposure among hosts. as such, it has been proposed that many host-pathogen systems follow the general pattern whereby a small fraction of the population accounts for a large fraction of the pathogen transmission. this disparity in transmission dynamics is often referred to as ' ...200919129136
seasonal variation in sin nombre virus infections in deer mice: preliminary results.the proportion of deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) with recently acquired sin nombre virus (snv) infections is an indicator of epizootic intensity and may be key in predicting outbreaks of hantavirus cardio-pulmonary syndrome in humans. we investigated whether incidence of recent infections was related to season, sex, reproductive status, or habitat disturbance. in may and september, 2006, we sampled 912 deer mice at six sites in utah. we determined snv antibody prevalence and estimated the nu ...200919395752
testing mechanisms of the dilution effect: deer mice encounter rates, sin nombre virus prevalence and species diversity.species diversity has been shown to decrease prevalence of disease in a variety of host-pathogen systems, in a phenomenon termed the dilution effect. several mechanisms have been proposed by which diversity may decrease prevalence, though few have been tested in natural host-pathogen systems. we investigated the mechanisms by which diversity influenced the prevalence of sin nombre virus (snv), a directly transmitted virus in deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus). we monitored both intra and intersp ...200919495881
temporal and geographic evidence for evolution of sin nombre virus using molecular analyses of viral rna from colorado, new mexico and montana.all viruses in the family bunyaviridae possess a tripartite genome, consisting of a small, a medium, and a large rna segment. bunyaviruses therefore possess considerable evolutionary potential, attributable to both intramolecular changes and to genome segment reassortment. hantaviruses (family bunyaviridae, genus hantavirus) are known to cause human hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. the primary reservoir host of sin nombre virus is the deer mouse (peromyscus ...200919602267
increased host species diversity and decreased prevalence of sin nombre virus.emerging outbreaks of zoonotic diseases are affecting humans at an alarming rate. until the ecological factors associated with zoonoses are better understood, disease emergence will continue. for lyme disease, disease suppression has been demonstrated by a dilution effect, whereby increasing species diversity decreases disease prevalence in host populations. to test the dilution effect in another disease, we examined 17 ecological variables associated with prevalence of the directly transmitted ...200919624913
sin nombre virus and rodent species diversity: a test of the dilution and amplification hypotheses.species diversity is proposed to greatly impact the prevalence of pathogens. two predominant hypotheses, the "dilution effect" and the "amplification effect", predict divergent outcomes with respect to the impact of species diversity. the dilution effect predicts that pathogen prevalence will be negatively correlated with increased species diversity, while the amplification effect predicts that pathogen prevalence will be positively correlated with diversity. for many host-pathogen systems, the ...200919649283
seasonal dispersal patterns of sylvan deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) within montana rangelands.we examined seasonal dispersal patterns and timing of new infections of sin nombre virus (snv), as determined by recent acquisition of antibodies (seroconversion), in deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) at two montana rangeland study sites over three years, 2004-2007. one study site was located in grassland habitat, and the other was located in shrub-steppe. in montana, both of these habitats are commonly associated with peridomestic environments (in and around buildings). peridomestic environmen ...200919901376
the effect of seasonality, density and climate on the population dynamics of montana deer mice, important reservoir hosts for sin nombre hantavirus.1. since sin nombre virus was discovered in the u.s. in 1993, longitudinal studies of the rodent reservoir host, the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) have demonstrated a qualitative correlation among mouse population dynamics and risk of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in humans, indicating the importance of understanding deer mouse population dynamics for evaluating risk of hps. 2. using capture-mark-recapture statistical methods on a 15-year data set from montana, we estimated deer mous ...201020015212
roles of human disturbance, precipitation, and a pathogen on the survival and reproductive probabilities of deer mice.climate change, human disturbance, and disease can have large impacts on the dynamics of a species by affecting the likelihood of survival and reproduction of individuals. we investigated the roles of precipitation, off-road vehicle (orv) alteration of habitat, and infection with sin nombre virus on the survival and reproductive probabilities of deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus). we used generalized linear mixed models to estimate the effects of these factors and their interactions by fitting c ...201020392022
relationship of human behavior within outbuildings to potential exposure to sin nombre virus in western montana.sin nombre virus (snv) causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps) in humans. transmission of snv among the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) host predominates during spring and summer, and is greater in peridomestic than sylvan settings where, protected from uv light, snv may survive longer. incidence of hcps reflects these times and settings and is associated with inhalation of mouse excreta. little is known, however, about how human use of outbuildings contributes to potential exposur ...201020508970
sampling frequency differentially influences interpretation of zoonotic pathogen and host dynamics: sin nombre virus and deer mice.reports of novel emerging and resurging wildlife and zoonotic diseases have increased. consequently, integration of pathogen sampling into wildlife monitoring programs has grown. sampling frequency influences interpretations of coupled host-pathogen dynamics, with direct implication to human exposure risk, but has received little empirical attention. to address this, a 15-year study, based on monthly sampling, of deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) populations and sin nombre virus (snv; a virule ...201020528169
an experimental test of factors attracting deer mice into buildings.deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) are the principal reservoir host of sin nombre virus (snv). deer mice use a wide variety of habitats including peridomestic settings in and around human dwellings, their presence in and around homes has been implicated as a risk factor for acquiring hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. deer mice are believed to enter buildings in order to gain access to a variety of resources including food, bedding material, and better thermal microclimates. however, no one has expe ...200920628475
natural history of sin nombre virus infection in deer mice in urban parks in oregon.sin nombre virus (snv), one of at least 45 hantaviruses described worldwide, is hosted by the deer mouse, peromyscus maniculatus, a common species throughout most of north america. herein, we describe general life-history characteristics of deer mice and the ways in which these factors relate to the incidence of snv infections among populations of this host species in and around portland, oregon. in total, 3,175 deer mice were captured from october 2002 to september 2005. transmission of snv app ...201020688636
long-term patterns of immune investment by wild deer mice infected with sin nombre virus.immunocompetence of animals fluctuates seasonally, however, there is little consensus on the cause of these fluctuations. some studies have suggested that these patterns are influenced by changes in reproductive condition, whereas others have suggested that differences result from seasonal variations in energy expenditures. the objective of our study was to examine these contrasting views of immunity by evaluating seasonal patterns of immune response and reproduction in wild populations of deer ...201020695811
the relative abundance of deer mice with antibody to sin nombre virus corresponds to the occurrence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in nearby humans.abstract sin nombre virus (snv) is the principal cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in the united states and deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) are its principal rodent host, and thus the natural cycle of the virus is related to the occurrence of hps. prevalence of rodent infection appears to be associated with fluctuations in deer mouse populations and, indirectly, with timing and amount of precipitation, a complex of biologic events. given that rodent population abundances fluctuate, ...201020954865
a temporal dilution effect: hantavirus infection in deer mice and the intermittent presence of voles in montana.the effect of intermittently occurring, non-reservoir host species on pathogen transmission and prevalence in a reservoir population is poorly understood. we investigated whether voles, microtus spp., which occur intermittently, influenced estimated standing antibody prevalence (esap) to sin nombre hantavirus (snv, bunyaviridae: hantavirus) among deer mice, peromyscus maniculatus, whose populations are persistent. we used 14 years of data from central montana to investigate whether esap among de ...201021170746
delayed density-dependent prevalence of sin nombre virus infection in deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) in central and western montana.understanding how transmission of zoonoses takes place within reservoir populations, such as sin nombre virus (snv) among deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus), is important in determining the risk of exposure to other hosts, including humans. in this study, we examined the relationship between deer mouse populations and the prevalence of antibodies to snv, a system where the effect of host population abundance on transmission is debated. we examined the relationship between abundance of deer mice ...201121269997
estimating duration of infection with avidity assays: potential limitations and recommendations for improvement.recent infections often have higher pathogen loads. the number of recent infections can therefore be used to estimate transmission rates in a host population. antibody avidity assays are an emerging technique to infer infection age in both domestic and wild animals. these assays have the potential to supplant intensive mark-recapture efforts for identification of recent infections, but their results may be confounded by antibody titer. we examined the effectiveness of an avidity assay for identi ...201122311097
expression profiling of lymph node cells from deer mice infected with andes virus.deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) are the principal reservoir hosts of sin nombre virus (snv), the cause of the great majority of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps) cases in north america. snv, like all hantaviruses with their reservoirs, causes persistent infection without pathology in deer mice and appear to elicit a regulatory t cell response. deer mice are also susceptible to andes virus (andv), which causes the great majority of hcps cases in south america, but they clear infection ...201323570545
potential role of masting by introduced bamboos in deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) population irruptions holds public health consequences.we hypothesized that the ongoing naturalization of frost/shade tolerant asian bamboos in north america could cause environmental consequences involving introduced bamboos, native rodents and ultimately humans. more specifically, we asked whether the eventual masting by an abundant leptomorphic ("running") bamboo within pacific northwest coniferous forests could produce a temporary surfeit of food capable of driving a population irruption of a common native seed predator, the deer mouse (peromysc ...201525898267
toward a mechanistic understanding of environmentally forced zoonotic disease emergence: sin nombre hantavirus.understanding the environmental drivers of zoonotic reservoir and human interactions is crucial to understanding disease risk, but these drivers are poorly predicted. we propose a mechanistic understanding of human-reservoir interactions, using hantavirus pulmonary syndrome as a case study. crucial processes underpinning the disease's incidence remain poorly studied, including the connectivity among natural and peridomestic deer mouse host activity, virus transmission, and human exposure. we fou ...201526955081
transcriptome markers of viral persistence in naturally-infected andes virus (bunyaviridae) seropositive long-tailed pygmy rice rats.long-tailed pygmy rice rats (oligoryzomys longicaudatus) are principal reservoir hosts of andes virus (andv) (bunyaviridae), which causes most hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome cases in the americas. to develop tools for the study of the andv-host interactions, we used rna-seq to generate a de novo transcriptome assembly. splenic rna from five rice rats captured in chile, three of which were andv-infected, was used to generate an assembly of 66,173 annotated transcripts, including noncoding rn ...201525856432
differential lymphocyte and antibody responses in deer mice infected with sin nombre hantavirus or andes hantavirus.hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps) is a rodent-borne disease with a high case-fatality rate that is caused by several new world hantaviruses. each pathogenic hantavirus is naturally hosted by a principal rodent species without conspicuous disease and infection is persistent, perhaps for life. deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) are the natural reservoirs of sin nombre virus (snv), the etiologic agent of most hcps cases in north america. deer mice remain infected despite a helper t cell re ...201424829335
rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies in divergent small mammals.we assessed the utility of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies from sera of oligoryzomys longicaudatus, the principal reservoir of andes virus (andv), using an antigen previously developed for detection of antibodies to sin nombre virus (snv) in sera from peromyscus maniculatus. the assay uses a protein a/g horseradish peroxidase conjugate and can be performed in as little as 1.5 hours. serum samples from oligoryzomys longicaudatus col ...201424806874
experimental andes virus infection in deer mice: characteristics of infection and clearance in a heterologous rodent host.new world hantaviruses can cause hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome with high mortality in humans. distinct virus species are hosted by specific rodent reservoirs, which also serve as the vectors. although regional spillover has been documented, it is unknown whether rodent reservoirs are competent for infection by hantaviruses that are geographically separated, and known to have related, but distinct rodent reservoir hosts. we show that andes virus (andv) of south america, carried by the long ...201323383148
maporal hantavirus causes mild pathology in deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus).rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps) in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. hcps-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (absl-4) containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir host ...201627763552
how much effort is required to accurately describe the complex ecology of a rodent-borne viral disease?we use data collected on 18,1-ha live trapping grids monitored from 1994 through 2005 and on five of those grids through 2013 in the mesic northwestern us to illustrate the complexity of the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus)/sin nombre virus (snv) host-pathogen system. important factors necessary to understand zoonotic disease ecology include those associated with distribution and population dynamics of reservoir species as well as infection dynamics. results are based on more than 851,000 tra ...201627398256
behavioural differences: a link between biodiversity and pathogen transmission.biodiversity often serves to reduce zoonotic pathogens, such that prevalence is lower in communities of greater diversity. this phenomenon is termed the dilution effect, and although it has been reported for several pathogens (e.g. sin nombre virus, snv), the mechanism is largely unknown. we investigated a putative mechanism, by testing the hypothesis that higher biodiversity alters behaviours important in pathogen transmission. using deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) and snv as our host-pathog ...201626752791
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