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proposal for designation of f38-type caprine mycoplasmas as mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae subsp. nov. and consequent obligatory relegation of strains currently classified as m. capricolum (tully, barile, edward, theodore, and ernø 1974) to an additional new subspecies, m. capricolum subsp. capricolum subsp. nov.a subspecies relationship with the existing species mycoplasma capricolum is appropriate for the f38 group of mycoplasmas, the causative agent of classical contagious caprine pleuropneumonia. we believe that this classification is justified on the basis of the close dna-dna relationship recently reported for isolates belonging to the two groups and the other known serological and biological similarities and differences of these organisms. strain f38t (t = type strain) and taxonomically indisting ...19938347517
contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and other pulmonary mycoplasmoses of sheep and goats.contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (ccpp) is now a well-defined disease that is caused by mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. ccpp is infectious, contagious and fulfils the classic koch postulates that characterise such types of disease. the distribution of the disease is not exactly known, but reports of mycoplasma isolation and official declarations to the office international des epizooties (oie) enable a probable distribution map to be obtained. there are many other mycoplasmas tha ...19969190020
the pathogenicity and pathogenesis of mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (f38) in the caprine mammary gland.the right mammary gland of 12 lactating goats was inoculated intracisternally with 1 ml of mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (mcc) containing 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu), while their left mammary halves received 1 ml of sterile pplo broth only. two goats served as uninfected controls. the clinical mastitis that developed in the infected mammary halves within 24 h was initially acute but became increasingly chronic by the end of the experiment at 24 days post inoculation (dpi). th ...19989618887
molecular analysis of field strains of mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae and mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides, small colony type isolated from goats in tanzania.a molecular analysis of strains of mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (m. capripneumoniae) and mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, small colony type (m. mycoides sc) isolated from goats was performed using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) fingerprinting techniques. among the 11 field strains of m. capripneumoniae from tanzanian goats, two aflp patterns were demonstrated, with 10 of the strains showing indistinguishable patte ...200111423192
investigations of outbreaks of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in eritrea.mycoplasmas were isolated from freeze-dried lung samples from goats from the western lowlands of eritea suspected of being affected by contagious caprine pleuropneumonia. the goats belonged to two herds in which mortality and morbidity rates were high. mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae was identified in most samples by the polymerase chain reaction and by conventional serological tests. the latex agglutination test detected more positive serum samples in both herds than did the comple ...200212379056
a specific pcr for the identification of mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, the causative agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (ccpp).contagious caprine pleuropneumonia is a severe infectious disease of goats in africa and the middle east. it is caused by a fastidious mycoplasma, mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, a member of the "m. mycoides cluster". members of this cluster share genomic and antigenic features, which result in common biochemical and serological properties, complicating species identification. two species of this cluster, m. mycoides subsp. capri and m. mycoides subsp. mycoides large colony biotype ...200415530747
experimental contagious caprine pleuropneumonia: a long term study on the course of infection and pathology in a flock of goats infected with mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae.contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (ccpp) is a major threat to goat farming in parts of africa and asia. it classically causes acute high morbidity and mortality early in infection, but little is known of its long term epizootiology and course. in this study, 10 goats were inoculated with mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (m. capripneumoniae) and then mixed with 15 goats for contact transmission. the disease course was monitored in each goat for 56-105 days, whereafter the goats were ...200415663077
effect of danofloxacin (advocin a180) on goats affected with contagious caprine pleuropneumonia.the efficacy of danofloxacin (advocin a180) was evaluated for the treatment of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (ccpp) caused by mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. ten healthy angora goats, confirmed free of ccpp, were exposed to clinically affected animals from a natural outbreak in thrace, turkey. after 14 days exposure, 8 goats showed pyrexia ( > or = 41 degrees c). shortly after, the angora goats were divided randomly into two groups. five of these were injected with danofloxaci ...200617265768
contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and mannheimia haemolytica-associated acute respiratory disease of goats and sheep in afar region, ethiopia.in april 2002, an investigation into an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in goats and sheep in milae (afar), ethiopia was conducted. the investigation involved 4 flocks (722 sheep and 750 goats in total) and comprised the disease history, clinical and post-mortem examination, and microbiological analysis of nasal swabs, lung lesions, and pleural fluid samples. clinically diseased animals exhibited severe respiratory distress, and necropsy of two of the goats demonstrated fibrinous pneumonia ...200617361779
contagious caprine pleuropneumonia outbreak in captive wild ungulates at al wabra wildlife preservation, state of qatar.contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (ccpp) caused by mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae is a highly contagious and serious respiratory disease of domestic goats, characterized by coughing, severe respiratory distress, and high mortality rates. the lesions at necropsy are mainly a fibrinous pleuropneumonia with increased straw-colored pleural fluid. an outbreak of ccpp in wild goat (capra aegagrus), nubian ibex (capra ibex nubiana), laristan mouflon (ovis orientalis laristanica), and ger ...200717469281
a study on contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (ccpp) in goats at an export oriented abattoir, debrezeit, ethiopia.300 goat serum samples from an export-oriented abattoir were tested for contagious caprine pleuropneumonia antibodies by the complement fixation test. the disease prevalence was 31% with no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the regions "borena", "bale", "afar" and "jinka" or the age of the goats (p > 0.05). gross pathology and histopathology of the lung primary lesions were indicative of pleuropneumonia caused by mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae.200717966273
seroprevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in kefta humera, alamata (tigray) and aba-'ala (afar), northern ethiopia.a cross sectional study was conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of contagious caprine pleuroneumonia in three districts of tigray and afar regions of ethiopia namely; kefta humera, alamata and aba-'alla. proportions and chi-square test statistics were used to analyze the data. from a total of 863 goats and 137 sheep tested, 282 (32.68%) and 25 (18.25%) were positive for antibodies of mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae respectively using complement fixation test (cft). the seropr ...200918989743
detection of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in east turkey.a study was implemented to investigate the presence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (ccpp) in east turkey. this study was based on clinical surveillance in the field, surveillance at regional slaughterhouses and regular submission of suspected lesions to regional laboratories. the results showed that the agent of ccpp, mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (mccp), could be detected by culture and specific polymerase chain reaction from 37.5% (12/32) of lung samples taken from go ...200920462161
genetic evolution of mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strains and molecular epidemiology of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by sequencing of locus h2.contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (ccpp) is a major threat to goat farming in developing countries. its exact distribution is not well known, despite the fact that new diagnostic tools such as pcr and competitive elisa are now available. the authors developed a study of the molecular epidemiology of the disease, based on the amplification of a 2400 bp long fragment containing two duplicated gene coding for a putative membrane protein. the sequence of this fragment, obtained on 19 mycoplasma cap ...200211844618
phage displayed peptides and anti-idiotype antibodies recognised by a monoclonal antibody directed against a diagnostic antigen of mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae.a monoclonal antibody (mab 4.52) raised against mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (mccp) cell lysate was used as a template to obtain substitute antigens recognised by its paratope. two approaches were investigated: a 17-mer random peptide library displayed on the surface of a filamentous phage was screened by panning on the immobilised mab 4.52 and anti-idiotype antibodies were generated by immunising a chicken with the f(ab')(2) fragments of the antibody. analysis of the peptide seq ...200111376960
demonstration of mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae and mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, small colony type in outbreaks of caprine pleuropneumonia in eastern tanzania.an outbreak of caprine pleuropneumonia involving about 1200 goats in the coast and morogoro regions of eastern tanzania is reported. the major clinical findings were severe respiratory distress, fever, mucopurulent nasal discharge and high mortality involving all age groups and both sexes of goats. the morbidity and mortality rates were 45%-90% and 14%-50%, respectively. the principal pathological lesions were confined to the thoracic cavity and comprised hydrothorax and serofibrinous pleuropneu ...200011126580
mycoplasmas isolated from the respiratory tract of cattle and goats in tanzania.a microbiological study of the mycoplasma flora in the respiratory tracts of cattle and goats in selected regions of tanzania is described. in the examination of cattle, mycoplasmas were isolated from 60 (17.8%) of the 338 examined lung samples, 8 (47.1%) of the 17 lymph nodes, 4 (13.3%) of the 30 pleural fluid samples and 4 (3.9%) of the 103 nasal swabs examined. all the isolates were identified as mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, small colony type except for one isolate from pleural fluid ...200011126579
a mycoplasma strain f38 growth-inhibiting monoclonal antibody (wm-25) identifies an epitope on a surface-exposed polysaccharide antigen.monoclonal antibody (mab) wm-25 differentiates by in vitro growth inhibition mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (mycoplasma strain f38), which causes contagious carpine pleuropneumonia, from other mycoplasma spp. (f. r. rurangirwa, t. c. mcguire, a. j. musoke, and a. kibor, infect. immun. 55:3219-3220, 1987). the antigen identified by mab wm-25 was isolated from solubilized mycoplasma strain f38 organisms by mab wm-25 affinity chromatography and was stained with schiff's reagent, but n ...19957534276
genetic diversity and evolution of mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strains from eastern africa assessed by 16s rdna sequence analysis.mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (m. capripneumoniae), the causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (ccpp), is a member of the so-called mycoplasma mycoides cluster. these mycoplasmas have two rrna operons in which intraspecific variations have been demonstrated. the sequences of the 16s rrna genes of both operons from 13 field strains of m. capripneumoniae from three neighbouring african countries (kenya, ethiopia, and tanzania) were determined. four new and unique polymor ...200111118738
rapid detection of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia using a mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae capsular polysaccharide-specific antigen detection latex agglutination test.latex microspheres (diameter, 8 microm) were coated with anti-mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae polyclonal immunoglobulin g (igg) antiserum (anti-f38 biotype). the coated microspheres, when used in a latex agglutination test (lat), detected m. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae antigen in the serum of goats with contagious caprine pleuropneumoniae (ccpp). beads also agglutinated strongly in the presence of purified m. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae capsular polysaccharide (cps). pre ...200011060083
comparative analysis of the lppa locus in mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum and mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae.the lppa gene, encoding the lipoprotein named lppa[mcaca] was characterised in mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum. it encodes a lipoprotein with an apparent molecular mass of 57 kda as determined by sds-page. using antibodies directed against recombinant lppa[mcaca], we showed the expression of this lipoprotein in all m. capricolum subsp. capricolum by immunoblot analysis. the serum did not cross-react with other members of the mycoplasma mycoides cluster, hence showing that lppa[mcaca] was ...199910512041
molecular evolution of mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strains, based on polymorphisms in the 16s rrna genes.mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae belongs to the so-called mycoplasma mycoides cluster and is the causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (ccpp). all members of the m. mycoides cluster have two rrna operons. the sequences of the 16s rrna genes of both rrna operons from 20 strains of m. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae of different geographical origins in africa and asia were determined. nucleotide differences which were present in only one of the two operons (polymorphisms ...19989573185
Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia: New Aspects of an Old Disease.Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, is a serious OIE-listed disease affecting goats in the Middle East, north and east Africa and Asia. Mortality and morbidity rates can be as high as 60% and 90%, respectively, when the disease first enters a territory, invariably through carrier animals. Recent detections of CCPP in Pakistan and Tajikistan are probably the result of improved diagnosis as the disease has been suspected there for many ...201121951488
Genome sequence of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strain M1601.Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae is the causative agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, a devastating disease of goats listed by the World Organization for Animal Health. Here we report the first complete genome sequence of this organism (strain M1601, a clinically isolated strain from China).201121994928
molecular detection of a mixed infection of goatpox virus, orf virus, and mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae in goats.the current study investigated an outbreak of mixed infection with goatpox virus (gtpv), orf virus (orfv), and mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (mccp) that occurred on a chinese goat farm, with a case fatality rate of 60.2%. the observed clinical signs were ecthyma and accelerated respiration with frequent coughing. specific fragments of the p32 gene of gtpv, b2l gene of orfv, and 16s ribosomal rna gene of mccp were synchronously amplified by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) from the ...201121908324
multi-locus sequence analysis of mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae for the molecular epidemiology of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia.abstract: mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (mccp) is the causative agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (ccpp), a devastating disease of domestic goats. the exact distribution of ccpp is not known but it is present in africa and the middle east and represents a significant threat to many disease-free areas including europe. furthermore, ccpp has been recently identified in tajikistan and china. a typing method with an improved resolution based on multi-locus sequence analysis ...201121756321
cross-sectional study on contagious caprine pleuro pneumonia in selected districts of sedentary and pastoral production systems in southern ethiopia.a study to estimate the seroprevalence of contagious caprine pluropneumonia (ccpp) in southern ethiopia was conducted from november 2005 to june 2006. two districts from sedentary (arbaminch and boreda) and pastoral (hammar and bena-tsemay) production systems were included in the study. sera samples were collected from 913 goats (234 from sedentary and 679 from pastoral) to check for ccpp serostatus. the animals were sampled from 155 flocks (44 pastoral and 111 sedentary). five clinically suspec ...201019551484
[reclassification of the four china isolated strains of the pathogen for contagious caprine pleuropneumonia].contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (ccpp) is caused by mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (mccp). the aims of this study were to identify 4 chinese isolated strains employing molecular methods and to determine the appropriate subspecies classification of these strains. three genome fragments (a, b and c) from each strain were amplified and then transformed into plasmids. the inserted fragments were sequenced and analyzed by comparison with six members of the mycoplasma mycoides cluster ...200718062246
humoral immune responses following experimental infection of goats with mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae.goats housed in microbiologically secure facilities were experimentally endobronchially infected with mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (mccp), causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (ccpp). the animals were monitored over an 8-week period post-infection (p.i.). elevated temperatures were observed 2-7 days p.i., reaching a maximum of 41.5 degrees c in one animal (1884). by 8 weeks p.i. the infection was successfully cleared, with no mccp being recovered from the lungs, ser ...200211731157
diagnosis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by detection and identification of mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae by pcr and restriction enzyme analysis.contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (ccpp), one of the most serious and dramatic diseases of goats, is caused by mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (m. capripneumoniae). this organism is very difficult to isolate and to correctly identify. in a previous report we described a method for the rapid detection and identification of m. capripneumoniae. this method is based on a pcr system by which a segment of the 16s rrna gene from all mycoplasmas of the m. mycoides cluster can be amplified. ...19968815084
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