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virus isolation and immune responses in susceptible swine exposed with pseudorabies virus (shope strain).eighteen seronegative swine weighing from 9 to 11 kg were exposed intranasally with the shope strain of pseudorabies virus (prv) and were observed for 21 days in an experiment to detect virus shedding and immune responses. all swine had prv in their nasal passages at 7 days after exposure; they also had precipitating antibodies to prv as determined by the microimmunodiffusion test (midt) and very low levels of virus-neutralizing (vn) antibodies. the prv was isolated from only 2 swine at postexpo ...1978211884
studies on immunity to aujeszky's disease (pseudorabies) virus infection in pigs.aujeszky's disease is primarily a disease of pigs caused by a herpesvirus. in pigs, the primary site of virus replication is the nasopharynx. some strains cause lesions only in the central nervous system, others cause rhinitis, pneumonia and encephalitis. colostrum from immune sows protected 3 day old piglets from experimental infection, but did not prevent the piglets excreting virus. colostral antibodies were 11-16-fold greater than the serum titres in the sows and the half life of passiveanti ...1975165131
pseudorabies virus associated with abortion in swine. 1978203566
influence of deae dextran upon pig lymphocyte stimulation by aujeszky disease virus antigen. 1977203145
[vaccination of piglets of different ages with inactivated aujeszky's disease vaccine]. 1979231429
a seroepizootiologic study of five viruses in a swine-evaluation station.this serologic study was done to gain information on the spread, maintenance, and effect upon performance of five porcine viruses. blood samples were taken from two groups of 8- to 11-week-old pigs from a large number of indiana swine herds in a performance-testing station 1 week after entry, 7 weeks after entry (one group only), and at slaughter. the sera were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody tests for antibodies to transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), swine influenza virus (siv), ...1979230762
latent pseudorabies virus infection in swine detected by rna-dna hybridization. 1979230759
[treatment of aujeszky's disease in a pig breeding farm]. 1979229584
pseudorabies: adaptation of the countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis for the detection of antibodies in porcine serum.a countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis test was developed for the detection of precipitating antibodies to pseudorabies virus in pig serum. the precipitation reaction occurred only between the pseudorables antigen and the homologous porcine antiserum. the sensitivity of the method was compared to that of the serum neutralization test. on the basis of its sensitivity, its specificity and the rapidity with which the results were obtained, the countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis may become a poten ...1979227550
colostral immunity in piglets from sows vaccinated with inactivated aujeszky disease virus vaccine.neutralizing antibodies against adv were transmitted from sows, vaccinated with inactivated adv adjuvanted with deae dextran, to their offspring via colostrum. the suckling piglets were protected by colostral immunity against contact infection with adv at week 1 p.p., however, they were not protected against i.n. infection (10(8) tcd50). at 2 and 3 weeks p.p. all the piglets were protected against both contact infection and i.n. infection. at 4 weeks p.p. 50 per cent of the litter were protected ...1979226031
immunological experimental arthritis in pigs. iv. reaction of the synovial membrane of the non-immunized and immunized pigs after intraarticular administration of the virus of aujeszky's disease.7 days after intramuscular administration of the attenuated virus of aujeszky's disease, strain tk 300 l, it was found: in non-immunized animals--immunological arthritis with fibrinoid necrosis and abundant infiltrations from lymphoid cells; in animals of low antibodies titer--only few infiltrations from lymphoid and plasmic cells round the sub-synovial vessels; in animals of high antibodies titer--vast areas of fibrinoid necrosis, abundant infiltrations from lymphoid cells and presence of gigan ...1978219813
immunological experimental arthritis in pigs. iii. inflammatory reactions in the brain of pigs immunized with the attenuated virus of aujeszky's disease.histopathological brains and spinal cords of pigs were examined at different times of immunization with the virus of aujeszky's disease (ad). temporary inflammatory reaction was found to have the features of non-suppurative disseminated inflammation in the second week after the second virus dose had been given. perivascular and subependymal lymphocytic infiltrations were observed and the focal multiplication of microglia.1978219812
comparison of pseudorabies virus inactivated by bromo-ethylene-imine, 60co irradiation, and acridine dye in immune assay systems.pseudorabies virus infections among animals, especially swine, have become prevalent in the united states in the past few years. the disease in swine is now economically important. test systems and antigens are being developed for use in control and disease suppression efforts. pseudorabies virus was inactivated by three methods: chemically, with bromo-ethylene-imine; physically, with 60co irradiation; and chemically and physically, with 3,9-diaminoacridine dye followed by exposure to white visi ...1978215603
[immune response of pigs to aujeszky disease virus and swine influenza virus].explored was the possibility of simultaneous vaccination of pigs against the aujeszky's disease virus and the swine influenza virus. used were strain mk-25 against the former and strain 3sb against the latter. it was found that at the simultaneous subcutaneous or oral treatment with the two antigens equally effective immunity was built as in the case of vaccination with each one of them used alone. no antagonism was established between the two antigens during the time of immunity building in the ...1978214936
immune responses in swine given lipid-conjugated pseudorabies viral antigens.the immune response was compared in pigs given inactivated pseudorabies virus (prv) antigens (with or without adjuvant) or prv antigens covalently conjugated with a fatty acid (lauric acid) to enhance delayed-type hypersensitivity. the pigs were given 2 inoculations, 14 days apart, and were challenge exposed 28 days after the 1st inoculation. pibs inoculated with prv antigens, with or without adjuvant, had significant virus-neutralizing (vn) antibodies before challenge exposure, but the pigs ino ...1978211887
[virus-neutralizing antibodies in the colostrum and milk of brood sows vaccinated with an ethanol vaccine against aujeszky's disease virus].the experiment was carried out with five pregnant sows vaccinated with an etanol vaccine against the aujeszky's disease virus. studies was the level of virus-neutralizing antibodies in the blood, colostrum and milk serum of the sows as in the serum of their piglets. virus-neutralizing antibodies were contained in high titers both in the blood, colostrum, and milk serum of the sows and in the serum of the offsprings. the titer of the passively acquired antibodies in the blood serum of the sucklin ...1977204104
comparative susceptibility of rabbits, rats, mice and pigs to infection with aujeszky diseases virus (adv) in the development of an efficacy test for adv vaccines. 1977202116
[use of the plaque method for isolating aujeszky's disease virus from meat, organs and meat products].comparative virologic studies were carried out to isolate the virus of aujesky's disease from meat, viscera, and raw smoked products by the plaque method as modified by sullivan and read as well as by the method with which the presence of the virus is recorded visually by the cytopathic effect observed in the infected cell monolayer. it was found that at the veterinary and sanitary inspection of meat and meat products produced from diseases or survived animals the modified plaque method proved m ...1977202066
[studies of the cft in the diagnosis of aujeszky's disease virus in swine].it was found that the complement-fixation test is a prompt and suitable method in the diagnosis of the aujeszky's disease virus, the antigen employed being a cell culture virus. a virulent virus, a slightly virulent one, and the vaccinal mutant strain mk have shown a good complement-fixing activity and they detect specific complement-fixing antibodies in the immune serum. by means of cross cft an antigenic relation has been established between some strains of the herpes group and the aujeszky's ...1977199985
immunoglobulin classes of antibodies in milk of swine after intranasal exposure to pseudorabies virus or transmissible gastroenteritis virus.experiments were conducted to evaluate whether infection of the respiratory tract of pregnant swine with pseudorabies (pr) virus would induce the secretion of immunoglobulin a (iga) antibodies in their milk as was observed after enteric infection with transmissible gastroenteritis (tge) virus. the immune response of sows to pr virus inoculated intranasally and to tge virus inoculated orally/intranasally or via a natural infection was studied. emphasis was placed upon titers and ig classes of pr ...1977197014
demonstration of a herpesvirus from piglets with lesions of aujeszky's disease in new zealand. 1976189261
a comparative examination of swine sera for antibody to aujeszky virus with the conventional and a modified virus-serum neutralization test and a modified direct complement fixation test. 1976181975
[suitability of immune serums from different animal species for the preparation of conjugates against aujeszky's disease virus].a comparison was made of immune serum from rabbits, sheeps, pigs and cattle. pure igg was prepared by the rivanol sulphate method and immune electrophoresis. optimum protein quality, conjugation time under various conditions and using two preparations of fluorescein isothiocyanate were studied. conjugate purified by deae-sephadex a-50 and concentrated to 1% protein by ultrafiltration was freeze-dried and then tested for activity and the degree of non-specific fluorescence. evaluation by yield of ...1975172039
study of the potential involvement of pseudorabies virus in swine respiratory disease.in order to investigate the potential involvement of pseudorabies virus (prv) in swine respiratory disease, nine week old pigs were intranasally inoculated with the prv strain 4892. two doses of infection were used: 10(4.5) median tissue culture infectious doses (tcid50)/pig and 10(3.5) tcid50/pig, with ten pigs per group. in the group of pigs inoculated with 10(4.5) tcid50, seven out of ten pigs died within six days after inoculation. the mortality rate in the group of pigs inoculated with the ...19921316799
latent pseudorabies virus infection in pigs.latent infection with the top strain of pseudorabies virus (prv) was established in 6 weeks old piglets. infectious virus was found in oropharyngeal swabs till day 10 post infection (p.i.); later on, attempts to detect the virus remained unsuccessful. however, prv could be isolated by explantation of tonsils, cervical lymph nodes, nasal mucosa and gasserian ganglia. these tissues were removed between 160 and 181 days p.i., during cultivation, infectious prv was released into the culture fluid fr ...19769801
[is aujeszky's disease a zoonosis?].several cases of human illness with symptoms suggestive of aujeszky's disease (ad) at an outbreak of the disease in cattle and swine were evaluated during this study. additionally serological studies of people in the group at high risk for illness caused by aujeszky's disease virus (adv) were carried out. in a herd of 180 bulls sudden clinical disease occurred with symptoms of muscular tremors, salivation, sweating and severe pruritus of the head. the clinical disease lasted two to eight hours a ...19921296242
latency of a thymidine kinase-negative pseudorabies vaccine virus detected by the polymerase chain reaction.latent viral dna was detected by the polymerase chain reaction in trigeminal ganglia of all of 10 pigs that were necropsied 81 or more days after they had been infected intranasally with a thymidine kinase-negative (tk-) vaccine strain of pseudorabies virus (prv). failure to reactivate virus from any of the same pigs by earlier treatment with dexamethasone suggested that even though latency can be established with tk- prv, subsequent reactivation may be a relatively rare event.19921309996
latency in pseudorabies vaccinated pigs. 1979233387
test and removal procedures vs vaccination for control and eradication of pseudorabies in missouri. 1979233388
protection of mice and swine from pseudorabies virus conferred by vaccinia virus-based recombinants.glycoproteins gp50, gii, and giii of pseudorabies virus (prv) were expressed either individually or in combination by vaccinia virus recombinants. in vitro analysis by immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence demonstrated the expression of a gii protein of approximately 120 kda that was proteolytically processed to the giib (67- to 74-kda) and giic (58-kda) mature protein species similar to those observed in prv-infected cells. additionally, the proper expression of the 90-kda giii and 50-kda ...19921316458
air sampling procedure for evaluation of viral excretion level by vaccinated pigs infected with aujeszky's disease (pseudorabies) virus.five groups of eight fattening pigs were vaccinated and then infected with aujeszky's disease virus. viral excretion was evaluated by two means: deep nasal swabbing and air sampling. it appeared that infectious airborne virus could be recovered from day 1 to day 6 after infection in the isolated units where control animals were raised. in vaccinated animals, airborne particles were also detected but the amount and duration varied in relation to their immune status at the day of virulent challeng ...19921316629
[use of temperature, trypsin and biological tests for the intraspecies differentiation of local strains of aujeszky's disease virus].studies were carried out with 8 strains of aujeszky's disease virus using a temperature test (50 degrees c for 1 hour), a trypsin test (0.5 mg per cu. cm at 37 degrees c 1 hour), and a biologic test. the strains were isolated from the brain of dead pigs that have presumably been affected with encephalitis. they proved sensitive when studied with the temperature and the trypsin tests sharply lowering their titer. the viruses isolated from pneumonic foci in the lungs of pigs in which the disease h ...1975179192
[inoculation of swine with inactivated aujeszky vaccine: reduction of the inoculation dose, a cutaneous allergy test and the effect of vaccination on viremia]. 1979231509
pseudorabies virus envelope glycoproteins gp50 and gii are essential for virus penetration, but only gii is involved in membrane fusion.to investigate the function of the envelope glycoproteins gp50 and gii of pseudorabies virus in the entry of the virus into cells, we used linker insertion mutagenesis to construct mutant viruses that are unable to express these proteins. in contrast to gd mutants of herpes simplex virus, gp50 mutants, isolated from complementing cells, were able to form plaques on noncomplementing cells. however, progeny virus released from these cells was noninfectious, although the virus was able to adsorb to ...19921309919
correlation between gi, gii, giii, and gp 50 antibodies and virus excretion in vaccinated pigs infected with pseudorabies virus.eleven groups of 8 pigs were vaccinated with different vaccinal strains of pseudorabies virus deleted or not for non-essential glycoproteins (gi, gx, gp 63), then were challenged 8-9 weeks later with a virulent strain. antibodies against the major viral glycoproteins (gii, giii, gp 50) were titrated at the day of challenge. excretion of the challenge strain, growth performance of the pigs, and gi antibody responses from pigs vaccinated with a gi minus strain, were monitored after the challenge. ...19921312820
pseudorabies virus glycoprotein iii derived from virions and infected cells binds to the third component of complement.glycoprotein iii (giii) of pseudorabies virus (prv) was shown to bind to the third component of complement (c3). this was observed only with porcine c3 whereas human c3 showed negligible binding under the conditions tested. prv virion proteins could be precipitated from supernatants and cell lysates of prv-infected cells by means of swine-c3 coupled to sepharose. according to their molecular size and their reactivity with anti-giii monoclonal antibodies, the precipitated prv proteins represented ...19921320797
abortion induced by cell-associated pseudorabies virus in vaccinated sows.pregnant sows, immune against pseudorabies after vaccination, were inoculated at 70 days of gestation either with autologous blood mononuclear cells that had been infected in vitro with pseudorabies virus (prv) or with cell-free prv. the infected cells or cell-free prv were inoculated surgically into the arteria uterina. eight sows (a to h) had been vaccinated with an inactivated vaccine. the titer of seroneutralizing antibodies in their serum varied between 12 and 48. five sows (a to e) were in ...19921316724
comparative efficacy of three doses of the genetically engineered aujeszky's disease virus vaccine strain 783 in pigs with maternal antibodies.pigs with low levels of maternally derived antibodies were vaccinated twice intramuscularly with 10(5), 10(5.5), or 10(6) plaque forming units (p.f.u.) of the genetically engineered aujeszky's disease virus (adv) vaccine strain 783. strain 783 has deletions in genes encoding glycoprotein gi and thymidine kinase. all vaccinated pigs showed a high level of protection against clinical disease after challenge infection with virulent adv. vaccination also reduced virus excretion. the daily mean virus ...19921317982
detection of pseudorabies virus infection in subunit-vaccinated and nonvaccinated pigs using a nucleocapsid-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.the potential of a pseudorabies virus (prv) nucleocapsid protein (nc)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) as a screening assay for prv infection in subunit-vaccinated and nonvaccinated pigs was studied. the nc-elisa compared favorably to a commercial elisa for detecting prv infection in nonvaccinated pigs. virus-specific antibody was first detected by the nc-elisa between days 14 and 21 in 5 pigs challenged intranasally with 10(4) pfu of virus. antibody continued to be detected in th ...19921319749
genotypic screening of pseudorabies virus strains for thymidine kinase deletions by use of the polymerase chain reaction.genetic recombination between field strains and vaccine strains of pseudorabies virus (prv) has been suggested as a scenario that might arise from use of deletion-mutant modified-live vaccine strains, particularly those strains attenuated by deletions within the thymidine kinase (tk-) gene locus. to address this hypothesis experimentally, it is necessary to screen large numbers of prv isolates for their tk genotype. techniques to detect the native tk genotype are routinely used in molecular viro ...19921320813
[role of the virus of aujeszky's disease in respiratory diseases of swine].studies carried out on pig-breeding farms have established the presence of aujeszky's disease virus in cases of bronchopneumonia in pigs. on seven out of eight farms with bronchopneumonia the virus wad demonstrated both virologically and serologically, and nearly 50 per cent of the examined diseased pigs on these and other farms had antibodies. the individual serologic studies of pigs having antibodies revealed that the antibodies appeared in the second month of the animals' fattening. this corr ...1975171824
comparison of virus isolation, immunofluorescence and dna probe hybridization for detection of pseudorabies virus in experimentally infected pigs.virus isolation, immunofluorescent staining and dna probe hybridization, three techniques for the detection of pseudorabies virus (prv) have been compared in pigs experimentally infected with the thailand cb-1 strain prv. the virus isolation and dna hybridization detection demonstrated a good correlation in detecting infection in live animals by nasal swabbing. in white blood cells an earlier detection was seen with the dna-hybridization techniques. consistent results with all the three techniqu ...19921320311
evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of two diagnostic tests for antibodies to pseudorabies virus glycoprotein x.the diagnostic performance of 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (gx-t, gx-h) for antibodies to pseudorabies virus (prv) glycoprotein x (gx) were evaluated using 311 serum samples from a nonvaccinated quarantined herd. when the standardized virus neutralization (vn) test, which uses the shope strain (vn shope), was used as the comparative diagnostic standard, the gx-t test had a 7% false-negative rate and a 52% false-positive rate, and the gx-h test had a 19% false-negative rate and a 19% fals ...19921325190
simplified characterization of pseudorabies viruses using monoclonal antibody and selective cell culture analyses. 19921325194
evaluation of two elisa kits for the detection of aujeszky's disease antibodies in pigs.this work describes the evaluation of two commercial elisa kits for the detection of gi antibodies against aujeszky's disease. a collection of experimental sera from infected pigs, field sample sera, and sera from pigs vaccinated with seven different modified gi-negative commercial vaccines were used to evaluate each test. both elisa kits showed good reproducibility, and specificity, but differences could be appreciated in sensitivity when sera obtained at early stages of infection was analysed. ...19921333666
[vaccination of sheep against aujeszky's disease with a gi-deleted mutant].the use of gl deleted live vaccines against aujeszky's disease (ad) facilitates to differentiate vaccinated from field-virus infected animals. in this study different modes of vaccination were tried to find out how sheep can be protected from a lethal infection with adv. it could clearly be demonstrated that aujeszky disease virus (adv) is spread by horizontal transmission from infected pigs to sheep. the nasal discharges of infected pigs contained a maximum of 10(8.75)tcid50/g mucus at days 3 a ...19921330479
molecular analysis of pseudorabies viral vaccines and their rapid differentiation from wild-type isolates using dna-amplified glycoprotein i and thymidine kinase gene segment polymorphisms.several conventional and genetically recombinant modified-live viral (mlv) vaccines are used to control pseudorabies virus infections (aujeszky's disease, prv) in swine. differentiating vaccinal prv (v-prv) from wild prv (wt-prv) is important for herd health, regulatory and forensic purposes, and for studies of prv latency and epidemiology. all prv vaccines used currently contain glycoprotein i (gi) and/or thymidine kinase (tk) gene deletions, whereas wt-prv typically contain intact gi and tk ge ...19921333775
the pseudorabies virus homology of the herpes simplex virus ul21 gene product is a capsid protein which is involved in capsid maturation.we mutagenized, mapped, and sequenced the pseudorabies virus (prv) homology of gene ul21 of herpes simplex virus type 1. a polyclonal mouse antiserum against the protein encoded by the ul21 homolog was generated and used to monitor the expression and subcellular localization of the ul21-encoded protein. we found that the protein is identical to a previously detected prv capsid protein. we analyzed viable prv strains encoding mutant ul21 homologys, truncated by insertion of an oligonucleotide tha ...19921331512
replication and immunosuppressive effects of pseudorabies virus on swine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.the infectivity and potential immunosuppressive effects of pseudorabies virus (prv) was evaluated in swine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc). virus progeny titers and viral dna synthesis at various intervals post-inoculation revealed the replication of prv in both peripheral blood monocytes and lymphocytes; however, replication in lymphocytes was restricted compared with monocytes. prv infection resulted in the damage and death of monocytes. although prv did not appear to affect the viab ...19921317617
inoculation of pigs with streptococcus suis type 2 alone or in combination with pseudorabies virus.pigs (9 [+/- 1] weeks old) were inoculated with streptococcus suis type 2, pseudorabies virus (prv), or both. for each pig of groups a, b, and c the inoculum of s suis was 10(9) colony-forming units. for each pig of groups a, b, and d the inoculum of prv was 5 x 10(3) tcid50 of either prv strain 4892 (group a, n = 9) or prv isolate b (group b, n = 9). the prv strain 4892 is a highly virulent strain; isolate b causes mild clinical signs of infection in inoculated pigs. group-c pigs (n = 9) were g ...19921317689
antigens involved in vaccination of swine against aujeszky's disease (pseudorabies) virus.the polypeptide and glycopolypeptide composition of a local virulent aujeszky's disease virus (suid herpesvirus 1, shv-1) strain (e-974) was determined in order to characterize the individual shv-1 antigens inducing the serological responses in immunized and non-immunized animals. a commercially available inactivated vaccine of known efficacy and three experimental immunogen preparations (whole inactivated shv-1 particles, lectin-purified glycoproteins from shv-1 culture, and a combination of bo ...19921333691
interaction of pseudorabies virus with porcine peripheral blood lymphocytes.to examine effects of pseudorabies virus (prv) on immune cells, we investigated the ability of prv to infect and replicate in porcine peripheral blood leukocytes (pbls). flow cytometric analysis revealed a leukopenia after challenge, with loss of 40% of circulating monocytes and 50% of circulating lymphocytes. virus was isolated from pbls of challenged pigs by cocultivation with porcine kidney cells, indicating that pbls were infected in vivo. presence of virus in pbls coincided with the appeara ...19921328444
contribution of single genes within the unique short region of aujeszky's disease virus (suid herpesvirus type 1) to virulence, pathogenesis and immunogenicity.pigs (3 and 10 weeks old) were infected intranasally with aujeszky's disease virus (adv) mutants that functionally lacked one of the non-essential genes in the unique short region of the genome (except the gene encoding the 11k protein). virus excretion in oropharyngeal fluid and disease symptoms were monitored. some pigs were killed to study pathogenesis, whereas others were challenged with virulent adv 8 weeks after the primary infection. mutants lacking protein kinase, or glycoproteins gp63 o ...19921311354
field experiments to evaluate the feasibility of eradication of aujeszky's disease virus by different vaccination schedules.in the present report, the extent of the reduction in aujeszky's disease virus (adv) dissemination achieved when pigs were intensively vaccinated with gi-deleted vaccines under field circumstances, was examined. on widely dispersed breeding-fattening farms, a gi-negative status was most rapidly obtained and the rate of new waves of infections was lowest when the attenuated bartha strain was administered to both the sows and the fatteners. it was more difficult not only to reach but also to keep ...19921315465
variation in seropositivity for some respiratory disease agents in finishing pigs: epidemiological studies on some health parameters and farm and management conditions in the herds.the relationship between the extent of seropositivity for aujeszky's disease virus (adv), actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (app.) serotype 2 and porcine influenza (pi) viruses serotype h1n1 and h3n2 in pigs on the one hand and the health status of the pigs and some farm and management conditions in the herds on the other hand was studied in 45 pig finishing herds, all members of one integration group. the health status was assessed by the extent of clinical signs, the use of veterinary drugs and ...19921315466
effects of pseudorabies virus infection upon cytotoxicity and antiviral activities of porcine alveolar macrophages.alveolar macrophages (am) infected with pseudorabies virus (prv) were compared to noninfected am for cytotoxicity against foreign or transformed cells and production of interferon (ifn). five prv strains were used to infect am including strains that are known to be highly virulent for pigs, i.e. strain 4892 and strain s-62 as well as strains that are regarded as mild or nonvirulent, i.e. buk and bartha. the multiplicity of infection ranged from 0.005 to 0.05 tcid50/cell. the target cells in the ...19921330423
characterization of pseudorabies virus antibody responses in young swine after infection and vaccination by using an immunoglobulin m antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.an immunoglobulin m (igm) antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (macelisa) was developed for the detection of pseudorabies virus (prv)-specific igm antibody in swine sera because false-positive reactions frequently occurred when sera from older swine were tested with an indirect igm enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. monoclonal mouse anti-swine igm was used as the capturing antibody, and rabbit anti-prv hyperimmune gamma globulin was used as the indicating antibody. sera from non-pr ...19921311334
high- and low-challenge exposure doses used to compare intranasal and intramuscular administration of pseudorabies virus vaccine in passively immune pigs.we compared 3 modified-live pseudorabies virus (prv) vaccine strains, administered by the intranasal (in) or im routes to 4- to 6-week-old pigs, to determine the effect of high- and low-challenge doses in these vaccinated pigs. at the time of vaccination, all pigs had passively acquired antibodies to prv. four experiments were conducted. four weeks after vaccination, pigs were challenge-exposed in with virulent virus strain iowa s62. in experiments 1 and 2, a high challenge exposure dose (10(5.3 ...19921314793
measurement of isotype-specific antibody responses to aujeszky's disease virus in sera and mucosal secretions of pigs.enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) for the detection of porcine igm, iga, igg1 and igg2 antibodies directed against aujeszky's disease virus (adv) are described. adv-specific iga and igm were detected in an antibody capture assay, and adv-specific igg1 and igg2 were detected in an indirect double antibody sandwich assay. a selected set of samples was tested in the four elisas and in a 24 h virus neutralization assay. comparison of the results showed that the elisas were isotype-specific ...19921315087
viral susceptibility of an established cell line of swine embryo kidney.the viral susceptibility of a cell line, named ksek6, newly established from the kidney cortex of swine embryo was tested for the indication of cpe occurrences and also plaque formations. the multiplication of porcine adenoviruses was considerably high in the cells among the virus strains tested though plaques of these viruses were hardly visible under agar overlay medium. two strains of swine enteroviruses, aujeszky's disease virus and hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus also multiplied we ...19921323743
chronic morphine administration impairs cell-mediated immune responses in swine.swine were used as an experimental animal model to evaluate immunomodulating effects of the opiate drug, morphine, on antigen-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. morphine free base in peanut oil was administered at 4-day intervals for up to 42 days to maintain drug levels at or above 100 ng/ml. the effect of morphine administration on humoral immune responses was evaluated by immunization on day 7 of morphine treatment with a battery of antigens, including swine herpes virus (al ...19921310738
role of different genes in the virulence and pathogenesis of aujeszky's disease virus.in this study the role of different genes located in the unique short region of the genome of aujeszky's disease virus was examined. inactivation of the genes encoding the protein kinase (pk), gp63, and gi reduced virulence of the virus for pigs, in contrast to inactivation of the genes encoding the 28 kda protein, and gx. there was no correlation between virulence and virus multiplication in vitro or in the oropharynx in vivo. the morphogenesis of the pk mutant was altered. the gi mutant replic ...19921336250
analysis of glycoprotein i (gi) negative and aberrant pseudorabies viral diagnostic isolates.glycoprotein i (gi) phenotypes and genotypes of 4 pseudorabies viral diagnostic isolates were evaluated by use of in vitro dna amplification, monoclonal antibody binding, gi-specific serodiagnostic responses, and in vivo virulence approaches. three viruses were avirulent and did not elicit gi-specific serologic responses, react with gi-specific monoclonal antibodies, or contain gi epitope-encoding dna sequences. the fourth virus was virulent and did elicit a gi-specific serodiagnostic response. ...19921335706
pseudorabies (aujeszky's disease) in argentina.various methods have been employed for the diagnosis of pseudorabies in argentina. a large serological survey was carried out by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (blocking elisa) and virus neutralisation (vn). an outbreak was studied by virological and immunohistochemical methods and in situ nucleic acid hybridisation.19921335307
multiplication and immunogenicity of a temperature-sensitive and thymidine kinase-deficient strain of aujeszky's disease virus in pigs.hysterectomy-produced colostrum-deprived 5- and 27-day-old pigs were inoculated intramuscularly (im) or intranasally (in) with the temperature-sensitive and thymidine kinase-deficient zhtstk- strain of aujeszky's disease virus (adv), and the nasal swabs and organs of the pigs were periodically collected for virus isolation. no abnormal clinical signs were observed in these pigs, except for a mild febrile response. viral shedding in the nasal swabs with low titers was detected in the pigs inocula ...19921335758
identification and characterization of pseudorabies virus glycoprotein h.on the basis of dna sequence analysis, it has recently been shown that the pseudorabies virus (prv) genome encodes a protein homologous to glycoprotein h (gh) of other herpesviruses (b. klupp and t.c. mettenleiter, virology 182:732-741, 1991). to obtain antibodies specific for gh(prv), rabbits were immunized with synthetic peptides representing two potential epitopes on gh(prv) as predicted by computer analysis. the antipeptide sera recognized the gh precursor polypeptide pgh translated in vitro ...19921313917
a murine model of pseudorabies virus latency.the mouse is a useful laboratory animal for studying various aspects of pseudorabies virus (prv) virulence. mice are highly susceptible hosts for prv infection and are unable to survive acute viral infection. because of this, mouse models have not been useful for studying prv latent infections. here, we report an efficient strategy for establishing latent prv infections in laboratory mice. passive transfer of high titered neutralizing antibodies to mice prior to inoculation with highly lethal do ...19921313942
[comparison of antibody titers against aujeszky's disease virus in pig blood collected on the farm and in the slaughterhouse].antibody titres against aujeszky's disease virus (adv) in the plasma of slaughter pigs were compared with respect to the site of sampling, namely on the farm (one day before delivery to the slaughterhouse) and in the slaughterhouse during slaughter. no significant differences were noted in the antibody titres against adv with respect to the different sampling sites. blood samples collected at the slaughterhouse can be used for monitoring and surveillance systems within the framework of organised ...19921313993
acceptability of aujeszky's disease vaccines.vaccines against aujeszky's disease are not only used to prevent the clinical consequences of a field infection, but also to support eradication of the virus. the current aujeszky's disease vaccines (adv) protect against severe clinical signs of disease and they reduce but usually do not prevent virus multiplication and excretion or the establishment of latency after infection. vaccines also limit virus multiplication after reactivation. the efficacy of vaccination is reduced by passively acquir ...19921337526
use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of infection with pseudorabies virus on a herd basis.the use of an elisa that can differentiate between swine infected with pseudorabies virus (prv) and swine vaccinated with a specific prv vaccine was evaluated on an individual and herd basis, and a system for interpreting elisa results on a herd basis was developed. in 17 herds, recently introduced replacement gilts, seronegative for prv, were vaccinated with a thymidine kinase- and glycoprotein x (gpx)-deleted vaccine. after vaccination, blood samples were collected from these gilts approximate ...19921313789
stable rescue of a glycoprotein gii deletion mutant of pseudorabies virus by glycoprotein gi of bovine herpesvirus 1.glycoproteins homologous to glycoprotein b (gb) of herpes simplex virus constitute the most highly conserved group of herpesvirus glycoproteins. this strong conservation of amino acid sequences might be indicative of a common functional role. indeed, gb homologs have been implicated in the processes of viral entry and virus-mediated cell-cell fusion. recently, we showed that pseudorabies virus (prv) lacking the essential gb-homologous glycoprotein gii could be propagated on a cell line expressin ...19921313900
influence of vaccination route on the efficacy of aujeszky's disease deletion-mutant vaccine.in order to compare the effect of the route of immunization on the efficacy of a modified live aujeszky's disease (ad) vaccine, which had deletions in both thymidine kinase (tk-) and glycoprotein giii genes (gpiii-), 20 six-week-old pigs were vaccinated by either the intramuscular (im) (n = 10) or subcutaneous (sc) (n = 10) route. all the animals, including five non-vaccinated control animals, were challenged with virulent ad virus 22 days after vaccination. four of five non-vaccinated animals d ...19921327180
replication of the pseudorabies virus in cultured pancreatic islet cells: further evidence of their paraneuronal nature.pancreatic b cells are known to be damaged by a wide range of viruses, causing diabetes. though these viruses belong to different taxonomic groups, their single shared characteristic is neurotropism. in the present study, pseudorabies viral infection was modelled on fetal porcine islets cultivated in vitro. it was demonstrated that the endocrine cells of the pancreas, especially b cells, were infected in vitro and so served as a medium for the replication of the virus. all stages of the morphoge ...19921338285
[experimental infection of pregnant gilts with aujeszky's disease virus strain rc/79].the rc/79 strain of the aujeszky's disease virus was able to induce reproductive failure of pregnant gilts intranasally inoculated at different gestation periods. four gilts 40-46 days pregnant (group a) and 6 gilts 70-73 days pregnant (group b) were instilled with 0.2 ml x 10(5) tissue culture infectious dose 50 (tcid50/0.2 ml) of the rc/79 strain into each nostril. two gilts 70-73 days pregnant (group c) were used as non exposed controls. the three groups were kept in separated boxes and they ...19921338479
adjuvant properties of propionibacterium avidum kp-40 in vaccination against endemic viral and bacterial infections. i. swine immunized with live attenuated aujeszky's disease virus vaccine and experimentally infected with virulent viruses.forty 5-month old swine were treated with immunomodulating propionibacterium avidum kp-40 (pa) and/or immunized with live attenuated aujeszky's disease (ad) virus vaccine (suivaca); 8 weeks later all animals were infected with virulent ad viruses (nia-3). seven of 10 swine vaccinated without pa developed mild/moderate symptoms of infection with 3- to 5-day fever and a temporary halt in weight gain. application of pa together with the vaccine lowered the morbidity rate, shortened the period of fe ...19921338942
[use of an immunoenzyme histochemical method for the improvement of the etiologic diagnosis of aujeszky's disease in swine].with regard to the legal regulations for the diagnosis of aujeszky's disease in pigs, a retrospective immunoenzymatic study was performed on brains of 20 pigs, in which aujeszky's disease had been diagnosed based only on clinical, macroscopical and histological findings, although the etiological agent could not be demonstrated neither by immunofluorescent technique nor by virological cultivation. applying the peroxidase-antiperoxidase-(pap) method, in 6 of 20 animals (30%) viral antigen of porci ...19921335229
comparison of three glycoprotein-i elisas for aujeszky's disease virus. 19921332240
[practice observations of cross protection between bovine and porcine herpesviruses].in many cattle herds in lower saxony the serologic ibr/ipv = bhv-1-status is known because since 1988 the bovine herpes virus infection (bhv 1), the infectious rhinotracheitis and pustular vulvovaginitis (ibr/ipv) are being fought. through extensive investigations in five districts in the weser-ems area, it was found that cows infected by bovine herpes virus (bhv 1) are also protected to a high degree against infection by porcine herpes suis virus (shv 1). an interpretation of the observed cross ...19921332217
characterization of japanese isolates of aujeszky's disease virus by restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns, virulence in mice and thymidine kinase activity.twenty four cloned isolates of aujeszky's disease virus collected from outbreaks of aujeszky's disease from 1981 through 1989 in japan were characterized by their restriction endonuclease (re) cleavage patterns, virulence for mice and thymidine kinase (tk) activity. all of the isolates belonged to type ii of the four types classified by herrmann et al. (1984). based on the number and migration rate of the restriction fragments, the isolates were divided into 7 groups with bam hi, 9 groups with k ...19921322716
differential polymerase chain reaction for detection of wild-type and a vaccine strain of aujeszky's disease (pseudorabies) virus.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) strategy for differentiating between a vaccine mutant strain and wild-type (wt) strains of aujesky's disease (pseudorabies) virus (adv) was evaluated. with this approach, a single virus or a concurrent wt and vaccine virus infection could be distinguished by targeting the genomic alteration within the vaccine strain. pcr primers were designed for a recombinant vaccine virus that has almost all of the wt gx gene replaced by the lacz gene. one primer, correspondin ...19921322928
immunopathology in aujeszky's disease virus-infected pigs exposed to fluctuating temperatures.pigs exposed to fluctuating temperatures (high, 30 +/- 2 degrees c; low, 4 +/- 1 degrees c) were intranasally inoculated with aujeszky's disease virus (adv). adv-infected pigs, exposed to the fluctuating temperatures, showed severe clinical signs and adv in the nasal secretions persisted longer than in the adv-infected control pigs kept at the normal temperature (20 +/- 2 degrees c). high concentrations of adv were isolated from nasal secretions on the 1st day after inoculation of the virus. pat ...19921452815
sensitivity of the standardized pseudorabies virus neutralization test varies with the test strain used.the effect of altering the strain of the test virus used in the standardized pseudorabies virus neutralization (vn) test on the sensitivity of the assay was evaluated. comparative vn tests were performed using 4 different strains: the avirulent bartha parental, the avirulent recombinant bartha giiika, the moderately virulent shope (currently used for the vn test at the national veterinary services laboratory, ames, ia), and the highly virulent p2208 (funkhauser). a radioimmunoassay and a western ...19911662079
a comparison of differential diagnostic tests to detect antibodies to pseudorabies glycoproteins gx, gi, and giii in naturally infected feral pigs. 19911662082
enzymatic amplification of latent pseudorabies virus nucleic acid sequences.to investigate various aspects of the latency of pseudorabies virus in swine (prv, suid herpesvirus 1) we developed in vitro nucleic acid amplification methods based upon the polymerase chain reaction. primers flanking a 156-bp region of the pseudorabies virus gp ii gene were annealed to purified prv dna as well as dna isolated from the trigeminal ganglia of swine latently infected with prv and subjected to pcr amplification. following amplification, 100 fg of prv dna was visualizable on stained ...19911659580
role of memory b-cell responses in serum and mucosal fluids of swine for protective immunity against pseudorabies virus.we examined primary and memory isotype-specific antibody responses directed against pseudorabies virus in serum and mucosal fluids of pigs with and without passively acquired maternal antibody, and we studied the relationship between these responses and protection against virus challenge. pigs were inoculated intranasally with the virulent nia-3 strain or the avirulent bartha strain, or they were inoculated im with an inactivated vaccine containing the phylaxia strain. ten weeks later, all pigs ...19921334639
molecular cloning of a gene encoding porcine interferon-beta.a gene encoding the porcine interferon-beta (poifn-beta) was cloned from a genomic library. the sequence of a potential intronless coding region as well as 1,265 bp of the 5'- and 277 bp of the 3'-flanking regions is presented. the gene is predicted to encode a mature protein of 165 amino acids and a signal peptide of 21 amino acids. this probable poifn-beta shows high homology (63%) with human (hu) ifn-beta at the amino acid level, but less with porcine (po) ifn-alpha 1 (32%). it contains three ...19921640116
immunogenicity in aujeszky's disease virus structural glycoprotein gvi (gp50) in swine.aujeszky's disease virus (adv) envelope glycoprotein gvi (gp50) was purified from virus-infected vero cells by ion-exchange and immunoaffinity chromatography and its usefulness as a subunit vaccine was evaluated in active and passive immunization studies. four-week-old piglets were immunized intramuscularly (im) with purified gvi twice two weeks apart and challenged intranasally (in) 10 days after the second immunization with 30 ld50 (10(8)pfu) of a virulent strain of adv. pigs, vaccinated with ...19911660638
intranasal vaccination of pigs against aujeszky's disease: protective immunity at 2 weeks, 2 months and 4 months after vaccination in pigs with maternal antibodies.the purpose of the study was to evaluate the short- and long-term immunity after intranasal vaccination in pigs with maternally derived antibodies (mda). in two experiments, 10-week-old pigs with moderate mda titres against aujeszky's disease virus (adv) were vaccinated intranasally with the bartha strain of adv to evaluate the protective immunity conferred at 2 weeks, 2 months and 4 months after vaccination. protection was evaluated on the basis of severity of clinical signs, periods of fever a ...19911648282
giii antibody responses in pigs following vaccination and challenge to aujeszky's disease.serological responses to a genetically engineered aujeszky's disease "marker" vaccine (dl giii + dl tk) were monitored using a blocking-elisa (b-elisa), a serum neutralisation test (snt) and an indirect elisa (i-elisa). the b-elisa is capable of differentiating pigs vaccinated with the above vaccine from natural infection. the snt and the i-elisa indicated that the pigs responded to vaccination and challenge. all three tests showed that the controls and the in-contact pigs always reacted negativ ...19911648283
recombination of pseudorabies virus vaccine strains in swine.we report here genetic recombination between 2 usda-licensed vaccine strains of pseudorabies virus co-inoculated into swine. the vaccine strains, one of which was a conventionally attenuated strain and the other, a genetically engineered deleted strain containing a negative immunologic marker, had complementary genomes. co-inoculation resulted in the creation of novel strains of pseudorabies virus containing negative immunologic markers with restored virulence genes. plaque-purified recombinant ...19911652903
efficacy of a pseudorabies virus vaccine based on deletion mutant strain 783 that does not express thymidine kinase and glycoprotein i.the vaccine efficacy of a genetically engineered deletion mutant strain of pseudorabies virus, strain 783, was compared with that of the conventionally attenuated bartha strain. strain 783 has deletions in the genes coding for glycoprotein i and thymidine kinase. in experiment 1, which had a 3-month interval between vaccination and challenge exposure, strain 783 protected pigs significantly (p less than 0.05) better against virulent virus challenge exposure than did the bartha strain. the growth ...19911654033
anamnestic immune response of pigs to pseudorabies virus: latent virus reactivation versus direct oronasal and parenteral exposure to virus.the humoral antibody response of pseudorabies-immune pigs to reactivation of latent pseudorabies virus (prv) was compared with the response following direct exposure to virulent prv. nine pigs that had been vaccinated for pseudorabies and later exposed to virulent virus to establish latent infection were given dexamethasone to reactivate latent virus (3 pigs), were exposed oronasally and parenterally to virulent virus (3 pigs), or were kept as nontreated controls (3 pigs). sera collected from al ...19911654132
stillbirths, mummies, abortions, and early embryonic death.stillbirths, mummies, abortions, and early embryonic death have a substantial impact on the profitability of a farm in both endemic and epidemic conditions. fetal death is highly dependent on stage of gestation. implantation occurs around day 14 postmating in sows, and fetal death of an entire litter at this time usually results in a regular return to service. if more than four embryos remain alive, the sow may go on to farrow normally. if fetal death occurs after implantation but before calcifi ...19921446274
epizootic of pseudorabies among ten swine herds.an epizootic of pseudorabies in 10 swine herds located near greensburg in decatur county, indiana was investigated. records of decatur county swine herds previously quarantined because of pseudorabies were obtained. for the 1988 epizootic, clinical findings were considered, location of each of the 10 swine herds in relation to the other herds was determined, and potential fomites were considered. meteorologic data prior to, during, and after the epizootic were obtained, correlated, and analyzed. ...19911659567
antibody response to glycoprotein i in maternally immune pigs exposed to a mildly virulent strain of pseudorabies virus.to study the antibody response to glycoprotein i (gi) of pseudorabies virus (prv) in maternally immune pigs, 3 groups of 6 pigs were given low doses of the mildly virulent sterksel strain of prv at 3 and 11 weeks of age. group a consisted of seronegative pigs; groups b and c consisted of pigs with maternal antibodies deficient of antibodies to gi. at 3 weeks of age, 3 pigs of each group were inoculated intranasally with 10(2.5) plaque-forming units (groups a and b), or with 10(3.5) plaque-formin ...19911664670
investigation of sites of pseudorabies virus latency, using polymerase chain reaction.pseudorabies virus (prv) latency was investigated, using polymerase chain reaction (pcr). a pcr protocol was developed that specifically amplified a 217-base pair sequence within the gene encoding the essential glycoprotein gp50 of prv. using this pcr procedure, the gp50 sequence was amplified from tissues of pigs infected with various doses of prv (becker strain). at postinoculation day 64, viral isolation was performed on nasal swab specimens and homogenates of tonsils and trigeminal nerve gan ...19911664672
factors associated with the seroprevalence of pseudorabies virus in breeding swine from quarantined herds.strategies for the elimination of pseudorabies virus (prv) from swine herds include test and removal, offspring segregation, and depopulation/repopulation. the prevalence of prv in a herd is a major factor in selection of the most appropriate strategy. the purpose of the study reported here was to describe the prevalence of prv in adult swine in prv quarantined herds in minnesota, and to determine herd factors associated with the seroprevalence. questionnaires describing the health history of th ...19911664820
prevalence of pseudorabies virus infection and associated infections in six large swine herds in illinois.sera were collected from 6 large farrow-to-finish swine herds infected with pseudorabies virus (prv) in illinois. all herds were participating in the large herd cleanup study, a usda-initiated project to evaluate the feasibility of eradicating pseudorabies from large farms (greater than 400 sows) by use of a combination of vaccination and management changes. herd size ranged between 425 and 1,500 breeding females. between april and july 1990, sera for measurement of prv antibodies were obtained ...19911651912
the genome type of aujeszky's disease virus isolated from a cat in japan. 19911665082
characterization of field isolates of suid herpesvirus 1 (aujeszky's disease virus) as derivatives of attenuated vaccine strains.field isolates of suid herpesvirus 1 (aujeszky's disease virus) from poland and hungary were identified by restriction fragment pattern analysis as derivatives of attenuated vaccine strains. the polish isolates were found to be related to the buk-tk-900 strain (suivac a) which is widely used as a live vaccine in poland, and the hungarian isolates were related to the bartha k-61 vaccine strain widely used in hungary. pigs experimentally infected with derivatives of buk-tk-900 or buk-tk-900 itself ...19921351387
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