characterization of orthopoxviruses isolated from feline infections in britain.the biological properties and genomes of orthopoxviruses isolated from cats in britain were compared with strains of cowpox virus isolated from cows and their handlers. all the isolates tested produced haemorrhagic pocks and a-type inclusions on the cam, but did not produce pocks above 40 degrees c. thus the feline isolates behaved as typical strains of cowpox virus. differences were found in the heat resistance of the virions and in the character of the a-type inclusion which did not correlate ...19921322655
experimental infection of domestic cats by cowpox virus.infection of young domestic cats by cowpox virus isolated from sick rodents (family muridae) revealed their high susceptibility to the virus; a severe disease with 100% lethality developed after oral inoculation as well as upon skin scarification. the disease in dermally infected animals was accompanied by eruptions on the site of inoculation. high concentration of the virus was detected in lungs of animals infected by either of inoculation routes. the data testify the possible participation of ...19921360762
what is human catpox/cowpox infection? 19911955221
transmission of cowpox virus infection from domestic cat to man. 19852861449
studies on poxvirus infection in cats.the development of clinical disease and the pathogenesis of cowpox were studied in domestic cats inoculated by a variety of routes. intradermal titration in two cats demonstrated that as little as five pfu of cowpox virus caused a primary skin lesion. intradermal inoculation of greater than or equal to 10(5) pfu cowpox virus resulted in severe systemic disease. large amounts of virus (greater than or equal to 10(3) pfu/g) were isolated from skin lesions and the turbinates of cats killed at eight ...19892923548
genomic characterization of a poxvirus isolated from a child.a poxvirus was isolated from a six-year-old girl. the comparative analyses of the genome of this isolate (h-cp-lsax) which were carried out using the restriction endonucleases bamhi, hindiii, kpni, mlui, ncoi, saci, and smai revealed that this isolate is a member of the genus orthopoxvirus. since the girl had never been vaccinated against smallpox, and had close contact to domestic animals, including cats, rabbits and guinea pigs, the genome of h-cp-lsax virus was genetically analysed in compari ...19873614092
three cases of cowpox infection of domestic cats.since october 1982 three cases of cowpox infection of the cat have been presented at a veterinary practice. the disease began as a focal dermatitis on the face or paws which spread after several days to the rest of the body. two weeks after appearing the pocks scabbed over and fell off leaving hairless skin. there were few systemic signs and therapy did not appear to influence the course of the disease. diagnosis was confirmed by the demonstration of pox virions or inclusion bodies in skin biops ...19854095874
natural and experimental pox virus infection in the domestic cat.three naturally occurring cases of cowpox virus infection in the domestic cat are described. isolate l97 was identified as cowpox virus on the basis of morphology, serology and characteristic cytopathic effect in tissue culture and on the chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated eggs. all three cases showed multiple skin lesions, slight conjunctivitis or purulent ocular discharge but there were no respiratory signs. two animals recovered, the third was put down as a stray. the disease was reprodu ...19836836897
restriction of vaccinia virus replication in cho cells occurs at the stage of viral intermediate protein synthesis.vaccina virus (vv) and cowpox virus (cpv) differ in their abilities to replicate in chinese hamster ovary (cho) cells because vv has a disrupted host range (hr) gene. to facilitate an examination of the molecular events associated with abortive infection of cho cells with vv, we constructed two sets of recombinant viruses that contain a viral early promoter regulating the cat gene encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and viral intermediate or late promoters regulating the lacz gene encodin ...19957856109
parasite prevalence in free-ranging farm cats, felis silvestris animals tested were positive for feline leukemia virus antigen and chlamydia psittaci antibodies, but all were positive for antibodies to feline calicivirus (fcv), feline herpesvirus 1 (fhv1) and rotavirus. they had antibodies to feline parvovirus (96%), feline coronavirus (84% and cowpox virus (2%). antibody to feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) was found in 53% of animals, which were less likely to be infected with haemobartonella felis, and had higher fhv antibody titres than cats without ...19968620914
characteristic but unfamiliar--the cowpox infection, transmitted by a domestic 11-year-old girl had been suffering from 2 recently developed reddish ulcerated nodules on the right side of her neck and, concomitantly, from a very hard swelling as well as from painless lymphadenopathy. subsequently, thick black eschars appeared on the surface of the ulcers. using the negative staining technique, an orthopox virus infection could be identified by electron microscopy. the patient's characteristic history as well as her close contact with a cat frequently hunting nice indica ...19968884153
[serologic studies of domestic cats for potential human pathogenic virus infections from wild rodents].for several viral infections a reservoir in wild rodents has been demonstrated. some of the agents are known or suspected to be pathogenic for humans. because improvements in hygiene have reduced direct human contact with rodents, domestic cats could be acting as active transmitters of these viruses from rodents to man. we selected 4 such pathogens--ortho- and parapox-, hanta- and encephalomyocarditis viruses--which, in different ways, may lead to serious human illness: ortho- and parapoxvirus i ...19969409901
characterization of a cowpox-like orthopox virus which had caused a lethal infection in august 1990 an orthopox virus (opv) had been isolated from a severe case of a generalized infection with lethal outcome in an immunosuppressed 18-year-old man. in this communication we present a detailed characterization of the causative virus strain. based on distinct epitope configurations detected by various monoclonal antibodies the isolate could be differentiated from other opv species and was classified as a cowpox virus (cp). this classification was confirmed by a species-specific pcr ...19979413522
antibodies to orthopoxvirus in domestic cats in norway.the prevalence of antibodies to orthopoxvirus in 217 sera collected from domestic cats in the western part of norway was 10.1 per cent as measured by a competitive elisa. in one of the seropositive cats antibodies were also detected by an immunofluorescence assay. the average age of the cats sampled was 4.9 years, but the average age of the seropositive individuals was 7.3 years, higher than the average age of clinical cowpox virus cases in britain (4.2 years), and in germany (3.9 years). antibo ...19989725176
characteristics of four cowpox virus isolates from norway and sweden.we report the first isolation of cowpox virus from a domestic cat in norway, and the first confirmed isolation of cowpox virus from a human case in norway. these two norwegian cowpox virus isolates, as well as two swedish human isolates, were partially characterized and compared with each other and with cowpox virus brighton and vaccinia virus strain western reserve. restriction enzyme analysis of the genomes revealed differences between all six viruses examined, but suggested that the two norwe ...19989725795
characterization of orthopoxviruses isolated from man and animals in germany.fourteen orthopoxvirus strains isolated from humans, cats, a dog, a cow, and an elephant in germany were characterized. all were classified as cowpox virus based on haemorrhagic lesions induced on the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken eggs and reactivity of a 160 kda protein with anti-a-type inclusion protein hyperimmune serum in a western blot. more detailed comparison of the isolates by restriction endonuclease mapping using hindiii and xhoi demonstrated a close relationship between all isol ...199910226615
necrotizing pneumonia in a cat caused by an orthopox virus.a necrotizing pneumonia was observed in a domestic cat which had a clinical history of severe respiratory distress. histology, immunohistology and electronmicroscopy revealed poxvirus as the causative agent. by the polymerase chain reaction and gene sequencing, an orthopox virus with 93% homology to cowpox virus was identified.199910405311
comparison of thymidine kinase and a-type inclusion protein gene sequences from norwegian and swedish cowpox virus isolates.during the last decades, cowpox virus, a member of the genus orthopoxvirus within the poxviridae family, has appeared as a pathogen in domestic cats, zoo animal species, and humans. at the same time, vaccinia virus, another orthopoxvirus, has been used as a recombinant vaccine vector with foreign genes inserted in the thymidine kinase (tk) gene. by pcr and cycle sequencing, we have determined the nucleotide sequences of the tk gene and the a-type inclusion protein (atip) gene of virus isolates f ...199910440063
cowpox: reservoir hosts and geographic is generally accepted that the reservoir hosts of cowpox virus are wild rodents, although direct evidence for this is lacking for much of the virus's geographic range. here, through a combination of serology and pcr, we demonstrate conclusively that the main hosts in great britain are bank voles, wood mice and short-tailed field voles. however, we also suggest that wood mice may not be able to maintain infection alone, explaining the absence of cowpox from ireland where voles are generally no ...199910459650
cowpox virus in a 12-year-old boy: rapid identification by an orthopoxvirus-specific polymerase chain reaction.although smallpox was eradicated 20 years ago, other members of the genus orthopoxvirus (opv), such as cowpox virus (cpxv) or monkeypox virus, are still a threat to humans. because human cpxv infection is rare, it is seldom suspected on clinical grounds only. we report a boy who presented with two necrotic ulcers with surrounding erythema. infection with opv was suspected, as antibiotic treatment had not produced improvement and smears were negative for anthrax. an opv was isolated and an opv-sp ...200111453925
[smallpox and smallpox virus--200 years since the first vaccination in norway].in december 1801, the first vaccination against smallpox in norway took place. vaccine material came from denmark, england, ireland, and other countries; it was also obtained from a few local cowpox cases. what mattered was the effect, not the origin. several reports indicate that variola virus itself, the cause of smallpox, was also used for human vaccination after passages through cows and horses. a vaccine institute for production of vaccine in calves was established in kristiania in 1891. co ...200111808015
retrospective investigation of feline cowpox in germany. 200211829071
feline orthopoxvirus infection transmitted from cat to human.we report the case of a 56-year-old female patient who presented with an inflamed, ulcerated lesion on the left side of her neck after contact (scratch) with a cat living in the patient's house. satellite lesions developed despite local treatment and parenteral clindamycin. histopatholgic examination and the tzanck test showed evidence of a viral infection. subsequent transmission electron microscopy of scrap tissue and material from a fresh pustule exhibited multiple typical poxvirus particles, ...200312963921
[cowpox virus infection in a child].although human cowpox virus infection is rare nowadays, an animal reservoir of this virus still exists. the general course of cowpox virus infections is usually benign but the diagnosis is difficult and often late. case report: an 11-year-old boy, owner of two cats, presented with an infected sacral wound lesion associated with fever and lymph nodes. the wound became necrotic and other cutaneous and mucous membrane lesions developed secondarily. blood tests did not show hyperleukocytosis or a sy ...200415051092
human cowpox: presentation and investigation in an era of bioterrorism. 200516230199
dna examination of ancient dental pulp incriminates typhoid fever as a probable cause of the plague of athens.until now, in the absence of direct microbiological evidence, the cause of the plague of athens has remained a matter of debate among scientists who have relied exclusively on thucydides' narrations to introduce several possible diagnoses. a mass burial pit, unearthed in the kerameikos ancient cemetery of athens and dated back to the time of the plague outbreak (around 430 bc), has provided the required skeletal material for the investigation of ancient microbial dna.200616412683
orthopoxvirus infection transmitted by a domestic cat.the variola virus was declared eradicated by the world health organization in 1980 but human infections by cowpox virus, another member of the genus orthopoxvirus, are still observed, mainly in european countries. we report a woman who presented with two umbilicated vesicles surrounded by an indurated erythematous edema within cat scratch injuries on her thigh. the diagnosis of an orthopoxvirus infection was based on the visualization of characteristic virus particles by electron microscopy and ...200616427982
a case of facial cellulitis and necrotizing lymphadenitis due to cowpox virus infection.we describe a patient with facial cellulitis/erysipelas due to cowpox virus inoculation in the respiratory epithelium of the nose. a cytopathic agent was isolated in cell culture, and the diagnosis of cowpox was confirmed by electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction. the most likely source of infection was exposure to the family cats. in addition to the severe edematous cellulitis of the face, the clinical course was dominated by several areas of subcutaneous, necrotizing lymphadenitis, ...200616912948
cowpox virus pneumonia in a domestic cat in great britain. 200717435100
human cowpox in a veterinary student. 201020334852
recovery of infectious virus from full-length cowpox virus (cpxv) dna cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (bac).abstract: transmission from pet rats and cats to humans as well as severe infection in felids and other animal species have recently drawn increasing attention to cowpox virus (cpxv). we report the cloning of the entire genome of cowpox virus strain brighton red (br) as a bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) in escherichia coli and the recovery of infectious virus from cloned dna. generation of a full-length cpxv dna clone was achieved by first introducing a mini-f vector, which allows maintena ...201121314965
poxvirus infection in a cat with presumptive human transmission.the present report describes a case of generalized cowpox virus infection with necrotizing facial dermatitis in a cat and a likely transmission to an animal keeper. the viral aetiology was confirmed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, pcr, virus isolation, dna sequencing and electron microscopy. histopathological examination of the cat's skin revealed a severe, necrotizing dermatitis with ballooning degeneration and hyperplasia of epithelial cells with pathognomonic cytoplasmic eosinophilic ...201121375609
orthopoxvirus dna in eurasian lynx, sweden.cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in europe. orthopoxvirus (opv) dna was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging eurasian lynx (lynx lynx) from sweden. thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in norway and phylogene ...201121470451
the munich outbreak of cutaneous cowpox infection: transmission by infected pet rats.cowpox virus infection of humans is an uncommon, potentially fatal, skin disease. it is largely confined to europe, but is not found in eire, or in the usa, australasia, or the middle or far east. patients having contact with infected cows, cats, or small rodents sporadically contract the disease from these animals. we report here clinical aspects of 8 patients from the munich area who had purchased infected pet rats from a local supplier. pet rats are a novel potential source of local outbreaks ...201122041995
pulmonary cowpox in cats: five cases.this case series documents five cases of pneumonia (with pleural effusion in three cases) caused by cowpox virus (cpxv) in domestic cats. predisposition to pneumonia may have resulted from mixed infections in two cases (feline herpesvirus and bordetella bronchiseptica in one cat, and mycoplasma species in the other).201625972246
cowpox virus infection in a child after contact with a domestic cat: a case report.human cowpox represents a seldom diagnosed zoonosis but this diagnosis should be considered more frequently as the number of cases has increased in recent years. we describe a case of cowpox in an 11-year-old boy following regular direct daily contact with a domestic cat. the 11-year-old patient, an otherwise healthy boy, demonstrated skin ulceration located at his chin, with enlargement of regional lymph nodes and fever reaching 39°c. the diagnosis of cowpox was made on the basis of pcr involvi ...201728368077
histopathological and immunohistochemical studies of cowpox virus replication in a three-dimensional skin model.human cowpox virus (cpxv) infections are rare, but can result in severe and sometimes fatal outcomes. the majority of recent cases were traced back to contacts with infected domestic cats or pet rats. the aim of the present study was to evaluate a three-dimensional (3d) skin model as a possible replacement for animal experiments. we monitored cpxv lesion formation, viral gene expression and cell cycle patterns after infection of 3d skin cultures with two cpxv strains of different pathogenic pote ...201627291992
[what's new in clinical dermatology?].significant advances have been performed in cutaneous adverse reactions leading to primary prevention strategy and implication of new signaling pathways. histological features of dress and methotrexate toxicity are detailed. new emerging infectious agents are reported including zika virus, an arbovirus which can be confused with dengue or chikungunya, a new cowpox virus transmitted by domestic cat leading to lymphadenitis, spirurina type x larva transmitted in japan by eating raw squid or fish. ...201526792410
neurogenic inflammation and colliquative lymphadenitis with persistent orthopox virus dna detection in a human case of cowpox virus infection transmitted by a domestic cat.cowpox viruses are orthopoxviruses that may survive in the environment for years. rodents are regarded as the primary hosts, but transmission to other species has been reported. this report describes a cowpox virus infection in a cat with subsequent transmission to its owner leading to protracted, atypical and severe clinical signs. a young cat presented with multiple crusts and plaques on the neck, muzzle and tail base. the owner developed an erythematous lesion with elevated margins, central n ...201525641516
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