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a study to evaluate non-fatal rabies in animals.brains and salivary glands of stray dogs, cats and wild mammals were examined for latent rabies virus. sera of these animals were tested for rabits neutralizing antibody. dogs and rodents of the gerbil species were experimentally infected with rabies viruses tryping to produce nonfatal rabies. the following conclusions are made: 1. naturally occurring nonfatal rabies infection evidenced by recovery of the virus was not present in the stray dogs examined and could not be produced experimentally. ...1979387971
chronic recrudescent rabies in a cat. 1977896802
practical significance of rabies antibodies in cats and dogs.doubt has sometimes been cast upon the protective effect of rabies antibodies in serum. animals and humans suffering from fatal rabies often produce high antibody titres, while rabies cases are also observed in vaccinated animals. cellular immunity is also largely involved in protection. nevertheless, a large number of laboratory experiments and field observations clearly demonstrate that cats and dogs which develop antibodies after vaccination and before challenge have a very high probability o ...19921472723
an epidemic of sylvatic rabies in finland--descriptive epidemiology and results of oral vaccination.when rabies reappeared in finland in april 1988, the country had been rabies free since 1959. soon a picture of sylvatic rabies become evident, its main vector and victim being the raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides). between 8 april 1988 and 16 february 1989, 66 virologically verified cases were recorded (48 raccoon dogs, 12 red foxes, 2 badgers, 2 cats, 1 dog and 1 dairy bull) in an area estimated at 1700 km2 in south-eastern finland. the greatest distance between recorded cases was 67 km. ...19921598857
[comparative techniques for the diagnosis of rabies and its incidence in tamaulipas in 1987].rabies in suspect cases was diagnosed by immunofluorescence, histopathology and biological tests in samples from government health centers in tamaulipas, mexico during 1987. comparative analysis between the diagnostic results and the epidemiological survey was performed. brain samples of 278 suspect animals were studied; 45 cases were positive to rabies (16.1%). the centers providing high number of samples and positive cases correlate with counties of high human and canine population density, ho ...19911670484
efficacy studies on a canarypox-rabies recombinant virus.recombinant avipox viruses have been developed expressing the rabies glycoprotein gene. a fowlpox-rabies recombinant has previously been shown to be protective against live rabies virus challenge in a number of non-avian species. this report describes the development of a canarypox-rabies recombinant. a comparison is made of the protective efficacy of this recombinant with other pox-rabies recombinants.19912042391
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1989.in 1989, 4,808 cases of rabies in animals other than human beings were reported to the centers for disease control, 1.8% more (4,724 to 4,808) than in 1988. eighty-eight percent (4,224/4,808) of those affected were wild animals and 12% (584/4,808) were domestic animals. cases were reported from 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico; hawaii remained rabies-free. skunks (1,657) continued to be the most commonly reported rabid wild animal. for the second consecutive year, more cats ( ...19902276949
demonstration of antigenic variation among rabies virus isolates by using monoclonal antibodies to nucleocapsid proteins.rabies virus isolates from terrestrial animals in six areas of the united states were examined with a panel of monoclonal antibodies to nucleocapsid proteins. characteristic differences in immunofluorescence reactions permitted the formation of four antigenically distinct reaction groups from the 231 isolates tested. the geographic distribution of these groups corresponded well with separate rabies enzootic areas recognized by surveillance of sylvatic rabies in the united states. distinctive rea ...19862429983
[rabies, a public health problem].in west-europe, rabies is mostly reported in foxes, and in less extend in different domestic animals including dogs, cats, cattle, sheep, goats and horses. the contamination to humans occurs through contact with rabid animals by bite, scratch and even contact with the wound. this paper reports upon the current situation of rabies disease in belgium and the prophylactic means routinely applied and those actually under experiment. in 1988, 514 animals were found positive, among which 366 foxes (71 ...19892610551
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using staphylococcal protein a for the measurement of rabies antibody in various species.an elisa was developed using staphylococcal protein a linked with horseradish peroxidase for detecting igg antibody of rabies virus in human and carnivore sera (80 human, 270 fox, 40 cat, 35 marten, 5 badger and 4 polecat sera were tested in the present work). in comparison with the serum neutralization (sn) test in cell culture, close overall agreement was obtained particularly in human and cat sera (97.5%). two post-vaccination human sera were found positive with elisa values of 2.16 and 2.65 ...19892816177
new purified vero-cell vaccine prevents rabies in patients bitten by rabid animals.the protective effect of a new, potentially economical tissue-culture rabies vaccine, purified vero-cell rabies vaccine (pvrv), was tested in 106 patients bitten by animals with proven rabies. 0.5 ml pvrv was given intramuscularly on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 91; 47 patients with severe exposure were also given 20 iu/kg human rabies immune globulin (hrig). all patients are alive and well after 1 year. side-effects of treatment were negligible. rabies neutralising antibody (greater than or equal ...19862873399
immunofluorescent staining of trypsinized formalin-fixed brain smears for rabies antigen: results compared with those obtained by standard methods for 221 suspect animal cases in nigeria.formalin-fixed samples from 221 animal brains received for rabies diagnosis in nigeria were digested in 0.1% trypsin in phosphate buffered saline, ph 7.4, and smears stained for rabies antigen by direct immunofluorescence (if). the results were compared with those obtained using fresh material from the same animals for negri body staining, mouse inoculation (mi) and occasionally immunofluorescent staining. from 191 specimens examined for negri bodies and by mouse inoculation 51 and 64 respective ...19852982942
failure to thrive, wasting syndrome, and immunodeficiency in rabies: a hypophyseal/hypothalamic/thymic axis effect of rabies virus.studies of rabies virus in several animal models consistently showed hypothalamic infection, hypophyseal infection, dramatic growth impairment (in the form of failure to thrive), wasting syndrome, and immune depletion. rabies virus infection was studied through routine monoclonal antinucleocapsid antibody immunofluorescence and through a peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunoperoxidase method. the latter was modified to detect the in situ production of growth hormone by uninfected and rabies virus-inf ...19883206086
research on susceptibility of cats to the oral administration of rabies vaccine sad b 19 tü. 19883206948
the epidemiology of the human rabies threat in the grand duchy of luxembourg.epidemiological data were recorded and blood samples were obtained from a group of 297 individuals from luxembourg who had been in contact with rabies-infected or -suspected animals from 1979 to 1985, and who had been vaccinated with a complete course of hdcs rabies vaccine. the majority of the subjects were farmers aged between 30 and 59. the most frequent source of infection was cattle, followed by foxes, sheep and cats. dogs were in the fifth position only, probably as a direct result of obli ...19883207500
measurement of rabies-specific antibodies in carnivores by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.we describe an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) that utilizes anticanine immunoglobulin for the measurement of rabies-specific antibody in the sera of the major domestic and wildlife reservoirs of rabies in north america. sufficient cross-reactivity was found to exist between anticanine igg and serum antibody from all carnivores tested, including dogs, cats, foxes (vulpes vulpes), skunks (mephitis sp.) and raccoons (procyon lotor). with sera of most species, good correlation wa ...19883286905
experimentally induced rabies in four cats inoculated with a rabies virus isolated from a bat.four cats were inoculated im with rabies virus isolated from the salivary gland of a naturally infected big brown bat (eptesicus fuscus). the 4 cats developed clinical signs of rabies after a median incubation period of 42 days. the median duration of clinical illness was 5 days. results of fluorescent antibody evaluation, mouse inoculation, and tissue culture isolation indicated large differences in virus concentrations in various areas of the cns of individual cats. these differences also were ...19863516030
[studies on rabies in brazil. ii. isolation of the rabies virus from the lungs, kidney, bladder and tissues of other organs of the naturally infected domestic cat]. 19684230926
the era strain of rabies vaccine.an antigenic extinction trial in cats showed that the era rabies vaccine had superior antigenic properties over flury h.e.p. c.e.o. and killed tissue culture rabies vaccine. dogs and cats on a duration of immunity study of era rabies vaccine were challenged with fox salivary gland "street" rabies virus. the results of this challenge show a duration of immunity of five years in dogs and four years in cats. vaccination of dams in late pregnancy with era rabies vaccine resulted in transference of m ...19724263912
evaluation of the corneal test as a laboratory method for rabies diagnosis.the corneal test (ct) for rabies diagnosis was evaluated in samples from 313 subjects of different species. some of the subjects were inoculated experimentally and others were naturally infected. when the ct was compared with immunofluorescence staining and mouse inoculation tests on brains of the same subjects, a sensitivity of 41.7% and a specificity of 100% were found. the authors conclude that a positive ct result would confirm the diagnosis of rabies, but a negative one would not exclude th ...19734571654
[prevention of rabies]. 19744617284
rabies. 19734694411
[epidemiology and prevention of rabies]. 19734740823
susceptibility of carnivora to rabies virus administered orally. 19715104866
a formalinized and adjuvanted rabies vaccine of tissue culture origin. 19685188327
immunofluorescent examination of the skin of rabies-infected animals as a means of early detection of rabies virus antigen.correlations were made on immunofluorescence positivity to antirabies conjugate between cranium-derived nerve fibers in skin and traditional samplings of brain tissue from several species and illness categories of animals with naturally acquired rabies. the overall correlation of results from all categories was about 98% (n, 104) for those that were brain positive and 100% (n, 99) for those that were brain negative. some animals that ultimately developed rabies were found to have immunofluoresce ...19836355152
antigenic analysis of rabies and mokola virus from zimbabwe using monoclonal antibodies.eighteen strains of virus were recovered by tissue culture techniques from 20 samples of mouse brain received from harare, zimbabwe, and typed with monoclonal antibodies at the wistar institute. on the basis of reactivity with these monoclonal antibodies specific for rabies and rabies-related viruses, seven strains were identified as mokola viruses, and the remaining 11, as rabies viruses. seventeen of 36 monoclonal antibodies against the nucleocapsid antigen reacted with the mokola strains, but ...19846526138
use of monoclonal antibodies to confirm vaccine-induced rabies in ten dogs, two cats, and one fox.a panel of 8 monoclonal antibodies to rabies glycoprotein antigen was used to characterize the modified-live virus vaccines marketed in the united states during the last 10 years. thirteen of 14 rabies virus isolates from 11 dogs, 2 cats, and 1 fox suspected of developing vaccine-induced rabies were shown to have reactivity patterns that were identical to the vaccine administered. reactivity patterns for 20 rabies isolates from human beings, wild animals, or domestic animals with no history of r ...19846540768
mokola virus infection in cats and a dog in zimbabwe. 19836623871
experimental chronic rabies in the cat.two cats, inoculated with a street rabies virus strain, survived with only some progressive debility and atrophy of musculature in the injected limb for 136 weeks. they had continuously increasing titers of neutralizing antibody in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid, and terminally they had high antibody titers in the brain. virus was isolated from two brain specimens of one cat obtained at necropsy; isolation was successful only by explant culture and inoculation of explanted tissue into mice. vi ...19806995713
atypical rabies virus in cats and a dog in zimbabwe. 19827043888
rabies in ethiopia.rabies is one of the most severe infectious diseases in ethiopia, with many cases of the disease diagnosed in various parts of the country. the dog is the species most responsible for human exposure, with over 98% of the human cases and vaccinations due to the bite of rabid or suspected rabid dogs. most of the treatments are due to stray dogs that bite, escape and are not available for observation. most of the people who die of rabies are under 40 years of age, and among adults, the majority of ...19827058785
potency of two rabies vaccines in cats as determined by antibody assay and virulent virus challenge.the persistence of immunity induced by a modified live virus rabies vaccine (sad strain) and an inactivated rabies vaccine combined with panleukopenia vaccine in cats was studied serologically and by virulent rabies virus challenge. the source of challenge virus was a suspension of a dog salivary gland. all 16 cats vaccinated with the inactivated vaccine developed high antibody titres and 15 were protected against the virus challenge. all 8 cats vaccinated with the mlv vaccine produced a serolog ...19827128076
haemadsorption test for rabies virus. 19827142683
[peroral infection with rabies virus in fox and domestic cat]. 19807246384
experimental rabies in cats: immune response and persistence of immunity.experimental rabies was studied in cats under defined conditions. a correlation between the virus dosage and the incubation period was established and results were compared with those published previously by others. the susceptibility of cats to rabies virus appears to be paradoxical. the persistence of the immunity induced by an inactivated rabies vaccine prepared form cell culture-propagated virus used in combination with feline panleukopenia vaccine, with or without adjuvant, was studied thro ...19817261592
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1994.in 1994, 48 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 8,224 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 6 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention. nearly 93% (7,632 cases) were wild animals, whereas 7% (592 cases) were domestic species. the total number of reported cases decreased 13.4% from that of 1993 (9,498 cases), with most of the decline resulting from 19.2% fewer cases of rabies in raccoons. two previously described epizootics of rabies involvi ...19957493894
quantification of residual virulence of the vnukovo-32/107 rabies virus vaccination strain.the present work summarizes the results of 11 groups of experiments carried out with the aim to complexly quantify the residual virulence of a cold mutant of the vnukovo-32/107 rabies virus vaccination strain intended for the preparation of an oral rabies vaccine (kamark) for the immunization of free-living carnivores. according to who prescriptions, residual virulence was quantified in experiments on carnivores, mainly red foxes (vulpes vulpes)--the presumed target species, and farm-bred polar ...19957740717
antigenic analysis of rabies-virus isolates from latin america and the caribbean.a total of 288 rabies-virus samples from 17 latin american and caribbean countries were reacted with an array of monoclonal antibodies. identification of eight distinct antigenic variants among these samples permitted epidemiologic studies of the geographic distribution of different concentrations of rabies in the region and of the animal species serving as maintenance sources for rabies within a concentrated area. two variants were broadly distributed and associated with enzootic disease in dog ...19947801717
identification of regional variants of the rabies virus within the canadian province of ontario.although rabies outbreaks in most parts of the world tend to be host species-specific the rabies currently enzootic in the canadian province of ontario is hosted by two wildlife species, the red fox and the striped skunk. previous studies employing monoclonal antibody panels failed to identify any host-specific differences in ontario rabies virus street isolates, but certain observations suggested the existence of more than one viral strain in terrestrial mammals of this region. the extent of va ...19938492088
[the evaluation of a monoclonal antibody panel for lyssavirus typing in mexico].the purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a panel of eight antinucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies developed in europe to identify different strains of rabies virus isolated from a variety of animal species from diverse geographic areas in mexico. fifty-one virus-positive samples of brain tissue from various animal species and humans were studied. material from these samples was used to infect mice, whose brains were later tested by indirect immunofluorescence, using the monoclonal ...19958540994
applications of pox virus vectors to vaccination: an update.recombinant pox viruses have been generated for vaccination against heterologous pathogens. amongst these, the following are notable examples. (i) the engineering of the copenhagen strain of vaccinia virus to express the rabies virus glycoprotein. when applied in baits, this recombinant has been shown to vaccinate the red fox in europe and raccoons in the united states, stemming the spread of rabies virus infection in the wild. (ii) a fowlpox-based recombinant expressing the newcastle disease vi ...19968876138
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1995.in 1995, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,877 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 4 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention. nearly 92% (7,247 cases) were wild animals, whereas 8% (630 cases) were domestic species. the total number of reported cases decreased 4.2% from that of 1994 (8,230 cases). most of the decline was the result of 17.1% fewer reported cases of rabies in raccoons in areas of the northeast, where rabies is now e ...19968960176
[transmission of rabies virus: importance of the species barrier].the authors describe experimental inoculations of different animal species with either the wild-type rabies virus or the modified one through in vivo or in vitro passages. with these experiments, it was possible to determine the 50% lethal dose of these viruses for these species, and to thus quantify the importance of the species barrier that opposes, in particular, the transmission of vulpine rabies to cats and dogs (respectively 10(5) and 10(6) times more resistant than foxes). studies were al ...19979235229
ambisense gene expression from recombinant rabies virus: random packaging of positive- and negative-strand ribonucleoprotein complexes into rabies virions.we have recovered from cdna a rabies virus (rv) containing identical, transcriptionally active promoters at its genome (negative-strand) and antigenome rna and directing efficient expression of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) reporter gene from the antigenome. transcription of the antigenome cat gene was terminated by a modified rv gene junction able to mediate transcription stop and polyadenylation but not reinitiation of downstream transcripts. while in standard rv-infected cells gen ...19979311803
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1996.in 1996, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,124 cases of rabies in non-human animals and 4 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention. nearly 92% (6,550 cases) were wild animals, whereas 8% (574 cases) were domestic species. the total number of reported cases decreased 9.6% from that of 1995 (7,881 cases). although much of the decline was the result of fewer reported cases of rabies in raccoons, fewer cases were also reported among most g ...19979412679
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1997.in 1997, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 8,509 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 4 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention. nearly 93% (7,899) were wild animals, whereas 7% (610) were domestic species. the total number of reported cases increased 19.4% from that of 1996 (7,128 cases). increases were apparent in each of the major species groups, with the exception of cattle. the relative contributions of these groups to the total ...19989861958
immunization of dogs and cats with a dna vaccine against rabies virus.the applicability of dna immunization technology for vaccine development in companion animals was investigated by immunizing dogs and cats by the intramuscular (i.m.) and intradermal (i.d.) routes with a plasmid dna vector encoding the rabies virus glycoprotein g. in dogs, administration of 100 microg dna doses by the i.m. route resulted in stronger and more durable rabies virus neutralizing antibody (rvna) titers than those obtained by i.d. inoculation. in contrast, i.m. vaccination of cats wit ...199910195621
safety evaluation of the sag2 rabies virus mutant in tunisian dogs and several non-target species.the safety of the sag2 rabies virus, a highly attenuated mutant of the sad strain intended to vaccinate dogs by the oral route, was evaluated in local tunisian dogs and in five other local species likely to consume vaccine baits. these species were the domestic cat (felis catus), the jackal (canis aureus), the jerboa (jaculus orientalis), the merion (meriones sp.) and the gerbil (gerbillus campestris). the vaccine was administered orally to 21 dogs, 11 cats and eight jackals and orally or intram ...199910478416
pet travel scheme. 199910501588
new cases of mokola virus infection in south africa: a genotypic comparison of southern african virus isolates.mokola virus, one of the six genotypes within the lyssavirus genus of the rhabdoviridae family, is believed to be exclusive to the african continent, where infections in various mammal species have been reported. after an isolation of mokola virus at umhlanga on the east coast of south africa in 1970, the virus was not reported in south africa until its reappearance in 1995. since then a total of six new isolates of the virus were made, three from the east london region in 1995 and 1996, two nea ...200010872870
appropriateness of rabies postexposure prophylaxis treatment for animal exposures. emergency id net study group.rabies postexposure prophylaxis (rpep) treatments and associated costs have increased in the united states. the extent to which rpep use is consistent with guidelines is not well understood.200010944646
rabies surveillance in the united states during 1999.during 1999, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,067 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals to the centers for disease control and prevention, a decrease of 11.2% from 7,961 cases in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being reported in 1998. more than 91% (6,466 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 8.5% (601 cases) were in domestic species (compared with 92.4% in wild animals and 7.6% in domestic species in 1998). no cases of rabies were reported in human beings in 1 ...200011132881
proposal of abolition of the skin sensitivity test before equine rabies immune globulin application.an epizootic outbreak of rabies occurred in 1995 in ribeirão preto, sp, with 58 cases of animal rabies (54 dogs, 3 cats and 1 bat) confirmed by the pasteur institute of são paulo, and one human death. the need to provide care to a large number of people for the application of equine rabies immune globulin (erig) prevented the execution of the skin sensitivity test (sst) and often also the execution of desensitization, procedures routinely used up to that time at the emergency unit of the univers ...200111246284
rabies antibody testing and the uk pet travel scheme.the pet travel scheme (pets) commenced on february 28, 2000, allowing pet dogs and cats from named countries to enter the uk without spending six months in quarantine as long as they met specific criteria. since the start of the scheme to the end of february 2002, more than 45,000 animals have successfully entered the uk under pets. in this article, dr tony fooks and colleagues consider the results of serological testing under the scheme at the veterinary laboratories agency and look to future d ...200211993970
a rapid rt-pcr method to differentiate six established genotypes of rabies and rabies-related viruses using taqman technology.a rapid and sensitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay incorporating taqman probes has been developed that can distinguish among the six established rabies and rabies-related virus genotypes. taqman probes were designed and validated against 106 rabies and rabies-related virus isolates, one isolate of the australian bat lyssaviruses (genotype 7), and 18 other non-rabies viruses important in the veterinary field. the n gene was used as the target for the probes as it ...200212176139
genetic and antigenic typing of rabies virus in chile. brief report.forty-one isolates of rabies virus from insectivorous bats and one from a domestic cat in chile, were characterized using eight anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies (n-mabs) and by nucleotide sequence analysis. thirty-two isolates were identified as antigenic variant 4 associated with tadarida brasiliensis bats, twenty-eight were genetically associated with variant tadarida brasiliensis and four with lasiurus sp. bats. one isolate was identified as antigenic variant 3 associated with desmodu ...200212417953
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2001.during 2001, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,437 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the centers for disease control and prevention, an increase of < 1% from 7,364 cases in nonhuman animals and 5 human cases reported in 2000. more than 93% (6,939 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 6.7% (497 cases) were in domestic species (compared with 93.0% in wild animals and 6.9% in domestic species in 2000). the number of cases reported in 2001 increased among bats, cat ...200212494966
discrimination between dog-related and vampire bat-related rabies viruses in brazil by strain-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.there is a geographical overlap between the two main rabies epidemiological cycles maintained by dogs and vampire bats in latin america. the geographical and temporal coincidence of rabies outbreaks of respective origins is not unusual in rural areas of latin america. these circumstances make it difficult to discriminate the intraspecies and interspecies transmission pathways of rabies.200312637081
fluorescent antibody staining of rabies virus antigens in the salivary glands of rabid animals.staining with fluorescent antibody of street rabies antigens in smears made from the salivary glands of rabid animals is described.the salivary glands of 157 animals, including dogs, foxes, cats, pigs, cows, one squirrel and one rat were processed with fluorescent antibody. in addition, staining was carried out for negri bodies and virus isolation studies were made on the brains and salivary glands. by virus isolation from the brains, a total of 55 animals were found to be rabid. of these, 51 we ...195913850801
rabies in wildlife in latvia.in the baltic states, lyssaviruses are often detected in wildlife and presumed to constitute an important public health hazard. in order to decrease rabies incidence and eradicate wildlife reservoirs, a national rabies eradication program has been in place. since 1970 a vaccination program in dogs and cats has been executed, and in 1991 oral vaccination of foxes was started. however, due to an insufficient budget, the latter was not done regularly and nationwide before 2000. now, the program in ...200314511581
raccoon poxvirus as a mucosal vaccine vector for domestic cats.in the present study, we evaluated both the immunogenicity and safety of recombinant raccoon poxvirus (rcn) as a mucosal vaccine vector for domestic cats. rcn is an orthopoxvirus that was isolated from healthy raccoons and has been used experimentally as a vaccine vector for rabies and other antigens in a variety of species, including raccoons, skunks, foxes, bobcats, rabbits, domestic cats, piglets, sheep and non-human primates. we evaluated the antibody response induced by a recombinant rcn va ...200315203914
wild rabies virus detection by plaque assay from naturally infected brains in different species.a simple, sensitive and specific plaque assay protocol for the detection of wild type rabies virus in different species is described using confluent monolayers of chicken embryo cells in 6-well plates. plaques are produced after application of either agarose or sephadex g-100 overlay onto cell monolayers and incubation for 96 h after virus infection at 37 degrees c. the parameters affecting plaque appearance include cell seeding concentration, overlay composition and time of incubation after inf ...200415504587
clinical laboratory advances in the detection of rabies virus.rabies is one of the most feared zoonotic diseases in the world. all warm-blooded animals are susceptible to infection by the virus, but the main vectors of human infection are dogs and cats. development of rabies can be prevented by postexposure vaccination, and with a few exceptions, the exact time and source of human infection is usually known. however, the effective use of postexposure vaccination depends on the rapid and accurate detection of rabies virus in specimens obtained from the sour ...200515563871
rabies post-exposure prophylaxis in malnourished children exposed to suspect rabid animals.over half of the world's malnourished children live in asia where more than 90% of reported human rabies deaths occur. in order to determine the effect of malnutrition on the immune response to rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (pep), 45 children with moderate to severe protein energy malnutrition (pem) who were exposed to potentially rabid animals were enrolled in a clinical trial. patients received purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine (pcecv) on days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 30. blood was drawn on ...200515629352
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2003.during 2003, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,170 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the cdc. this represents a 10% decrease from the 7,967 cases in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings reported in 2002. more than 91 (n = 6,556) were in wild animals, and 8.6% (614) were in domestic species (compared with 92.5% in wild animals and 74% in domestic species in 2002). the relative contributions of the major groups of animals were as follows: 2,635 raccoons ...200415643834
molecular epidemiological study of arctic rabies virus isolates from greenland and comparison with isolates from throughout the arctic and baltic regions.we report a molecular epidemiological study of rabies in arctic countries by comparing a panel of novel greenland isolates to a larger cohort of viral sequences from both arctic and baltic regions. rabies virus isolates originating from wildlife (arctic/red foxes, raccoon-dogs and reindeer), from domestic animals (dogs/cats) and from two human cases were investigated. the resulting 400 bp n-gene sequences were compared with isolates representing neighbouring arctic or baltic countries from north ...200616198016
antigenic and genetic characterization of rabies viruses isolated from domestic and wild animals of brazil identifies the hoary fox as a rabies reservoir.fifty brazilian rabies viruses, collected from many different animal species and several regions of the country, were characterized by partial sequencing of the central, variable region of the p gene, a locus useful for sensitive molecular epidemiological studies. phylogenetic analysis of the sequences, which included comparison with other rabies strains recovered from throughout the americas, identified three main groups of brazilian viruses, arbitrarily designated brl-1 to brl-3. brl-1 was fou ...200516227239
genetic divergence of rabies viruses from bat species of colorado, usa.molecular epidemiological studies have linked many cryptic human rabies cases in the united states with exposure to rabies virus (rv) variants associated with insectivorous bats. in colorado, bats accounted for 98% of all reported animal rabies cases between 1977 and 1996. the genetic divergence of rv was investigated in bat and terrestrial animal specimens that were submitted for rabies diagnosis to the colorado department of public health and environment (cdphe), colorado, usa. rv isolates fro ...200516417429
evaluation of a direct, rapid immunohistochemical test for rabies diagnosis.a direct rapid immunohistochemical test (drit) was evaluated under field and laboratory conditions to detect rabies virus antigen in frozen and glycerol-preserved field brain samples from northwestern tanzania. compared to the direct fluorescent antibody test, the traditional standard in rabies diagnosis, the drit was 100% sensitive and specific.200616494761
molecular diversity of rabies viruses associated with bats in mexico and other countries of the americas.bat rabies and its transmission to humans and other species in mexico were investigated. eighty-nine samples obtained from rabid livestock, cats, dogs, and humans in mexico were studied by antigenic typing and partial sequence analysis. samples were further compared with enzootic rabies associated with different species of bats in the americas. patterns of nucleotide variation allowed the definition of at least 20 monophyletic clusters associated with 9 or more different bat species. several lin ...200616672396
retrospective: animal attacks and rabies exposures in thai children.over 50% of animal bites and potential rabies exposures in thailand are in children and they also have the more severe injuries due to inexperience, smaller size and less ability to fend off attacks. potential rabies exposures and animal bites are common in thailand. majority of these are in children where the extent of the injuries is also much more severe. the bitten areas correlate to the age of the children and level of the bitten animal head. these are areas noted for a higher risk of infec ...200616905457
[epidemiological aspects of human and animal rabies in the urban area of bamako, mali].the district of bamako is the political and economical capital city of mali with 1,800,000 inhabitants. the goal of the present retrospective study was to determine the frequency of animal bites, human and animal rabies on the one hand and to determine the frequency and the nature of mad animals on the other hand from january 2000 to december 2003 (4 years). to achieve this goal, we have analysed registers and documents related to rabies in the department of prevention and fight against diseases ...200616983822
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2005.during 2005, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,417 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the cdc, representing a 6.2% decrease from the 6,836 cases in nonhuman animals and 8 cases in human beings reported in 2004. approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,534 raccoons (39.5%), 1,478 skunks (23%), 1,408 bats (21.9%), 376 foxes (5.9%), 269 cats (4.2%), 93 cat ...200617173527
rabies-update on a global disease. 200717414401
porcine rabies in a closed feeder barn.rabies was diagnosed in a 40 kg pig from a closed feeder barn in which recently unexplained deaths of eight to ten pigs had occurred. a stray cat, probably crawling through a ventilation duct into the barn, was the suspected vector. over a four and one-quarter year period a disproportionate 53 cases of animal rabies had been diagnosed within a 5 km radius of the farm (13% of the cases in the county in 3% of the county area). histological lesions, mostly lymphocytic cuffing of blood vessels in th ...198617422636
[comparative study between 2 conjugates for the diagnosis of rabies in cuba by direct immunofluorescence].a comparison was made between the conjugate of national production made by "carlos j. finlay" enterprise of biological products for diagnosing rabies by direct immunofluorescence and the viral antinucleocapsid conjugate manufactured by biorad that is commercialized at the international level. 150 samples of brain from different animal species were studied at the rabies reference laboratory of "pedro kouri" institute of tropical medicine from 2000 to 2002. on comparing both conjugates, there were ...200517966581
intradermal dna vaccination in ear pinnae is an efficient route to protect cats against rabies virus.a dna vaccine against rabies (pgqh) was administrated to cats in order to examine different administration routes. four groups of three cats each were inoculated with pgqh as follows: group a, intramuscularly (im), 100 microg; group b, intranasally (in), 100 microg; group c, intradermally into ear pinnae (id-ep), 100 microg, and group d, im, 200 microl of phosphate buffer solution (pbs) alone (control group). blood was drawn on days 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180. groups a, b, and c received a ...200818215393
the changing scenario of rabies in india: are we moving towards its prevention and control? 200718229438
[molecule character of rabies virus in 3 counties in hunan china].to study the rabies molecular biology features in animals between high incidence area of rabies and no rabies cases area in hunan.200718322597
effects of anesthesia and surgery on serologic responses to vaccination in kittens.to determine the effects of anesthesia and surgery on serologic responses to vaccination in kittens.200818593319
investigating antibody neutralization of lyssaviruses using lentiviral pseudotypes: a cross-species comparison.cross-neutralization between rabies virus (rabv) and two european bat lyssaviruses (eblv-1 and -2) was analysed using lentiviral pseudotypes as antigen vectors. glycoprotein (g-protein) cdna from rabv challenge virus standard-11 (cvs-11) and eblv-1 and -2 were cloned and co-expressed with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) or murine leukemia virus (mlv) gag-pol and packageable green fluorescent protein (gfp) or luciferase reporter genes in human cells. the harvested lentiviral (hiv) vector infec ...200818753230
rabies awareness in eight asian countries.rabies is a deadly zoonotic disease most often transmitted to humans through a dog bite. human mortality from endemic canine rabies is estimated by who to be around 55,000 deaths annually, with over 31,000 deaths in asia alone, mostly children. most of these deaths could be prevented through post-exposure prophylaxis (pep), including immediate wound washing, rabies immunoglobulin administration and vaccination. unfortunately, at-risk populations are not well-informed of the risk of rabies and wh ...200818804507
localization of serotoninergic neurons that participate in regulating diaphragm activity in the cat.although a considerable body of literature indicates that serotoninergic neurons affect diaphragm activity both through direct inputs to phrenic motoneurons and multisynaptic connections involving the brainstem respiratory groups, the locations of the serotoninergic neurons that modulate breathing have not been well defined. the present study identified these neurons in cats by combining the transneuronal retrograde transport of rabies virus from the diaphragm with the immunohistochemical detect ...200919433074
feline rabies. abcd guidelines on prevention and management.overview: rabies virus belongs to the genus lyssavirus, together with european bat lyssaviruses 1 and 2. in clinical practice, rabies virus is easily inactivated by detergent-based disinfectants. infection: rabid animals are the only source of infection. virus is shed in the saliva some days before the onset of clinical signs and transmitted through a bite or a scratch to the skin or mucous membranes. the average incubation period in cats is 2 months, but may vary from 2 weeks to several months, ...200919481038
[new animal hosts of rabies virus in mountain areas in zhejiang province].to understand the prevalence of rabies among wild animals and the animal species in rabies epidemic areas of zhejiang province.200919731524
distribution of hypothalamic neurons with orexin (hypocretin) or melanin concentrating hormone (mch) immunoreactivity and multisynaptic connections with diaphragm motoneurons.prior work showed that neurons in the lateral, dorsal, and perifornical regions of the tuberal and mammillary levels of the hypothalamus participate in the control of breathing. the same areas also contain large numbers of neurons that produce either orexins (hypocretins) or melanin concentrating hormone (mch). these peptides have been implicated in regulating energy balance and physiological changes that occur in transitions between sleep and wakefulness, amongst other functions. the goal of th ...201020144885
terrestrial rabies and human postexposure prophylaxis, new york, usa.during 1993-2002, cats accounted for 2.7% of rabid terrestrial animals in new york but for one third of human exposure incidents and treatments. nonbite exposures and animals of undetermined rabies status accounted for 54% and 56%, respectively, of persons receiving rabies treatments.201020202438
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2009.during 2009, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,690 rabid animals and 4 human rabies cases to the cdc, representing a 2.2% decrease from the 6,841 rabid animals and 2 human cases reported in 2008. approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,327 (34.8%) raccoons, 1,625 (24.3%) bats, 1,603 (24.0%) skunks, 504 (75%) foxes, 300 (4.5%) cats, 81 (1.2%) dogs, and 74 (1.1%) cattle. compared with 2008, numbers of rabid ...201020839985
[study on the status of infection and distribution of rabies virus in china.]objective: to investigate the status of infection and distribution of rabies virus (rv) in different epidemic areas in china. methods: brain specimens from animals and suspected patients were collected at the districts of high-, medium- and low incidence rates of human rabies and detected by both direct immunofluorescence assay (dfa) and rt-pcr. results: 254 of 3007 specimens of dog brains showed rv positive by dfa (positive rate of 8.4%). among these 254 samples, 78 showed positive (positive ra ...201021163029
molecular epidemiology of the rabies virus in slovenia 1994-2010.a molecular epidemiology study was performed on a selection of 30 rabies-positive brain samples collected between 1994 and 2010 in slovenia and originating from the red fox (n=19), badger (n=3), cattle (n=3), dog (n=2), cat (n=1), marten (n=1) and horse (n=1). based on the comparison of 1092 and 672 nucleotide sequences of nucleoprotein (n) and partial glycoprotein (g) gene regions, a low genetic diversity of the circulating strains was detected, but both phylogenetic trees were consistent with ...201121571453
molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in vietnam (2006-2009).this study was aimed at determining the molecular epidemiology of rabies virus (rabv) circulating in vietnam. intra vitam samples (saliva and cerebrospinal fluid) were collected from 31 patients who were believed to have rabies and were admitted to hospitals in northern provinces of vietnam. brain samples were collected from 176 sick or furious rabid dogs from all over the country. the human and canine samples were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. the findin ...201121937820
exposure to selected pathogens in to selected pathogens in geoffroy's cats and domestic carnivores from central argentina.wild carnivores share a high percentage of parasites and viruses with closely related domestic carnivores. because of increased overlap and potential contact with domestic species, we conducted a retrospective serosurvey for 11 common carnivore pathogens in 40 geoffroy's cats (leopardus geoffroyi) sampled between 2000 and 2008 within or near two protected areas in central argentina (lihué calel national park, la pampa, and campos del tuyú national park, buenos aires), as well as five domestic ca ...201223060491
serosurvey for selected viral infections in free-ranging jaguars (panthera onca) and domestic carnivores in brazilian cerrado, pantanal, and amazon.we investigated the exposure of jaguar (panthera onca) populations and domestic carnivores to selected viral infections in the cerrado, amazon, and pantanal biomes of brazil. between february 2000 and january 2010, we collected serum samples from 31 jaguars, 174 dogs (canis lupus familiaris), and 35 domestic cats (felis catus). serologic analyses for antibodies to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (cdv), feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), and for feline leukemia virus (felv) antigen were co ...201323778599
complete genome sequences of four virulent rabies virus strains isolated from rabid animals in russia.rabies virus (rabv) strains rus(lipetsk)-8052f, rus(lipetsk)-8053c, rus(lipetsk)-8054f, and rus(lipetsk)-8057f were isolated from foxes (vulpes vulpes) and a cat (felis catus) in the lipetsk region of russia in 2011. close relationships between these strains and the members of the "cosmopolitan" group from russia (98% homology) and from europe (95% homology) were estimated.201323661472
host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals.the majority of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, with viruses that originate in wild mammals of particular concern (for example, hiv, ebola and sars). understanding patterns of viral diversity in wildlife and determinants of successful cross-species transmission, or spillover, are therefore key goals for pandemic surveillance programs. however, few analytical tools exist to identify which host species are likely to harbour the next human virus, or which viruses can cross species ...201728636590
an assessment of shedding with the oral rabies virus vaccine strain spbn gasgas in target and non-target species.a safety requirement for live vaccines is investigating possible shedding in recipients since the presence of replication competent vaccine in secretions could result in direct and indirect horizontal transmission. this is especially relevant for oral rabies vaccine baits that are deliberately distributed into the environment. in the current study, survival of an oral rabies virus vaccine, spbn gasgas, was examined in excretions from different target and non-target species; red fox, raccoon dog, ...201829325820
complete genome sequence of a rabies virus isolate from cattle in guangxi, southern china.a street rabies virus (rv) isolate, gxhxn, was obtained from brain tissue of rabid cattle in the guangxi zhuang autonomous region of china in 2009. gxhxn is the first isolate from cattle in china with its entire genome sequenced and is closely related to bj2011e from horse in beijing, wh11 from donkey in the hubei province, and isolates from dogs in the guangxi and fujian provinces, with homologies of 97.6% to 99.6%. it is more distantly related to isolates from domestic cat, pig, chinese ferret ...201323405368
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