host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals.the majority of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, with viruses that originate in wild mammals of particular concern (for example, hiv, ebola and sars). understanding patterns of viral diversity in wildlife and determinants of successful cross-species transmission, or spillover, are therefore key goals for pandemic surveillance programs. however, few analytical tools exist to identify which host species are likely to harbour the next human virus, or which viruses can cross species ...201728636590
isolation of yersinia pseudotuberculosis and listeria monocytogenes serotype 4 from a gray fox (urocyon cinereoargenteus) with canine february 1993, clinical, pathological, and microbiological investigations were performed on an adult female gray fox (urocyon cinereoargenteus) from northern mississippi (usa). the fox had clinical signs consistent with canine distemper virus encephalitis. eosinophilic inclusions characteristic of canine distemper virus were in the nuclei and cytoplasm of cerebral neurons and glial cells and in the cytoplasm of urinary, gastric, pancreatic and biliary epithelial cells. the liver contained mul ...19968722280
diseases and parasites of red foxes, gray foxes, and coyotes from commercial sources selling to fox-chasing enclosures.fifty-six red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 18 gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus), and 13 coyotes (canis latrans) obtained by the south carolina wildlife and marine resources department during an investigation of suspected illegal wildlife translocation were examined for diseases and parasites. red foxes and coyotes were confiscated from an animal dealer based in ohio (usa), and gray foxes were purchased from an animal dealer in indiana (usa). emphasis was placed on detection of pathogens representi ...19921474656
prevalence of selected pathogenic microbial agents in the red fox (vulpes fulva) and gray fox (urocyon cinereoargenteus) of southwestern red foxes (vulpes fulva) and gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) were trapped in southwestern wisconsin. fox sera were tested to determine the prevalence of antibody for five different leptospira interrogans serovars, canine distemper virus (cdv), infectious canine hepatitis virus (ichv), and franciscella tularensis infections. grippotyphosa was the most prevalent leptospiral serovar antibody observed. twenty-five of 53 (47%) red foxes and 11 of 36 (31%) gray foxes had specific an ...19816265659
characterization of a novel canine distemper virus causing disease in wildlife.canine distemper virus (cdv) is a common cause of a multisystemic disease in both domestic dogs and wildlife species, including raccoons and foxes. outbreaks of cdv in domestic dogs in eastern tennessee have occurred since 2012, and it was determined that these outbreaks resulted from a novel genotype of cdv. we hypothesized that this virus is also infecting area wildlife and may be a source of the virus for these outbreaks in dogs. from 2013 to 2014, autopsies were performed and tissues collect ...201627400957
epizootiology of canine distemper in new jersey raccoons.seventeen epizootics of canine distemper (cd) involving at least 615 raccoons (procyon lotor) were identified between 1 september 1977 and 25 march 1991 in new jersey (usa). epizootics occurred three times at four year intervals in three areas. based on this cycling, the wide distribution of cd cases, and their occurrence between epizootics, i propose an enzootic status for cd in new jersey raccoons. the peak period prevalence of raccoon canine distemper cases occurred at the end of the mating s ...19938355340
diseases diagnosed in gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) from the southeastern united states.diagnostic findings were reviewed on 157 sick or dead gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) from the southeastern united states examined during the period 1972 through 1989. most foxes (n = 118) originated from georgia; fewer animals were from florida, kentucky, maryland, mississippi, north carolina, south carolina, tennessee, virginia and west virginia. etiologic diagnoses included canine distemper (n = 125), congenital absence of guard hairs (n = 7), traumatic injuries (n = 7), rabies (n = 3), ...19921548799
Infection with a Hepatozoon sp. closely related to Hepatozoon felis in a wild Pampas gray fox (Lycalopex -Pseudalopex -gymnocercus) co-infected with canine distemper virus.A species of Hepatozoon closely related to Hepatozoon felis found in the skeletal and cardiac muscle of a wild Pampas gray fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) is described. The fox was euthanized after showing severe incoordination. On necropsy and histopathology there was bilateral, diffuse, severe, sub-acute, necrotizing bronchointerstitial pneumonia, with intracytoplasmic and intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies. Canine distemper virus was detected by immunohistochemistry in the bronchiolar epi ...201122112977
global mammal parasite database version 2.0.illuminating the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of parasites is one of the most pressing issues facing modern science, and is critical for basic science, the global economy, and human health. extremely important to this effort are data on the disease-causing organisms of wild animal hosts (including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, helminths, arthropods, and fungi). here we present an updated version of the global mammal parasite database, a database of the parasites of wild ungulates (artioda ...201728273333
exposure to feline and canine pathogens in bobcats and gray foxes in urban and rural zones of a national park in california.exposure of bobcats (lynx rufus) and gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) to a range of common canine and feline pathogens was assessed in urban and rural zones of golden gate national recreation area, a national park in the san francisco bay area, (california, usa) from 1992 to 1995. testing included serology for canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus (cpv), canine adenovirus, leptospira interrogans, feline calicivirus (fcv), feline panleukopenia virus, feline herpesvirus, feline enteric co ...200415137484
morbidity and mortality of red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) admitted to the wildlife center of virginia, 1993-2001.the medical records of 48 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and 35 gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) examined at the wildlife center of virginia (waynesboro, virginia, usa) from 1993 to 2001 were reviewed. the most common diagnosis in red foxes was orphaned (33%), followed by trauma (27%), undetermined diagnosis (23%), and sarcoptic mange (17%). trauma (46%) was the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in gray foxes followed by orphaned (23%), undetermined (20%), toxoplasmosis (6%), presum ...200312910780
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