a canine distemper virus epidemic in serengeti lions (panthera leo).canine distemper virus (cdv) is thought to have caused several fatal epidemics in canids within the serengeti-mara ecosystem of east africa, affecting silver-backed jackals (canis mesomelas) and bat-eared foxes (otocyon megalotis) in 1978 (ref. 1), and african wild dogs (lycaon pictus) in 1991 (refs 2, 3). the large, closely monitored serengeti lion population was not affected in these epidemics. however, an epidemic caused by a morbillivirus closely related to cdv emerged abruptly in the lion p ...19968559247
distemper outbreak and its effect on african wild dog december 2000, an infectious disease spread through a captive breeding group of african wild dogs (lycaon pictus) in tanzania, killing 49 of 52 animals within 2 months. the causative agent was identified as canine distemper virus (cdv) by means of histologic examination, virus isolation, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis, and nucleotide sequencing. this report emphasizes the importance of adequate protection against infectious diseases for the successful outcome of capt ...200211897078
clinical and serological response of wild dogs (lycaon pictus) to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies.wild dogs lycaon pictuis (n = 8) were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8) (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper) and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8) over a period of 360 days. four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use in ...200212088076
immunogenicity of an inactivated oil-emulsion canine distemper vaccine in african wild dogs.the immunogenicity of an inactivated oil-emulsion vaccine against canine distemper virus was evaluated in nine captive african wild dogs (lycaon pictus). antibody levels were determined by neutralization test in vero cells. no significant local or systemic adverse reactions were observed in the animals. virus neutralizing antibody levels >1:20 were detected, especially in animals that were vaccinated twice. the use of oil adjuvants is suggested as a good way to enhance the immune response to ina ...200415362839
contact with domestic dogs increases pathogen exposure in endangered african wild dogs (lycaon pictus).infectious diseases have contributed to the decline and local extinction of several wildlife species, including african wild dogs (lycaon pictus). mitigating such disease threats is challenging, partly because uncertainty about disease dynamics makes it difficult to identify the best management approaches. serious impacts on susceptible populations most frequently occur when generalist pathogens are maintained within populations of abundant (often domestic) "reservoir" hosts, and spill over into ...201222238695
seroepidemiological survey of sympatric domestic and wild dogs (lycaon pictus) in tsumkwe district, north-eastern namibia.disease is a potential threat to many endangered populations and may originate from sympatric domestic species. this paper describes a cross-sectional serological survey of canine pathogens carried out in domestic (n = 70) and wild dogs (lycoan pictus) (n = 6), in tsumkwe district, northeastern namibia. evidence of past exposure to canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus and parainfluenza virus was evident in both wild and domestic dogs with this, the first, documented exposure of free-living ...19979551484
comparison of oral and intramuscular recombinant canine distemper vaccination in african wild dogs (lycaon pictus).a series of three doses of recombinant canary-pox-vectored canine distemper virus vaccine was administered at 1-mo intervals, orally (n = 8) or intramuscularly (n = 13), to 21 previously unvaccinated juvenile african wild dogs (lycaon pictus) at the wildlife conservation society's bronx zoo. titers were measured by serum neutralization at each vaccination and at intervals over a period of 3.5-21.5 mo after the initial vaccination. all postvaccination titers were negative for orally vaccinated an ...201324450046
antibody response to canine distemper vaccine in african wild dogs.antibody levels against canine distemper virus were measured by means of an immunofluorescent antibody test prior to, and after, administration of a modified-live virus booster vaccine to seven african wild dogs (lycaon pictus). positive seroconversion with no harmful side-effects was seen in all the animals.19921512877
rabies virus and canine distemper virus in wild and domestic carnivores in northern kenya: are domestic dogs the reservoir?rabies virus (rv) and canine distemper virus (cdv) can cause significant mortality in wild carnivore populations, and rv threatens human lives. we investigated serological patterns of exposure to cdv and rv in domestic dogs (canis familiaris), african wild dogs (lycaon pictus), black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas), spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta), striped hyenas (hyaena hyaena) and african lions (panthera leo), over a 10-year period, in a kenyan rangeland to assess the role domestic dogs may ...201223459924
multi-host pathogens and carnivore management in southern africa.a retrospective serosurvey of multi-host feline and canine viruses among carnivore species in southern africa (n=1018) identified widespread pathogen exposure even in remote protected areas. in contrast to mortality experienced in east african predators, canine distemper virus (cdv) infection among african wild dogs (lycaon pictus) in botswana was not associated with identifiable change in pup survivorship or disease related mortality of adults. a disease outbreak of unknown aetiology occurred i ...201019038454
distemper-like disease and encephalitozoonosis in wild dogs (lycaon pictus).clinical signs of a fatal disease resembling those of canine distemper were observed in two groups of captive wild dog (lycaon pictus) pups 13 days after vaccination with a commercially available combination vaccine for dogs which contained a live attenuated strain of canine distemper virus. histopathological examination of tissues revealed the presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies in neurons and lesions resembling canine distemper as well as colonies of an encephalitozoon sp. in the central ...19892492610
duration of immunity in red wolves (canis rufus) following vaccination with a modified live parvovirus and canine distemper vaccine.there is growing information available regarding duration of immunity for core vaccines in both domestic and nondomestic species. vaccination protocols in nondomestic canids have frequently followed guidelines developed for the domestic dog; however, these protocols can be inappropriate for nondomestic canids such as the african wild dog (lycaon pictus), leaving some animals susceptible to infectious disease and others at risk for contracting vaccine-induced disease. in this study, red wolves (c ...201425314821
serosurvey for selected viral diseases and demography of african wild dogs in tanzania.african wild dogs (lycaon pictus) are endangered, with only 3,000-5,000 remaining in the wild. it is believed that wild dogs are unusually vulnerable to viral diseases, particularly rabies and canine distemper (cdv). however, canine distemper has been confirmed by laboratory diagnosis in only one free-living wild dog. the 43,000 km2 selous game reserve (sgr; tanzania) holds approximately 900 adult wild dogs. in a study area of 2,600 km2, the population maintained high density (> or = 1 dog/20.5 ...19979391968
rabies, canine distemper, and canine parvovirus exposure in large carnivore communities from two zambian ecosystems.disease transmission within and among wild and domestic carnivores can have significant impacts on populations, particularly for threatened and endangered species. we used serology to evaluate potential exposure to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (cdv), and canine parvovirus (cpv) for populations of african lions (panthera leo), african wild dogs (lycaon pictus), and spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) in zambia's south luangwa national park (slnp) and liuwa plain national park (lpnp) as well ...201323805791
serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from zimbabwe.domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-saharan africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (cpv) and canine distemper virus (cdv), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as african wild dogs and african lions, respectively. the impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessmen ...201425686382
vaccine-associated canine distemper infection in a litter of african hunting dogs (lycaon pictus).four, 57 days old, african hunting dog puppies (lycaon pictus) from one litter died within three weeks following vaccination with modified-live canine distemper virus (cdv) and killed canine adenovirus type 1, canine parvovirus and leptospira icterohemorrhagiae and canicola. 18 days post vaccination, the animals developed neurologic disease characterized by episodes of grand mal seizures and circling. macroscopic, histological and immunohistochemical studies revealed acute systemic cdv infection ...19902385981
host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals.the majority of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, with viruses that originate in wild mammals of particular concern (for example, hiv, ebola and sars). understanding patterns of viral diversity in wildlife and determinants of successful cross-species transmission, or spillover, are therefore key goals for pandemic surveillance programs. however, few analytical tools exist to identify which host species are likely to harbour the next human virus, or which viruses can cross species ...201728636590
fatal canine distemper infection in a pack of african wild dogs in the serengeti ecosystem, 2007, disease related mortality occurred in one african wild dog (lycaon pictus) pack close to the north-eastern boundary of the serengeti national park, tanzania. histopathological examination of tissues from six animals revealed that the main pathologic changes comprised interstitial pneumonia and suppurative to necrotizing bronchopneumonia. respiratory epithelial cells contained numerous eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies and multiple syncytial cells were found throughout the p ...201020684868
serum antibody levels before and after administration of live canine distemper vaccine to the wild dog lycaon pictus.antibodies against canine distemper virus were determined before and after the administration of a live canine distemper virus vaccine to 16 wild dogs lycaon pictus. antibody levels were either very low or non-detectable. the results were inconclusive.19807241502
global mammal parasite database version 2.0.illuminating the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of parasites is one of the most pressing issues facing modern science, and is critical for basic science, the global economy, and human health. extremely important to this effort are data on the disease-causing organisms of wild animal hosts (including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, helminths, arthropods, and fungi). here we present an updated version of the global mammal parasite database, a database of the parasites of wild ungulates (artioda ...201728273333
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