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evaluation of 6-azauridine and 5-iododeoxyuridine in the treatment of experimental viral infections.the potential antiviral activity of 6-azauridine and 5-iododeoxyuridine was evaluated in a coordinated study at five institutions. experimental models in five species, the mouse, rabbit, swine, cat, and ferret, were established with use of 10 viruses: herpesvirus hominis types 1 and 2, murine cytomegalovirus, vaccinia virus, shope fibroma virus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, swine influenza virus, feline viral rhinotracheitis virus, feline panleukopenia virus, and ferret distemper virus. ...1976180189
virus isolation and serum antibody responses after infection of cats with transmissible gastroenteritis virus. brief report.transmissible gastroenteritis virus was administered orally to cats. no clinical disease resulted but infectious virus was isolated from faeces for up to 22 days after infection and serum antibody was detected by neutralisation and immunofluorescence tests.1979226036
seroepidemiology of feline infectious peritonitis virus infections using transmissible gastroenteritis virus as antigen. 1977341605
proteins specified by swine transmissible gastroenteritis virus: identification of non-structural proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis.four virus-induced non-structural proteins with apparent molecular weights of 11-14 kilodaltons (kda) were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis in cells infected by tgev. differences in the number of non-structural proteins were observed among virulent and attenuated tgev strains as well as with two antigenically related feline and canine coronaviruses.19911662051
antigenic structure of transmissible gastroenteritis virus. i. properties of monoclonal antibodies directed against virion proteins.thirty-two hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against the three major structural proteins of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) have been isolated. radioimmunoprecipitation of intracellular viral polypeptides showed that 17 hybridomas recognized both the peplomer protein [e2, 220 x 10(3) mol. wt. (220k)] and a lower mol. wt. species (e'2, 175k), which was characterized as a precursor of e2. six mabs selectively immunoprecipitated the e'2 protein. four hybridomas ...19862418148
comparison of serologic assays for measurement of antibody response to coronavirus in cats.serologic virus neutralization tests, indirect immunofluorescence tests, and elisa, using tissue culture-adapted feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) or feline enteric coronavirus (fecv) were compared for their ability to distinguish specific virus exposure in cats. sera of specific-pathogen-free cats inoculated with virulent or modified fipv or fecv were used to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the homologous assays to a heterologous assay that measures antibody reactivity with ...19882851952
sequence analysis of the 3'-end of the feline coronavirus fipv 79-1146 genome: comparison with the genome of porcine coronavirus tgev reveals large insertions.the genetic information, carried on mrna 6 of feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) strain 79-1146, was determined by sequence analysis of cdna clones derived from the 3' end of the fipv genome. two orfs were found, encoding polypeptides of 11k (orf-1) and 22k (orf-2). the fipv sequence was compared to the 3' end sequence of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev). orf-1 has a homologous counterpart (orf-x3) in the tgev genome; both orfs are located at the same position relative to the n ...19883201747
antigenic relationships among homologous structural polypeptides of porcine, feline, and canine coronaviruses.transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine (tgev), feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv), and canine coronavirus were studied with respect to their serological cross-reactivity in homologous and heterologous virus neutralization, immune precipitation of radiolabeled tgev, electroblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using individual virion polypeptides prepared by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. tgev was neutralized by feline anti-fipv serum, and the reaction was potentiated ...19826182101
an enteric coronavirus infection of cats and its relationship to feline infectious peritonitis.an enteric coronavirus that is antigenically closely related to feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) is ubiquitous in the cat population. this virus has been designated feline enteric coronavirus to differentiate it from fipv. the virus is shed in the feces by many seropositive cats; in catteries it is a cause of inapparent to mildly severe enteritis in kittens 6 to 12 weeks of age. the virus may produce a more severe enteritis in young specific-pathogen-free kittens. feline enteric corona ...19816267960
studies of enteric coronaviruses in a feline cell line.development is reported of a feline cell line which can support the growth of coronaviruses from canine (ccv), feline (fipv) and porcine (tgev) species. the cell culture has been serially transferred over 100 times and has retained its initial growth requirements, proliferative capacity and morphologic features. each virus had specific growth characteristics in this cell culture although all produced a similar cpe and plaques under agar. cross neutralization studies demonstrated a two-way relati ...19826298992
identification of antigenic sites mediating antibody-dependent enhancement of feline infectious peritonitis virus infectivity.we have previously demonstrated antibody-dependent enhancement of feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) infection of macrophages using both virus-specific antisera and monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to the spike (s) protein of fipv. to increase our understanding of this phenomenon, six representative mabs from a previously documented group of 12 enhancing mabs were used to identify epitopes that mediate antibody-dependent enhancement of fipv infectivity. analysis of the results of kinetics-ba ...19937682252
characterization of the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) transcription initiation sequence. characterization of tgev tis.the ability of the tgev transcription initiation sequence (tis) to produce subgenomic rnas was investigated by placing a reporter gene, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) under the control of either the mrna 6 or the mrna 7 tiss. both constructs only produced cat in tgev infected cells and the amount of cat produced from the mrna 7 tis was less than from the mrna 6 tis. mutations were made within and around the tiss and the effect on cat production assayed. the results showed that the tgev ...19958830536
characterization of functional domains in the human coronavirus hcv 229e receptor.human aminopeptidase n (hapn or cd13) and porcine aminopeptidase n (papn) are functional receptors for human coronavirus (hcv) 229e and porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), respectively. however, hapn cannot function as a receptor for tgev and papn cannot function as a receptor for hcv 229e. in this study, we constructed a series of chimeric hapn/papn genes and expressed the corresponding proteins in transfected cells. subsequently, we identified the chimeric proteins that can fun ...19968887485
development of a nested pcr assay for detection of feline infectious peritonitis virus in clinical specimens.a diagnostic test for feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) infection based on a nested pcr (npcr) assay was developed and tested with fipv, feline enteric coronavirus (fecv), canine coronavirus (ccv), and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) and clinical fluid samples from cats with effusive feline infectious peritonitis (fip). the target sequence for the assay is in the s1 region of the peplomer protein e2 gene. a vaccine strain of fipv and two wild-type fipv strains tested positive ...19979041410
characterization of determinants involved in the feline infectious peritonitis virus receptor function of feline aminopeptidase n.feline aminopeptidase n (fapn) is a major cell surface receptor for feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), human coronavirus 229e (hcv 229e) and canine coronavirus (ccv). by using chimeric molecules assembled from porcine, human and feline apn we have analysed the determinants involved in the coronavirus receptor function of fapn. our results show that amino acids 670-840 of fapn are critically involved in its fipv and tgev receptor function where ...19989634079
differences in virus receptor for type i and type ii feline infectious peritonitis virus.feline infectious peritonitis viruses (fipvs) are classified into type i and type ii serogroups. here, we report that feline aminopeptidase n (apn), a cell-surface metalloprotease on the intestinal, lung and kidney epithelial cells, is a receptor for type ii fipv but not for type i fipv. a monoclonal antibody (mab) r-g-4, which blocks infection of felis catus whole fetus (fcwf-4) cells by type ii fipv, was obtained by immunizing mice with fcwf-4 cells which are highly susceptible to fipv. this m ...19989645192
nucleotide sequence of the inter-structural gene region of feline infectious peritonitis virus.the sequence of the region located between the s and m glycoprotein genes of the 79-1146 strain of feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) is presented. the inter-structural gene region encodes 3 open reading frames (orfs), termed orfs 3a, 3b and 4, with nucleotide sequences conforming to the minimum conserved transcription signal upstream of each. an additional orf, 3x, partially overlaps the 3' end of orf 3a. the fipv interstructural gene region is identical in length when compared to the i ...19989654687
feline aminopeptidase n is a receptor for all group i coronaviruses.human coronavirus hcv-229e and porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), both members of coronavirus group i, use aminopeptidase n (apn) as their cellular receptors. these viruses show marked species specificity in receptor utilization as they can only use apn of their respective species to initiate virus infection. feline and canine coronaviruses are also group i coronaviruses. to determine whether feline apn could serve as a receptor for feline coronaviruses (fcovs), we cloned the cd ...19989782266
development of a nested pcr assay for the detection of canine coronavirus.a diagnostic test for canine coronavirus (ccv) infection based on a nested polymerase chain reaction (n-pcr) assay was developed and tested using the following coronavirus strains: ccv (usda strain), ccv (45/93, field strain), feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv, field strain), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev, purdue strain), bovine coronavirus (bcv, 9wbl-77 strain), infectious bronchitis virus (ibv, m-41 strain) and fecal samples of dogs with ccv enteritis. a 230-bp segment of t ...199910403671
feline and canine coronaviruses are released from the basolateral side of polarized epithelial llc-pk1 cells expressing the recombinant feline aminopeptidase-n cdna.in this study feline (fecv and fipv) and canine (ccov) coronavirus entry into and release from polarized porcine epithelial llc-pk1 cells, stably expressing the recombinant feline aminopeptidase-n cdna, were investigated. virus entry appeared to occur preferentially through the apical membrane, similar to the entry of the related porcine coronavirus transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) into these cells. however, whereas tgev is released apically, feline and canine coronaviruses were found ...200111402864
molecular determinants of species specificity in the coronavirus receptor aminopeptidase n (cd13): influence of n-linked glycosylation.aminopeptidase n (apn), a 150-kda metalloprotease also called cd13, serves as a receptor for serologically related coronaviruses of humans (human coronavirus 229e [hcov-229e]), pigs, and cats. these virus-receptor interactions can be highly species specific; for example, the human coronavirus can use human apn (hapn) but not porcine apn (papn) as its cellular receptor, and porcine coronaviruses can use papn but not hapn. substitution of papn amino acids 283 to 290 into hapn for the corresponding ...200111559807
conservation of substrate specificities among coronavirus main proteases.the key enzyme in coronavirus replicase polyprotein processing is the coronavirus main protease, 3cl(pro). the substrate specificities of five coronavirus main proteases, including the prototypic enzymes from the coronavirus groups i, ii and iii, were characterized. recombinant main proteases of human coronavirus (hcov), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), feline infectious peritonitis virus, avian infectious bronchitis virus and mouse hepatitis virus (mhv) were tested in peptide-based t ...200211842254
feline coronavirus serotypes 1 and 2: seroprevalence and association with disease in switzerland.to determine the prevalence of antibodies to feline coronavirus (fcov) serotypes 1 and 2 in switzerland and their association with different disease manifestations, a serological study based on immunofluorescence tests was conducted with swiss field cats using transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), fcov type 1 and fcov type 2 as antigens. a total of 639 serum samples collected in the context of different studies from naturally infected cats were tested. the current study revealed that, with ...200516210485
mutational analysis of aminopeptidase n, a receptor for several group 1 coronaviruses, identifies key determinants of viral host range.feline coronavirus (fcov), porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (tgev), canine coronavirus (ccov), and human coronavirus hcov-229e, which belong to the group 1 coronavirus, use aminopeptidase n (apn) of their natural host and feline apn (fapn) as receptors. using mouse-feline apn chimeras, we identified three small, discontinuous regions, amino acids (aa) 288 to 290, aa 732 to 746 (called r1), and aa 764 to 788 (called r2) in fapn that determined the host ranges of these coronavirus ...200717093189
investigation of the control of coronavirus subgenomic mrna transcription by using t7-generated negative-sense rna transcripts.the subgenomic mrnas of the coronavirus transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) are not produced in equimolar amounts. we have developed a reporter gene system to investigate the control of this differential subgenomic mrna synthesis. transcription of mrnas by the tgev polymerase was obtained from negative-sense rna templates generated in situ from dna containing a t7 promoter. a series of gene cassettes was produced; these cassettes comprised the reporter chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (c ...19957666523
lesions in the small intestine of newborn pigs inoculated with porcine, feline, and canine coronaviruses.the infectivity and pathogenicity to newborn pigs of antigenically related coronaviruses from pigs (transmissible gastroenteritis virus; tgev), cats (feline infectious peritonitis virus; fipv), and dogs (canine gastroenteritis virus; cgev) were studied by light, scanning electron, and immunofluorescence microscopy. hysterectomy-derived, 12-hour-old pigs were orally given tissue culture or frozen preparations of 6 coronavirus strains (3 porcine, 2 feline, and 1 canine). the pigs were killed at re ...19816168221
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