use of heat inactivated viral haemorrhagic fever antigens in serological assays.heating for 1 h at 60 degrees c completely destroyed the infectivity of sucrose-acetone-extracted antigen of rift valley (rvf) and congo crimean haemorrhagic fever (cchf), as well as of rvf- and cchf-infected mouse brain. these antigens could be successfully used, however, for complement fixation and igm-capturing enzyme immunoassay. vero e6 cell suspensions infected with hantaviruses such as hantaan 76-118, tchoupitoulas, sr 11, gb-b, cg 18-20, hällnäs, cg 13891, seoul and prospect hill, as wel ...19883146583
haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: memorandum from a who meeting.haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) is a public health problem throughout most of the european and asian land mass. although predominantly associated with rural areas, it is now being recognized as an urban problem in some countries, and also presents a particular hazard to laboratory staff who use rodents for biomedical research. in wild rodents (rats, mice and voles) the infection is asymptomatic. human infection with the hfrs agent(s) is sporadic, but under special circumstances epi ...19836134591
monoclonal antibodies specific for hantaan virus.six hybridoma cell line producing monoclonal antibodies to hantaan virus were established by fusion of ns-1 mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells of mice immunized with hantaan virus strain 76-118. the specificity of these monoclonal antibodies was established by immunoblotting analysis and immunofluorescence. five of the clones reacted with antigens on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm, and one clone reacted with a determinant expressed only in the cytoplasm of the infected cells. two of th ...19836408643
coexistence of several novel hantaviruses in rodents indigenous to north america.three genetically distinct members of the hantavirus genus have been detected in nevada rodents by rt-pcr and nucleotide sequence analysis. these include sin nombre (sn), el moro canyon (elmc), and prospect hill (ph)-like viruses which are primarily associated with peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse), reithrodontomys megalotis (western harvest mouse), and microtus spp. (voles), respectively. although this region of the united states is ecologically diverse, rodents infected with different hantav ...19957483255
characterization of the mode of hantaan virus infection in adult mice using a nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction: transient virus replication in adult mice.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the detection of hantavirus genome was established and applied to analyze the mode of infection of hantaan virus in adult icr mice. the cdna for the s genome segment of hantaan virus was reverse-transcribed from the total rna of organs of the infected mice. the sequence in the s genome segment of hantaan virus was successfully amplified by reverse transcriptase (rt)-pcr followed by nested pcr. in 5-week-old icr mice inoculated intraperitoneally with hantaan ...19957783676
antibody responses to four corners hantavirus infections in the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus): identification of an immunodominant region of the viral nucleocapsid protein.antibody responses to four corners hantavirus (fcv) infections in the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) were characterized by using fcv nucleocapsid protein (n), glycoprotein 1 (g1), and glycoprotein 2 (g2) recombinant polypeptides in western immunoblot assays. strong immunoglobulin g reactivities to fcv n were observed among fcv-infected wild p. maniculatus mice (n = 34) and in laboratory-infected p. maniculatus mice (n = 11). no immunoglobulin g antibody reactivities to fcv g1 or g2 linear d ...19957853538
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. pathogenesis of an emerging infectious disease.a recent outbreak of a severe pulmonary disease in the southwestern united states was etiologically linked to a previously unrecognized hantavirus. the virus has been isolated from its major reservoir, the deer mouse, peromyscus maniculatus, and recently named sin nombre virus. clinically, the disease has become known as the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps). since may 1993, 44 fatal cases of hps have been identified through clinicopathological review and immunohistochemical (ihc) testing of t ...19957887439
application of a recombinant baculovirus expressing hantavirus nucleocapsid protein as a diagnostic antigen in ifa test: cross reactivities among 3 serotypes of hantavirus which causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs).recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells which expressed recombinant protein, analogous to the nucleocapsid protein (np) of seoul type hantavirus, strain sr-11 (rnp-sr-sf9) were applied to the indirect immunofluorescent antibody (ifa) test. the rnp-sr-sf9 reacted with anti np mab clones which recognized strain specific or hantavirus common epitopes in the ifa test. the recombinant antigen was detected by antibodies to 3 serotypes of hantaviruses (hantaan 76-118, sr-11, puumala). antibody ti ...19937906956
the mouse-piñon nut connection. 19938235603
hantavirus serologies in patients hospitalized with community-acquired many patients, the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia is not known but may be caused by previously undescribed pathogens in some cases. the recently identified hantavirus sin nombre (sn) causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. because sporadic cases have occurred outside the range of its reservoir (the deer mouse peromyscus maniculatus), an investigation sought to determine whether hantaviruses contributed to cases of community-acquired pneumonia in a large baltimore hospital. acute-phase ...19968537665
puumala and dobrava viruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in bosnia-herzegovina: evidence of highly cross-neutralizing antibody responses in early patient sera.hantavirus infection was diagnosed serologically by mu-capture igm and igg elisas in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) patients admitted to tuzla hospital, bosnia-herzegovina. the results indicated that more than one hantavirus caused the outbreak. to address the question of which hantavirus serotypes were involved, sequentially drawn sera were analyzed by focus reduction neutralization test (frnt) for antibodies against puumala, hantaan, dobrava, and seoul hantaviruses. the data reve ...19979298732
superovulation in vesper mice, calomys laucha--an important biomedical model for hantavirus and arenavirus (rodentia-sigmodontinae).sigmodontine rodents are poorly studied and have not received much attention as a reproductive model. renewed interest in the south american rodents has been stimulated by their link to endemic diseases that are transmitted to man. calomys laucha acts as a reservoir of two dangerous viruses: an arenavirus named 'junin virus', the aetiological agent of argentinian haemorrhagic fever, and the hantavirus, both of which constitute serious sanitary problems. the aim of this study was to establish sui ...199910778786
isolation of dobrava virus from apodemus flavicollis in greece.dobrava virus (dobv) carried by apodemus flavicollis is the causative agent of severe hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs). dobv was isolated from an a. flavicollis mouse trapped in northeastern greece. this is the third dobv cell culture isolate in the world, clustering together with other greek dobv sequences from hfrs patients and rodents.200111376073
longitudinal studies of sin nombre virus in deer mouse-dominated ecosystems of montana.sin nombre virus (snv), hosted by the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus), is the primary etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in north america. to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of hps in the western united states, we conducted studies of population dynamics and snv antibody prevalence in deer mouse populations for 6 years on 12 mark-recapture grids in montana. monthly numbers of deer mice ranged from zero to over 170 on 1-hectare grids. snv antibody prevalence ...200111504405
establishment of a deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus rufinus) breeding colony from wild-caught founders: comparison of reproductive performance of wild-caught and laboratory-reared pairs.the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) is a natural reservoir for several human pathogens, but little is known about the mechanisms by which such pathogens are maintained in nature. as a first step toward developing a colony of deer mice that were permissive for infection with sin nombre (sn) hantavirus, we collected 68 wild p. maniculatus rufinus from central new mexico. mice from this cohort were used to establish 26 breeding pairs, of which 85% were fertile. in subsequent generations, fertil ...200111924788
sequence and expression analysis of deer mouse interferon-gamma, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor, and lymphotoxin-alpha.deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) are the principal host species of sin nombre (sn) virus, the primary etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in north america. the disease is a cytokine-mediated immunopathology characterized by pulmonary mononuclear infiltrates without discernible viral pathology. infected deer mice remain life-long carriers and virus is found in many organs, including the lungs, but without pathology. it is unclear how deer mice respond to sn virus because no t ...200211991673
shedding and intracage transmission of sin nombre hantavirus in the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) model.the mechanism(s) by which sin nombre (sn) hantavirus is maintained in deer mouse populations is unclear. field studies indicate that transmission occurs primarily if not exclusively via a horizontal mechanism. using an experimental deer mouse infection model in an outdoor laboratory, we tested whether infected rodents shed sn virus in urine, feces, and saliva, whether infected mice transmit infection to naïve cage mates, and whether infected dams are able to vertically transmit virus or antibody ...200212097572
detection of hantavirus infection in hemolyzed mouse blood using alkaline phosphatase conjugate.conventional methods such as elisa and culture require a long time for the determination of viral infections. fast and reliable instrumentation suitable for operation under field conditions that allows rapid detection of hantavirus in rodent populations in the wild, would be a substantial improvement over these methods. in response to this challenge, a prototype amperometric immunosensor based on highly dispersed immunoelectrode for rapid, sensitive and quantitative assay of hantavirus in mice b ...200212243909
removing deer mice from buildings and the risk for human exposure to sin nombre virus.trapping and removing deer mice from ranch buildings resulted in an increased number of mice, including sin nombre virus antibody-positive mice, entering ranch buildings. mouse removal without mouse proofing will not reduce and may even increase human exposure to sin nombre hantavirus.200312643840
epizootiology of sin nombre and el moro canyon hantaviruses, southeastern colorado, 1995-2000.sin nombre virus (snv) is an etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. to better understand the natural history of this virus we studied population dynamics and temporal pattern of infection of its rodent hosts in southeastern colorado (usa) from 1995 to 2000. we present evidence for the presence of two hantaviruses, snv in deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) and el moro canyon virus in western harvest mice (reithrodontomys megalotis), at our study sites. sin nombre virus appeared only sp ...200515827206
diffusion and home range parameters from rodent population measurements in panama.simple random walk considerations are used to interpret rodent population data collected in hantavirus-related investigations in panama regarding the short-tailed cane mouse, zygodontomys brevicauda. the diffusion constant of mice is evaluated to be of the order of (and larger than) 200 meters squared per day. the investigation also shows that the rodent mean square displacement saturates in time, indicating the existence of a spatial scale which could, in principle, be the home range of the rod ...200515998498
long-term dynamics of sin nombre viral rna and antibody in deer mice in montana.infections with hantaviruses in the natural host rodent may result in persistent, asymptomatic infections involving shedding of virus into the environment. laboratory studies have partially characterized the acute and persistent infection by sin nombre virus (snv) in its natural host, the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus). however, these studies have posed questions that may best be addressed using longitudinal studies involving sequential sampling of individual wild-caught, naturally infected ...200516244056
phylogeography of the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) provides a predictive framework for research on hantaviruses.phylogeographical partitioning of sin nombre and monongahela viruses (hantaviruses) may reflect that of their primary rodent host, the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus). lack of a comprehensive assessment of phylogeographical variation of the host has precluded the possibility of predicting spatial limits of existing strains of these viruses or geographical regions where novel viral strains might emerge. the complete cytochrome b gene was sequenced for 206 deer mice collected from sites throug ...200616760402
ribavirin, human convalescent plasma and anti-beta3 integrin antibody inhibit infection by sin nombre virus in the deer mouse model.the new world hantavirus sin nombre virus (snv) is an aetiological agent for the often-fatal hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (hcps). there is no disease model for snv and specific treatments for hcps do not exist. by using the deer mouse infectious model, the in vivo inhibitory potential of ribavirin, human anti-snv immune plasma (hip), an anti-beta3 antibody (reopro) and a polyclonal rabbit anti-recombinant nucleocapsid (n) antibody against snv was investigated. concurrent intraperitoneal a ...200717251568
changes in sin nombre virus antibody prevalence in deer mice across seasons: the interaction between habitat, sex, and infection in deer mice.we examined the impact of season and habitat on sin nombre virus (snv) seroprevalence in deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) in utah's great basin desert from may 2002 through summer 2003. low mouse captures in 2002 limited analysis for that year. in two seasons during 2003, mouse density and sagebrush cover were positively linked (spring: r = 0.8, p = 0.01; summer: r = 0.8, p = 0.04). in the spring, seroprevalence was negatively correlated with density (r = -0.9, p< 0.01); male and female antibo ...200617255449
sin nombre virus infection of deer mice in montana: characteristics of newly infected mice, incidence, and temporal pattern of infection.sin nombre virus (snv), hosted by the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus), is the principal cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in north america. to improve our understanding of factors that contribute to the occurrence of hps, we conducted an extensive field study of the characteristics of newly infected (as determined by recent acquisition of antibody) deer mice and the temporal pattern of antibody acquisition (seroconversion) from 1994 through 2004 in montana, usa. we sampled 6,584 i ...200717347389
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: the sound of a mouse roaring. 200717471422
stable expression of hantavirus h8205 strain g1/il-2 gene and immune protection of the fusion explore the feasibility of stable expression of hantavirus h8205 strain g1 segment and human il-2 fusion gene in vero cells, and to examine the immune protection effects on mice vaccinated with this recombinant eukaryotic expression vector containing hantavirus g1 gene and il-2 gene. with the help of lipofectamine, the vero cells were transfected with pcdna3.1/hisb-il-2-g1 and the positive cells were selected by g418. ifat and sds-page electrophoresis were used to determine the stable transfe ...200717497275
temporal and geographic evidence for evolution of sin nombre virus using molecular analyses of viral rna from colorado, new mexico and montana.all viruses in the family bunyaviridae possess a tripartite genome, consisting of a small, a medium, and a large rna segment. bunyaviruses therefore possess considerable evolutionary potential, attributable to both intramolecular changes and to genome segment reassortment. hantaviruses (family bunyaviridae, genus hantavirus) are known to cause human hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. the primary reservoir host of sin nombre virus is the deer mouse (peromyscus ...200919602267
increased host species diversity and decreased prevalence of sin nombre virus.emerging outbreaks of zoonotic diseases are affecting humans at an alarming rate. until the ecological factors associated with zoonoses are better understood, disease emergence will continue. for lyme disease, disease suppression has been demonstrated by a dilution effect, whereby increasing species diversity decreases disease prevalence in host populations. to test the dilution effect in another disease, we examined 17 ecological variables associated with prevalence of the directly transmitted ...200919624913
hantavirus transmission in sylvan and peridomestic environments.we developed a compartmental model for hantavirus infection in deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) with the goal of comparing relative importance of direct and indirect transmission in sylvan and peridomestic environments. a direct transmission occurs when the infection is mediated by the contact of an infected and an uninfected mouse, while an indirect transmission occurs when the infection is mediated by the contact of an uninfected mouse with, for instance, infected soil. based on population d ...201019821001
the effect of seasonality, density and climate on the population dynamics of montana deer mice, important reservoir hosts for sin nombre hantavirus.1. since sin nombre virus was discovered in the u.s. in 1993, longitudinal studies of the rodent reservoir host, the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus) have demonstrated a qualitative correlation among mouse population dynamics and risk of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in humans, indicating the importance of understanding deer mouse population dynamics for evaluating risk of hps. 2. using capture-mark-recapture statistical methods on a 15-year data set from montana, we estimated deer mous ...201020015212
roles of human disturbance, precipitation, and a pathogen on the survival and reproductive probabilities of deer mice.climate change, human disturbance, and disease can have large impacts on the dynamics of a species by affecting the likelihood of survival and reproduction of individuals. we investigated the roles of precipitation, off-road vehicle (orv) alteration of habitat, and infection with sin nombre virus on the survival and reproductive probabilities of deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus). we used generalized linear mixed models to estimate the effects of these factors and their interactions by fitting c ...201020392022
tula virus in populations of small terrestrial mammals in a rural landscape.over 5 years (2000-2004), populations of small mammals from a rural landscape in southern moravia (czech republic) were investigated for the presence of tula virus (tulv) antigen using the elisa set hantagnost. in total, 1566 individuals from 10 species were examined. the prevalence in the common vole (microtus arvalis pallas 1778), the main reservoir of tulv, was 10% (n = 871). the prevalence of tulv antigen increases with its population numbers. the highest number of tulv antigen-positive comm ...201020420534
sin nombre hantavirus decreases survival of male deer pathogens affect their hosts is a key question in infectious disease ecology, and it can have important influences on the spread and persistence of the pathogen. sin nombre virus (snv) is the etiological agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) in humans. a better understanding of snv in its reservoir host, the deer mouse, could lead to improved predictions of the circulation and persistence of the virus in the mouse reservoir, and could help identify the factors that lead to increased h ...201222218940
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